« הקודםהמשך »
Paul lands at Cæsarea, and goes over
Antioch, Galatia, and Phrygia.
A.M. cir. 4060. A. D. cir. 56. eir.CCVIII.4.
22 And when he had landed at Cæ-, of Galatia and Phrygia in order, An. Olymp. sarea, and gone up, and saluted the strengthening all the disciples.
church, he went down to Antioch. 24 I And a certain · Jew named cir.CCVIII.4. 23 And after he had spent some time there, Apollos, born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, he departed, and went over all the country and mighty in the scriptures, came to Ephesus.
. Gal. 1. 2. & 4. 14.
b ch. 14. 22.
15. 32, 41.
e 1 Cor. 1. 12. & 3. 5, 6. & 4.6. Tit. 3. 13.
opportunity to preach the gospel to thousands who would at- fies in order, distinctly, particularly, from xata according tend at Jerusalem on that occasion. The whole of this clause!to, and men order, as opposed to confusion, indistinctness, I must by all means keep this feast that cometh, in Jerusu- &c. If St. Paul went up to Jerusalem at this time, which lem, is wanting in ABE. six others; with the Coptic, Æthi- we are left to infer, for Luke has not expressed it (ver. 22) opic, Armenian, and Vulgate. Griesbach leaves it in the it was his fourth journey thither; and this is generally suptext, with the mark of doubtfulness; and Professor White posed to have been the twenty-first year after his conversion. in his Crisews says, probabiliter delenda. Without this His first journey is mentioned chap. ix. 26. his second, clause the verse will read thus; But he bade them farewell, chap. xi. 30. his third, chap. xv. 4. and his fourth, chap. saying, I will return again unto you, if God will. And this xviii. 22. the place above. he did before the expiration of that same year, chap. xix. 1. Verse 24. A certain Jero ndmed Apollos] One MS. with the and spent three years with them, chap. xx. 31. extending Coptic and Armenian, call him Apelles; and the Codex Bezæ, and establishing the church at that place.
Apollonius. It is strange that we should find a Jew, not Verse 22. Landed at Cæsarea.] This must have been only with a Roman name, as Aquila, an eugle ; but with the Cæsarea in Palestine.
name of one of the fulse gods, as Apollos or Apollo in the Gone up] To Jerusalem, though the name is not men text. Query: Whether the parents of this man were not tioned: but this is a common form of speech in the Evange- originally Gentiles, but converted to Judaism after their son lists, Jerusalem being always meant when this expression is Apollo (for so we should write the word) had been born used; for the word avabaww, to go up, is often used ab- and named. solutely, to signify to go to Jerusalem :
g. GO ye UP Born at Alexandria] This was a celebrated city of Egypt, to this feast-I Go not up yet, John vii. 8. but when his built by Alexander the Great, from whom it took its name. brethren were GONE UP, then WENT he also Up unto the It was seated on the Mediterranean Sea, between the Lake feast, ver. 10. There were certain Greeks that CAME Mareotis and the beautiful harbour formed by the Isle of Up to worship, John xii. 20. St. Paul himself uses a Pharos, about twelve miles West of the Canopic branch of similar form of expression, There are yet but twelve the Nile, in lat. 31. 10. N. This city was built under the didays' since I WENT UP to Jerusalem for to worship, Acts rection of Dinocrates, the celebrated architect of the temple xxiv. 11.
of Diana at Ephesus. It was in this city that Ptolemy Soter Saluted the church] That is, the church at Jerusalem, founded the famous academy called the Musæum, in which called emphatically THE CHURCH, because it was the first a society of learned men devoted themselves to philosophical church: the Mother, or Apostolic church : and from it studies. Some of the most celebrated schools of antiquity all other Christian churches proceeded ; those in Galatia, flourished here; and here was the Tower of Pharos, esPhilippi, Thessalonica, Corinth, Ephesus, Rome, &c. There- teemed one of the seven wonders of the world. Alexandria fore, even this last, was only a daughter church, when in its was taken by the French July 4, 1798, under the command purest state.
of Buonaparte; and was surrendered to the English under Went down to Antioch.] That is, Antioch in Syria, as | General, now Lord Hutchinson, in 1801. And in consethe word is generally to be understood when without addi- ||quence of the treaty of peace between France and England, tion; so Cæsarea, is always to be understood Cæsarea in Pa- it was restored to the 'Turks. Near this place was the celelestine, when without the addition of Philippi.
brated obelisk, called Cleopatra's Needle ; and the no less Verse 23. Went over all the country of Galatia and famous column, called Pompey's Pillar. This city exhibits Phrygia] Both were provinces of Asia Minor: see on but very slender remains of its ancient splendor. chap. ii. 10.
An eloquent man. Having strong rhetorical powers ; In order] Kategns, a word peculiar to St. Luke : see his highly cultivated, no doubt, in the Alexandrian schools. Gospel, chap. i. 3. viii. 1. and his history of the Acts chap. Mighty in the scriptures] Thoroughly acquainted with the iii. 24. xi. 4. and the place above; the only places where | Law and the Prophets ; and well skilled in the Jewish methis word occars in the New Testament. It properly signi- thod of interpreting them.
Character of Apollos ; he is
instructed by Aquila and Priscilla.
A. M.cir. 4060. 25 This man was instructed in the 27 And when he was disposed to A. M.cir. 4060.
vent in the spirit, he spake and taught exhorting the disciples to receive diligently the things of the Lord, knowing him: who, when he was come, helped them only the baptism of John.
much, which had believed through grace : 26 And he began to speak boldly in the syna 28 For he mightily convinced the Jews, and gogue : whom when Aquila and Priscilla had that publickly, “shewing by the scriptures that heard, they took him unto them, and expounded; Jesus was Christ. unto him the way of God more perfectly.
• Rom. 12. 11. ch. 19.3.- 1 Cor. 3. 6.
& Ch. 9. 22. & 17. 3. & ver. 5.- Or, is the Christ.
Verse 25. This man was instructed in the way of the Lord] | certain Corinthians, who sojourned at Ephesus, and heard Katxilleros ; he was catechized, initiated, in the way, the him, entreated him to pass over with them to their own coun. doctrine of Jesus as the Christ.
try. Then, when he had given his consent, the Ephesians Being fervent in the spirit] Being full of zeal to propagate wrote to the disciples at Corinth, that they should receive this the truth of God, he taught diligently, arpiows accurately, (so man. Who when he was come, &c. The same addition is found the word should be translated,) the things of Christ as far as
in the latter Syriac, and in the Itala Version, in the Codex Bezæ. be could know them through the ministry of John the Baptist ;
Which had believed through grace.] These words may for it appears he knew nothing more of Christ than what either refer to Apollo, or to the people at Corinth. It was John preached. Some suppose we should read oux not, be through grace that they had believed; and it was through fore expiows correctly, or accurately, because it is said that grace that Apollo was enabled to help them much. Aquila and Priscilla expounded the way of the Lord anpi
The words δια της χαριτος through grace, are wanting in Casepov more perfectly, rather, more accurately; but of this the Codex Bezæ, the latter Syriac, the Vulgae, one copy of emendation there is not the slightest necessity; for surely it the Itala, and in some of the Fathers. But this omission might is possible for a man to teach accurately what he knows; and have been the effect of carelessness, in the writers of those it is possible that another, who possesses more information copies from which the foregoing were taken : the words conon the subject than the former, may teach him more accu vey the same idea that is expressed by St. Paul, 1 Cor. iii. 6. rately, or give him a larger portion of knowledge. Apollo, Paul planted, and Apollo watered; but God gave the inknew the baptism of John ; but he knew nothing farther of crease. Though this eminent man became the instrument of Jesus Christ than that baptism taught : but as far as he knew, mightily helping the believers in Corinth ; yet he was also he taught accurately. Aquila and Priscilla were acquainted is the innocent cause of a sort of schism among them. For with the whole doctrine of the gospel ; the doctrine of some, taken by his commanding eloquence, began to range Christ dying for our sins, and rising again for our justifica themselves on his side, and prefer him to all other teachers. tion: and in this they instructed Apollo ; and this was more This evil St. Paul reprehends and corrects in his first epistle accurate information than what he had before received, to the Corinthians. St. Jerom says, that Apollo became through the medium of John's ministry.
bishop of Corinth. Verse 26. They took him unto them] This eloquent man, Verse 28. He mightily convinced the Jews] EUTOYws diae and mighty in the Scriptures, who was even a public teach-xatyjasYZETO ; he vehemently confuted the Jews; and that er, was not ashamed to be indebted to the instructions of publicly, not in private conferences, but in his public preacha Christian woman, in matters, that not only concerned his ing: shewing by the Scriptures of the Old Testament, which own salvation, but also the work of the ministry, in which he the Jews received as divinely inspired, that Jesus, who had was engaged. It is disgraceful to a man to be ignorant, lately appeared among them, and whom they had crucified, when he may acquire wisdom ; but it is no disgrace to ae. was the Christ, the promised Messiah, and that there was quire wisdom from the meanest person or thing. The salvation in none other; and that they must receive him as the adage is good, Despise not advice, even of the meanest : the Messiah, in order to escape the wrath to come. gaggling of geese preserved the Roman state.
refused to do; and we know the consequence. Their city Verse 27. When he was disposed to pass into Achaia] was sacked, their temple burnt, their whole civil and religious There is a very long and important addition here in the polity subverted, more than a million of themselves killed, Codex Bezæ, of which the following is a translation : Butll and the rest scattered over the face of the earth.
Observations on the manner in
which Christianity was propagated.
1. The Christian Religion did not hide itself in corners and the vanity of idolatry, in Athens, in Corinth, and in Epheobscure places at first, in order, privately, to get strength, sus, where idolatry existed in the plenitude of its power ; before it dared to shew itself publicly. Error, conscious and where all its interests required it to make the most desof its weakness, and that its pretensions cannot bear exami- | perate and formidable stand against those innocutors. What nation, is obliged to observe such a cautious procedure. With | but the fullest confidence of the truth of what they preached; what caution, circumspection, and privacy, did Mohammed | the fullest conviction of the divinity of their doctrine, and propose his new religion ! He formed a party by little and the supernatural influence of God upon their souls, could little, in the most private manner, before he ventured to ever have induced these men to preach Christ crucified, either exhibit his pretensions openly. Not so Christianity : it | at Jerusalem or at Athens? I scruple not to assert, that shewed itself in the most public manner, not only in the the bold, public manner in which the apostles preached the teaching of Christ, but also in that of the Apostles. Even | gospel among the Jews and Greeks, is a most incontestible after the crucifixion of our Lord, the apostles and believers || proof of the conviction they had of its truth ; and the sucwent to the temple, the most public place; and in the most cess with which they were favoured, is a demonstration that public manner taught and worked miracles. JERUSALEM, what they preached as truth, God proved to be truth, by the seat of the doctors, the judge of religion, was the first stretching forth his hand to heal; and causing signs and place in which, by the command of their Lord, the disciples wonders to be wrought in the name of the holy child Jesus. preached Christ crucified. They were therefore not afraid This is an additional proof of the sincerity of the apostles, to have their cause tried by the most rigid test of Scripture ; and of the truth of Christianity. If Paul and Peter, Barnabas and in the very place too, where that Scripture was best and Silas, had not had the fullest persuasion that their docunderstood.
trine was of God, they would never have ventured to propose 2. When the same apostles carried this gospel to heathen it before the sanhedrin in JERUSALEM ; the literati of Cocountries, did they go to the villages among the less informed, Rinth, and the Stoics and inexorable judges of the Areopagus or comparatively ignorant Greeks, in order to form a party, || at Athens. and shield themselves by getting the multitude on their side? 4. We may be surprised to find that even among the Jeres, No! They went to Cæsarea, to Antioch, to Thessalonica, as well as the Gentiles, there were persons who used curious to Atuens, to Corinti, to EPHESUS; to the very places arts. Those were inexcusable; these were to be pitied. where learning flourished most, where sciences were best | Blind, as every man is by nature, yet he is conscious that cultivated; where imposture was most likely to be detected, without supernatural assistance he can neither secure the and where the secular power existed in the most despotic || good he needs, nor avoid the evil he fears : therefore he enmanner, and could at once have crushed them to nothing, deavours to associate to himself the influence of supernatural could they have been proved to be impostors; or had they | agents, in order to preserve him in safety, and make him hapnot been under the immediate protection of Heaven! Hencepy. Thus forsaking and forgetting the fountain of living it is evident, that these holy men feared no rational investi- || water, he hews out to himself cisterns that can hold no water. gation of their doctrines, for they taught them in the face of The existence of magical arts and incantations, whether real the most celebrated schools in the universe !
or pretended, prove the general belief of the existence of a 3. They preached Christ crucified in JERUSALEM, where it spiritual world, and man's consciousness of his own weak. was the most solemn interest of the Jews to disprove their || ness, and his need of supernatural help. When shall the eye doctrine, that they might exculpate themselves from the mur be directed solely to Him from whom alone true help can der of Jesus Christ. They preached the same Christ, and I come, by whom evil is banished, and happiness restored !
CHAPTER XIX. Paul, coming to Ephesus, finds certain disciples who had not received the gift of the Holy Ghost, knowing only
the baptism of John, but receive it through the imposition of his hands, 1–7. He preaches for three months in the synagogues, 8. Many being hardened, he leaves the synagogues, and teaches daily in the school of Tyrannus for two years, 9, 10. He works many miracles, 11, 12. Account of the vagabond exorcist Jews, and the seven sons of Skeva, 13–17. Many are converted, and burn their magical books, 18-20. Paul pur. poses to pass through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, and afterwards to Rome; but having sent Timotheus and Erastus to Macedonia, continues a little longer in Asia, 21, 22. Demetrius, a silversmith of Ephesus, raises an uproar against Paul, which, after some tumultuous proceedings, is appeased by the town, clerk, 23–41.
The disciples at Ephesus who
had not received the Holy Ghost.
A. D. cir. 56.
ND it came to pass, that, while 3 And he said unto them, Unto what A.M.cir. 4060.
* Apollos was at Corinth, Paul then were ye baptized? And they An. Olymp. cir.CCVIII.4. having passed through the upper | said, “Unto John's baptism.
cir.CCVIII.4. coasts came to Ephesus : and finding certain 4 Then said Paul, o John verily baptized with disciples,
the baptism of repentance, saying unto the 2 He said unto them, Have ye received the people, that they should believe on him which Holy Ghost since ye believed ? And they said should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus. unto him, " We have not so much as heard 5 When they heard this, they were baptized whether there be any Holy Ghost.
in the name of the Lord Jesus.
* 1 Cor. 1. 12. & 3.5, 6,- 1 Mac. 3. 37. & 6.1.-e ch. 8. 16.
See 1 Sam. 3. 7.
• Ch. 18. 25.--- Matt. 3. 11. John 1. 15, 27, 30. ch. 1. 5. & 11. 16.
& 13. 24, 25. ch. 8. 16.
NOTES ON CHAP. XIX.
they had not heard that there were particular gifts and graces Verse 1. And it came to pass-while Apollos was at Corinth] || of the Holy Spirit to be received. They could not mean The Codex Bezæ begins this chapter differently. But when that they had not heard of the Holy Spirit ; for John, in his Paul was desirous, according to his own counsel, to go to baptism, announced Christ as about to baptize with the Jerusalem, the Spirit commanded him to return into Asia : || Holy Ghost, Matt. iii. 11. Luke iii. 16. but they simply then, passing through the upper parts, he came to Ephesus. meant, that they had not heard that this Spirit, in bis gifts, This addition is also found in the Latin, or Itala part of the had been given to, or received by any one. same MS. and in the margin of the latter Syriac.
Verse 4. That they should believe on him which should Paul having passed through the upper coasts] That is, || come after] John baptized them with the baptism of repentthrough those parts of Asia Minor that lay eastward of ance; this was common to all the baptisms administered by Ephesus, such as Galatia, Phrygia, and probably Lycaonia the Jews, to proselytes; but telling them that they should and Lydia : and it is in reference to Ephesus that these believe on him who was coming, was peculiar to John's bapare called the upper coasts. See their situation on the tism. Мар.
Verse 5. When they heard this, &c.] As there is no eviVerse 2. Have ye received the Holy Ghost] It is likely || dence in the New Testament of persons being rebaptized, that these were Asiatic Jews, who having been at Jerusalem unless this be one; many criticisms have been hazarded to about twenty--six years before this, had heard the preaching prove that these persons were not rebaptized. I see no need of John, and received his baptism, believing in the coming of this. To be a Christian, a man must be baptized in the Christ, whom John had proclaimed: but it appears that till this Christian faith: these persons had not been baptized into that time, they had got no farther instruction in the Christian reli- faith, and therefore were not Christians : they felt this, and gion. Paul perceiving this, asked them if they had received | were immediately baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. the Holy Ghost since they believed ? For it was the com This is a plain case : but let one instance be produced of a mon privilege of the disciples of Christ to receive, not only person being rebaptized, who had before been baptized in the ordinary graces, but also the extraordinary gifts of the the name of the Holy Trinity, or even in the name of Jesus Holy Spirit: and thus the disciples of Christ differed from alone. In my view, it is an awful thing to iterate baptism, those of John, and of all others. John baptized with was when it had been before essentially performed : by “essenter; Jesus baptized with the Holy Ghost. And to this day, || tially performed," I mean administered by sprinkling, washthe genuine disciples of Christ are distinguished from all ing, or plunging, by or in water ; in the name of the Father, false religionists, and from nominal Christians, by being Son, and Spirit, being invoked at the time. Whoever has made partakers of this Spirit, which enlightens their minds, || had this, has the essence of baptism, as far as that can be and convinces of sin, righteousness, and judgment; quickens conferred by man : and it matters not at what period of his their souls, witnesses to their conscience that they are the life he has had it; it is a substantial baptism, and by it the children of God, and purifies their hearts. Those who have | person has been fully consecrated to the Holy and Blessed not received these blessings from the Holy Spirit, whatever | Trinity; and there should not be an iteration of this consetheir profession may be, know nothing better than John's cration on any account whatever. It is totally contrary to baptism : good, excellent in its kind, but ineffectual to the the canon law; it is contrary to the decisions of the best salvation of those who live under the meridian of Chris- || divines : it is contrary to the practice of the purest ages of tianity.
the church of God: it is contrary to the New Testament, We have not so much as heard whether, &c.] That is . and tends to bring this sacred ordinance into disrepute.
Paul preaches in the school of
Tyrannus, and works many miracles.
An. Olymp. cir.CCVIII.4.
cir. CCIX. 1.
6 And when Paul had a laid his departed from them, and separated A. M. cir. 1406. hands upon them, the Holy Ghost the disciples, disputing daily in the An..Olymp.
came on them ; and they spake school of one Tyrannus. with tongues, and prophesied.
10 And this continued by the space of two 7 And all the men were about twelve.
years ; so that all they which dwelt in Asia heard 8 1 And he went into the synagogue, and the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks. spake boldly for the space of three months, 11 And God wrought special miracles by the disputing and persuading the things concern- || hands of Paul : ing the kingdom of God.
12 'So that from his body were brought unto 9 But · when divers were hardened, the sick, handkerchiefs or aprons, and the disAv. Olymp. and believed not, but spake evil ' of cases departed from them, and the evil spirits cir. ccix. i. that way before the multitude, he went out of them.
A.M. cir. 4061.
a Ch. 6. 6. & 8. 17.ch. 2. 4. & 10. 46.- ch. 17. 2. & 18. 4.
ch. 1. 3. & 28. 23. - 2 Tim. 1. 15. 2 Pet. 2. 9. Jude 10.
? See ch. 9. 2. & 22. 4. & 24. 14. ver. 23. * See ch. 20. 31.
16. 20. ch. 14. 3. ch. 5. 15. See 2 Kings 4. 29.
Verse 6. They spake with tongues, and prophesied.] They | stantly afterwards held their own meetings at a school-room, received the miraculous gift of different languages ; and which they hired no doubt for the purpose. in those languages they taught to the people the great doc The school of one Tyrannus.] For rxony, the school, one trines of the Christian religion; for, this appears to be the || MS. has cuvaywyn the synugogue; and for Tyrannus, some meaning of the word 7c0eQYTEudy prophesied, as it is used have Tyranios. Some have considered the original word as above.
being an epithet, rather than the name of a person; and Verse 8. Spake boldly-three months] We have often re- think that a prince or nobleman is intended, because tuparsos marked that St. Paul, in every place, made his first offers of tyrant, is taken in this sense : but this is a most unlikely consalvation to the Jews; and it was only when they rejected jecture. It appears that the person in question was a schoolit, that he turned to the Gentiles ; see chap. xviii. 6. and master, and that he lent or hired his room to the apostles ; the same line of conduct he pursues here: he goes to the and that they preached daily in it to as many, both Jews school of Tyrannus, at least a public place, to which all and Gentiles, as chose to attend. It is very likely that Ty. might resort, when they obstinately rejected the gospel in the rannus was a Jew, and was at least well affected to the synagogue.
Christian cause ; for we have many proofs that individuals Disputing and persuading] AbankYoUEVOS xal Terbw, hold- | among them kept schools for the instruction of their youth ; ing conversations with them, in order to persuade them of the besides the schools or academies kept by the more celebrated truth of the doctrine of Christ.
rabbins. See Schoettgen, and Vitringa. Verse 9. When divers were hardened] Tives, when some Verse 10. By the space of two years] The school-house of of them were hardened ; several no doubt felt the power of Tyrannus was his regular chapel ; and it is likely that in it he divine truth, and yielded consent. Our term divers, one of taught Christianity, as Tyrannus taught languages or sciences. the most bald in our language, has too general a meaning for All they—in Asia heard the word] Meaning probably, the this place.
Proconsular Asia, for the extent of which, see the pote on Behold the effect of the word of God! it is a savour of life || chap. xvi. 6. unto life, or death unto death, according as it is received or Jews and Greeks.] For, although he ceased preaching in the rejected. The twelve men mentioned above received it af- synagogues of the Jews, yet they continued to hear him in fectionately, and they were made partakers of the Holy the school of Tyrannus. But it is likely that Paul did not Ghost; the others were hardened, for they refused to be- || confine himself to this place, but went about through the lieve, and they calumniated the doctrine; and became Satan's different towns and villages; without which, how could all · preachers among the multitude, to prejudice them against || Asia have heard the word ? By Greeks, we are to underChrist and his religion.
stand not only the proselytes of the gate, but the heathens Separated the disciples] Paul, and those converted under in general. his ministry, had doubtless been in the habit of attending pub Verse 11. God wrought special miracles] AuyuelS TE OU TAS lic worship in the synagogue: bnt on the persecuting conduct Tuyoucas; miracles of no ordinary kind, i. e. extraordinary of these Jews, he and his converts wholly withdrew from miracles. the synagogue, and took a place for themselves; and con Verse 12. Handkerchiefs or aprons] Eovouple my owuixurdia ;