« הקודםהמשך »
A.M.cir. 4061. A. D. cir. 57.
A. D. cir. 57.
cir. CCIX. 1.
13 I . Then certain of the vaga 14 And there were seven sons of A. M. cir.4061. An. Olymp. bond Jews, exorcists, "took upon one Sceva, a Jew, and chief of the An. Olyınp. cir. CCIX. 1. them to call over them which had priests, which did so. evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, 15 And the evil spirit answered and said, saying, We adjure you by Jesus, whom Paul Jesus I know, and Paul I know; but who are preacheth.
probably the sudaria were a sort of handkerchiefs, which in that he had that skill by which dæmons are expelled ; and travelling were always carried in the hand, for the conveni- that he left behind him the manner of using exorcisms, by ence of wiping the face : and the simikinthia were either the which they are cast out; and that those arts were known sashes or girdles, that went about the loins. These, bor- |, among his countrymen down to his own time; and then rowed from the apostle, and applied to the bodies of the de- gives us the following relation: “I have seen a certain man ceased, became the means, in the hand of God, of their of my own country, whose name was Eleazar, releasing restoration to health.
people that were dæmoniacs, in the presence of Vespasian, The diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went his sons, his captains, and the whole multitude of his sol. out of them.] Here, there is a most evident distinction made diers. The manner of the cure was this : He put a ring between the diseases and the evil spirits : hence they were that had a root of one of those sorts mentioned by Solomon, not one and the same thing.
to the nostrils of the dæmoniac, after which he drew out the Verse 13. Certain of the vagabond Jews, exorcists] Tives dæmon through his nostrils; and when the man fell down, QFO TWY TIE Piec Xouerwy lou@abwe EgypX15wv; certain of the Jews, immediately he adjured him to return into him no more. who went about practising exorcisms. Vagabond has a very making still mention of Solomon, and reciting the incantabad acceptation among us; but literally, vagabundus signi- tions that he had composed. And when Eleazar would perfies a wanderer, one that has no settled place of abode. suade the spectators that he had such a power, he set at a These, like all their countrymen, in all places, went about little distance a cup of water, and commanded the dæmon as to get their bread in what way they could : making trial of he went out of the man, to overturn it; and when this was every thing, by which they could have the prospect of gain. done, the skill and wisdom of Solomon were shewed very Finding that Paul cast out dæmons through the name of manifestly.". Joseph. Antiq. book viii. cap. 2. sect. 5. Jesus, they thought, by using the same, they might produce' Whiston's edition. the same effects; and if they could, they knew it would be That there were such incantations among the Jews, we to them an ample source of revenue; for dæmoniacs abounded know well, and that there are still such found, and that in the land.
they are attributed to Solomon; but that they are his, re. Verse 14. Seven sons of one Sceva a Jew, and chief of the mains to be proved ; and could this even be done, a point priests] The original lovôalov apXiEsEw's signifies a Jewish remains which can never be proved, viz. that those curious high-priest; but it is not probable that any sons, much less arts were a part of that wisdom which he received from God, seven sons, of a Jewish high-priest, should be strolling ex. as Josephus intimates. Indeed the whole of the above acorcists: it is therefore likely that you Exeva tivOS iepews, the count gives the strongest suspicion of its being a trick by the sons of Skeva, a certain priest, as it stands in the Codex Jewish juggler, which neither Josephus nor the emperor Bezæ, is the true reading. The whole verse in that Ms. could detect; but the ring, the root, the cup of water, the reads thus : Among them were also the sons of Skeva, a spell, &c. all indicate imposture. Magicians among the priest, who wished to do the same : for they were accustomed Jews were termed ou obyə baáley shem, Masters of the to exorcise such persons. And entering in to the dæmoniac, Name, that is, the name of Jehovah nn by a certain prothey began to invoke that Name, saying, We command thee nunciation of which, they believed the most wonderful miby Jesus, rohom Paul preacheth, to go out. And the evil spirit racles could be wrought. There were several among them answered, and said unto them, Jesus I know, &c. It has who pretended to this knowledge; and when they could not been often remarked, that in our Lord's time there were deny the miracles of our Lord, they attributed them to his many of the Jews that professed to cast out dæmons; and knowledge of the true pronunciation of this most sacred perhaps to this our Lord alludes, Matt. xii. 27. See the note there.
Verse 15. Jesus I know, and Paul I know] In the answer Josephus, in speaking of the wisdom of Solomon, says, || of the dæmoniac, the verb is varied: Toy Iycour yoxwoxw, raud TOY
Magicians, sorcerers, &c. are
converted, and burn their books.
A.M.cir. 4061. A. D. cir.57. cir. CCIX. 1.
A. D. cir. 57.
16 And the man in whom the evil the Lord Jesus
was magnified. A. M. cir.4061
. An. Olymp. spirit was, leaped on them, and 18 And many that believed came, An. Olymp.
overcame them, and prevailed against and confessed, and shewed their cir. CCIX.1. them, so that they fled out of that house naked deeds. and wounded.
19 Many of them also which used curious arts 17 And this was known to all the Jews brought their books together, and burned them and Greeks also dwelling at Ephesus; and before all men : and they counted the price of · fear fell on them all, and the name of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver.
* Luke 1. 65. & 7. 16. ch. 2. 43. & 5. 5, 11.
D Matt. 3. 6.
Ilavkov emisallar vuels de TIVES (TIVOS) 85€. I acknowledge Ephesian characters, are celebrated in antiquity; they appear Jesus; and am acquainted with Paul: but of whom are ye? Ye to have been amulets, inscribed with strange characters, belong to neither : ye have no authority. And he soon gave which were carried about the body for the purpose of curing them full proof of this. This distinction is observed in my diseases, expelling dæmons, and preserving from evils of difold MS. Bible : I have knolde Tesit, and I wote Poule ; forsotheferent kinds. The books brought together on this occasion, who ben gee.
were such as taught the science, manner of formation, use, Verse 16. And the man in whom the evil spirit was, &c.] &c. of these charms. Thus we find that one man was more powerful than these Suidas, under E ETIO ypaypata, Ephesian Letters, gives seven brothers; so that he stripped them of their upper gar us the following account : “ Certain obscure incantations.ments, and beat and wounded the whole! Was not this a When Milesius and Ephesius wrestled at the Olympic games, proof that he derived his strength from the evil spirit that Milesius could not prevail, because his antagonist had the dwelt in him ?
Ephesian Letters bound to his heels; when this was discoVerse 17. The name of the Lord Jesus was magnified.] || vered, and the letters taken away, it is reported, that MileThey saw that there was a sovereign power in the name of sius threw him thirty times." Jesus, which could not be imitated by these lying exor The information given by Hesychius, is still more curious : cists: they therefore reverenced this name, and despised those || Εφεσια γραμματα: ην μεν παλαι σ' υπερον δε προσεθεσαν pretenders.
τινες απατεωνες και αλλα φασι δε των πρωτων τα ονοματα, ταδες Exorcisms or adjurations of evil spirits were very frequent AEKION; KATAEKION, AIX, TETPAX, AAMNAMEin the primitive church: the name of Jesus was that alone NETE, AIEION: Annas dē, to jev Arxlov, OXOTOS 'TO de which was used. The primitive Fathers speak strong and KataOX10v, ows to de Act, you net pag de, EVIAUTOS" decisive words concerning the power of this name; and how || Δαμναμενευς, δε ηλιος: Αισιον, δε αληθες. Ταυτα ουν dæmons were tormented, and expelled by it, not only from iepa €51 xandra. “ The Ephesian letters or characters were individuals, but from the temples themselves. Exorcists formerly sic, but certain deceivers added others afterwards;and formed a distinct class in the church; hence we read of Pres- || their names, according to report, were these: Askion, KAbyters, Deacons, Exorcists, Lectors, and Door-keepers. The taskion, Lix, Tetrax, DAMNAMENEUS, and Aision. It is eviadjuration was commonly used over the Catechumens, before dent that Askion signifies Darkness; Kataskion, Light ; Lix, they were admitted to baptism. Gregory of Nazianzen, and the Earth ; Tetrax, the Year; Damnamèneus; the Sun; and Cyril of Jerusalem, speak much of this rite—See my Suc- Aision, Truth. These are holy and sacred things.” The same cession of Sacred Literature, under Cyril, and Gregory account may be seen in Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom. lib. v. Nuzianzen ; and see Suicer, under ego extwos.
cap. 8. where he attempts to give the etymology of these differVerse 19. Which used curious arts] TQ Trepiecya. Froment terms. These words served, no doubt, as the keys to differthe use of this word in the Greek 'writers, we know that itent spells and incantations; and were used in order to the atsignified magical arts, sorceries, incantations, &c. Ephesus tainment of a great variety of ends. The Abraxas' of the Baabounded with these. Dio Cassius, speaking of the emperor| silidians, in the second century, were formed on the basis of Adrian, says, O Adciavos TEPIECYTATOS 1), xau partes, the Ephesian Letters; for those instruments of incantation, μαγγανείαις παντοδαπαις
EXPY то, “ Adrian was exceedingly several of which are now before me, are inscribed with a addicted to curious arts, and practised divination and magic." || number of words and characters equally as unintelligible as These practices prevailed in all nations of the earth.
the above; and, in many cases, more so. Brought their books together] The Eqeria ypau..ata, or When it is said they brought their books together
Paul purposes to go through Macedonia, CHAP. XIX.
and Achaia; and to Jerusalem.
A. M.cir. 4061.
A. D. cir. 59.
cir. CCIX. 1.
20 So mightily grew the word of || there, “I must also Rome. A. M.cir. 4063. An. Olymp. God, and prevailed.
22 So he sent into Macedonia two An. Olymp. 21 I After these things were of them that ministered unto him, cir. ccix. s. A. M.cir.4063. ended, Paul purposed in the Timotheus and 'Erastus; but he himself stayed An. Olymp. spirit, when he had passed through in Asia for a season. and Achaia,
23 And the same time there arose no small to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been stir about that way.
A. D. cir. 59.
ctr. ccix. 3. Macedonia
_c cb. 20. 22.
a Ch. 6. 7. & 12. 24. Rom. 15. 25. Gal. 2. 1.
& ch. 18. 21. & 23. 11. Rom. 15. 24-28.
c Ch. 13. 5. - Rom. 16. 23. 2 Tim. 4. 20.-- 2 Cor. 1. 8.
See ch, 9. 2.
we are to understand the books which treated of these curious , unless we may suppose him to refer to the ferocious in. arts; such as the Eęcia ypaumata, or Ephesian characters.surrection headed by Demetrius, mentioned at the end of
And burned them before all] These must have been this chapter. thoroughly convinced o the truth of Christianity, and of the Verse 21. Paul purposed in the spirit, &c.] Previously unlawfulness of their own arts.
to this, he appears to have concerted a journey to Macedonia, Fifty thousand pieces of silver.] Some think that the and a visit to Corinth, the capital of Achaia, where he seems asyubior, which we translate piece of silver, means a shekel, to have spent a considerable time; probably the whole winter as that word is used in Matt. xxvi. 15. where see the note ; || of A. D. 58; see 1 Cor. xvi. 5, 6. and afterwards to go to 50,000 shekels, at 3s. according to dean Prideaux's valuation, | Jerusalem ; but it is likely that he did not leave Ephesus till (which is that followed throughout this work,) would amount after Pentecost, A. D. 59. (1 Cor. xv. 8.) And he resolved, to 75001.
if possible, to see Rome, which had been the object of But as this was a Roman and not a Jewish country, we his wishes for a considerable time. See Rom. i. 10, 13. may rationally suppose that the Jewish coin was not here | xvi. 23. current; and that the afyupov, or silver coin, mentioned by It is generally believed that during this period, while S. Luke, must have been either Greek or Roman ; and it is at Ephesus, he wrote his first epistle to the Corinthians. very likely that the Sestertius is meant, which was always a He had heard that some strange disorders had entered into silver coin, about the value, according to Arbuthnot, of that church :-1. That there were divisions among them ; twopence, or 1d. 394. which answers to the fourth part of a some extolling Paul beyond all others; some Peter; others denarius, rated by the same author at 7d. Allowing this Apollos. 2. He had learned from Stephanus, Fortunatus, to be the coin intended, the 50,000 Sestertii would amount and Achaicus, whom he saw at Ephesus, 1 Cor. xvi. 17. to 4031. 12s. 11d.
vii. 1. that several abuses had crept into their religious asThe Vulgate reads, denariorum quinquaginta millium, semblies. 3. That even the Christians went to law with fifty thousand Denarii ; which, at 71d. will amount to each other; and that before the heathens. And, 4. That a 16141. 11s. 8d. The reading of the Itala version of the person, professing Christianity in that city, had formed a ma. Codex Bezæ, is very singular, Denariorum Sestertia ducenta. trimonial contract with his step-mother. It was to remedy “ Two hundred Sesterces of Denarii ;” which may signify these disorders that he wrote his first epistle to the Co. no more than 6 two hundred Sestertii of Roman money:"rinthians, in which he strongly reprehends all the above for in this sense denarius is certainly used by Cicero, Orat. evils. pro Quint. ; where, ad denarium solvere, means to pay in Verse 22. So he sent into Macedonia] He desired TiRoman money ; an expression similar to our word sterling. | mothy to go as far as Corinth, 1 Cor. iv. 18. and after that, This sum would amount to no more than 11. 12s. 31d. But to return to him at Ephesus, 1 Cor. xvi. 11. but he himself that which is computed from the Sestertius, is the most pro- continued in Asia some time longer ; probably to make colbable amount.
lections for the poor saints in Jerusalem. Erastus, menVerse 20. So mightily grew the word of God, and pre- tioned here for the first time, appears to have been the railed.] The Codex Bezæ reads this verse thus: “So chamberlain, Oixovoulos, either of Ephesus or Corinth ; mightily grew the word of the Lord, and prevailed; and the see Rom. xvi. 23. He was one of St. Paul's companions, and faith of God increased and multiplied.” It is probable that is mentioned as being left by the apostle at Corinth, 2 Tim. it was about this time that St. Paul had that conflict which | iv. 20. he mentions, 1 Cor. xv. If I, after the manner of men, Verse 23. No small stir about that way.) Concerning have fought with wild beasts at Ephesus, &c. See the note the gospel, which the apostles preached ; and which is termed there. It means some severe trials not here mentioned; ll this way, chap. ix. 2. where see the note.
Demetrius and his craftsmen make
great opposition to Paul.
cir. CCIX. 3.
A.M.cir. 406. 24 For a certain man named De- || this Paul hath persuaded and turned A. M. cir.4063.
An. Olymp. metrius, a silversmith, which made away much people, saying that An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 3. silver shrines for Diana, brought ‘no" they be no gods, which are made small gain unto the craftsmen ;
with hands : 25 Whom he called together with the work 27 So that not only this our craft is in danger men of like occupation, and said, Sirs, ye know to be set at nought; but also that the temple of that by this craft we have our wealth.
the great goddess Diana should be despised, and 26 Moreover ye see and hear, that not alone her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, Asia and the world worshippeth.
a Ch. 16. 16, 19.
b Ps. 115. 4. Isai. 44. 10-20. Jer. 10. 3.
Verse 24. Silver shrines for Diana] It is generally represented, with a sort of tower upon her head, her arms known, that the temple of Diana at Ephesus, was deemed supported by two staves : at her feet are represented two one of the seven wonders of the world, and was a most superb stags, with their backs towards each other. The sun is rebuilding. It appears that the silver shrines mentioned here, presented on the right side of her head, and the moon as a were small portable representations of this temple, which crescent on the left. On each side, and at the bottom of were bought by strangers as matters of curiosity, and pro- this temple, are the words tpwtwv Arias Eqeriwy. Some bably of devotion. If we can suppose them to have been think that the medals here referred to, are the same that are exact models of this famous temple, representing the whole meant by the silver shrines, made by Demetrius and his exterior of its magnificent workmanship, which is possible; craftsmen. See the note on ver. 27. they would be held in high estimation, and probably become Brought no small gain] There were many made, many a sort of substitute for the temple itself, to worshippers of sold, and probably at considerable prices. this goddess who lived in distant parts of Greece. The tem Verse 25. By this craft we have our wealth.] The word ple of Diana was raised at the expence of all Asia Minor, || SUTEOpia not only signifies wealth, but also abundance. It and yet was two hundred and twenty years in building, be was a most lucrative trade; and he plainly saw that if the fore it was brought to its sum of perfection. It was in apostles were permitted to go on thus preaching, the worship length 425 feet, by 220 in breadth ; and was beautified by of Diana itself would be destroyed ; and consequently all the 127 columns, which were made at the expence of so many gain that he and his fellows derived from it, would be brought kings: and was adorned with the most beautiful statues. To to nought. procure himself an everlasting fame, Erostrates burnt it to the Verse 26. This Paul hath persuaded and turned away ground, the same night on which Alexander the Great was much people] From the mouth of this heathen we have, in born. It is reported, that Alexander offered to make it as one sentence, a most pleasing account of the success with magnificent as it was before, provided he might put his name which God had blessed the labours of the apostles : not only on the front; but this was refused. It was afterwards re at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, they had perbuilt and adorned; but Nero plundered it of all its riches. suaded and converted much people; for they had insisted This grand building remains almost entire to the present day; that they could be no gods which are made with hands : and and is now turned into a Turkish mosque. See an account this the common sense of the people must at once perceive. of it in Montfaucon, Antiq. Expliq. vol. i. with a beautiful Verse 27. The temple of the great goddess Diana] From drawing on plate vi. No. 20. See also Stuart's Athens. a number of representations of the Ephesian goddess Diana, , There were also, pieces of silver struck with a representation which still remain, we find that she was widely different of the temple of Minerva on one side : many coins occur in from Diana the huntress. She is represented in some statues the reigns of the first Roman emperors, where temples, with all covered over with breasts, from the shoulders down to idols in the porch, appear on the reverse: and several may the feet; in others she is thus represented, from the breast to be seen in Muselius, in the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, Anto- the bottom of the abdomen, the thighs and legs being covered ninus Pius, &c. A beautiful representation of the temple with the heads of different animals. From this it is evident, of Diana at Ephesus, may be seen on a medal engraved by that under this name and form, Nature, the nourisher and Montfaucon, in his Antiq. Expliq. Suppl. vol. ii. plate 33. | supporter of all things, was worshipped: the sun and moon It has eight Doric columns in front, which Pliny says were being grand agents in all natural productions, were properly sixty feet in length. In the entrance the figure of Diana is introduced as her attributes or syinbols. Because she was.
A great mob is raised, and
Ephesus filled with confusion.
cir. CCIX. 3.
A. M. cir.1063. 28 And when they heard these say- | chus, men of Macedonia, Paul's com- A.M.cir: 4065. An. Olymp. ings, they were full of wrath, and panions in travel, they rushed with
An. Olymp. dr. ccix. s. cried out, saying, Great is Diana of one accord into the theatre. the Ephesians.
30 And when Paul would have entered in 29 And the whole city was filled with confu- unto the people, the disciples suffered him sion : and having caught ‘Gaius and "Aristar- not.
a Rom. 16. 23. 1 Cor. 1. 14.
Ch. 20. 4. & 27. 2. Col. 4. 10. Philem. 24.
the representative of universal Nature, she was called, in sacred to her also; the fruits and oxen are symbols of Ceres ; opposition to Diana the huntress, and goddess of Chastity, the griffins were sacred to Apollo ; and the deer or stags to the Great goddess Diana; not only worshipped in Asia, but Diana. The crab being placed within the festoon of flowers, throughout the whole world; both the Greeks and the Ro- | evidently refers to the northern tropic Cancer; and the crab mans unanimously conjoining in her worship.
being crowned in that quarter, may refer to the sun having Several statues of this Ephesian Diana still remain ; and accomplished his course, and begun to return with an increase some beautiful ones are represented by Montfaucon, in of light, heat, &c. The pops, or breasts, as has already been bis Antiq. Expliq. vol. 1. book iii. cap. 15. plates 46, 47, observed, shew her to be the nurse of all things; and the and 48. From this father of antiquaries, much information different animals and vegetables, represented on these images, on this subject may be derived. He observes, that the ori- | point out Nature as the supporter of the animal and vegeginal statue of Diana of Ephesus, which was in that noble | table world ; the moon and tritons shew her influence on the temple, esteemed one of the wonders of the world, was sea : and the sun her influence on the earth. All these made of ivory, as Pliny says; but Vitruvius says it was things considered, it is no wonder that this goddess was made of cedar; and others, of the wood of the vine. . The called at Ephesus the Great Diana, and that she was wor. images of this goddess are divided into several bands, or shipped not only in that city, but in all the world. In the compartments ; so that they appear swathed from the breasts worship of this deity, and in the construction of her images, to the feet. On the head is generally represented a large the heathens seem to have consulted common sense and tower, two stories high. A kind of festoon of flowers and reason in rather an unusual manner. But we must observe fruits descends from her shoulders ; in the void place of the also, that among the Greeks and Romans they had two festoon a crab is often represented, and sometimes crowned classes of deities; the Dü Majores, and the Dii Minores : by two genii or victories. The arms are generally extended, the great gods, and the minor gods. The latter were innu. or stretched a little out from the sides ; and on each, one or merable; but the former, among whom was Diana, were two lions. Below the festoon, between the two first bands, only twelve- Jupiter, Neptune, Apollo, Mars, Mercury, and there are a great number of paps, hence she has been styled Vulcan ; Juno, Vesta, Ceres, Diana, Venus, and Minerva. by some of the ancients Multimammia, and monumasos, the These twelve were adored through the whole Gentile world, goddess with the multitude of paps: on one figure I count | under a variety of names. nineteen. Between the second and third bands, birds are Verse 29, The whole city was filled with confusion] Thus represented; between the third and fourth, a human head, we find the peace of the whole city was disturbed, not by with Tritons ; between the fourth and fifth, heads of pren. | an apostle preaching the gospel of Christ, but by one inteMost of the images of this goddess are represented as swathed rested, unprincipled knave, who did not even plead conscience nearly to the ancles, about which the folds of her robe appear. | for what he was doing ; but that it was by this craft he and Though there is a general resemblance in all the images of the his fellows got their wealth ; and he was afraid to lose it. Ephesian Diana; yet some have more figures or symbols, some Rushed-into the theatre.) The theatres being very spaless. These symbols are generally paps, human figures, | cious and convenient places, were often used for popular asoren, lions, stags, griffins, sphinxes, reptiles, bees, branches semblies and public deliberation, especially in matters which of trees, and roses.
regarded the safety of the state.' There are several proofs That Nature is intended by this goddess is evident, from of this in ancient authors. So Tacitus, Hist. ii. 80. speaking the inscription on two of those represented by Montfaucon, | concerning Vespasian, says, Antiochensium theatrum inTAYLIONOS Quois TAVtwv Merityp, Nature, full of varied crea- | gressus, ubi illis consultare mos est, concurrentes et in adutures, and mother of all things. It is evident that this Diana lationem effusos alloquitur. “Having entered into the thewas a composition of several deities : her crown of turrets | atre of the Antiochians, where it was the custom to hold belongs to Cybele, the mother of the gods ; the lions were consultations, the people running together, and being pro