« הקודםהמשך »
Enumeration of the different people
who were then at Jerusalem.
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7 And they were all amazed and 9 Parthians, and Medes, and Ela- A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. marvelled, saying one to another, Be- mites, and the dwellers in Mesopota- An. Olymp.
hold, are not all these which speak mia, and in Judea, and Cappadocia, * Galileans ?
in Pontus, and Asia, 8 And how hear we every man in our own 10 Phrygia, and Pamphylia, in Egypt, and tongue, wherein we were born ?
in the parts of Libya about Cyrene, and
mediately enabled to address him in his own language, how - Bp. Pearce supposes, that luomiav is an adjective, agreeing ever various this had been from the Jewish or Galilean with Marotoapar. And translates the passage thus : the dialects. If a Roman presented himself, the disciple was dwellers in Jewish Mesopotamia. le vindicates this translaimmediately enabled to address him in Latin—if a Grecian," tion by shewing, that great numbers of the Jews were settled in Greek-aan Arab, in Arabic, and so of the rest.
in this country : Josephus says, that the ten tribes remained Verse 7. Are not all these-Galileans?] Persons who in this country till his time; that “ there were countless know no other dialect, save that of their own country. Per- myriads of them there, and that it was impossible to know sons wholly uneducated, and consequently, naturally ignorant their numbers.”—uveizdes at 21501, x21 apagpw yw wrórras Hong of those languages which they now speak so fluently. Euraj Evalb. See Ant. lib. xv. c. 2. s. 2. and c. 3. s. 1. Bell.Jud.
Verse S. How hear we erery man in our own tongue] lib. i. c. 1, 2. This interpretation, however ingenious, does not Some have supposed from this, that the miracle was not comport with the present Greek text. Some imagine that so much wrought on the disciples, as on their hearers : Icu.alar, is not the original reading; and therefore they have imagining that although the disciples spoke their owen tongue; corrected it into Syrian, Syria; Armeniam, ARMENIA ; yet every man so understood what was spoken as if it had 1:13, INDIA; Audray, Lydia; loouuaias, IDUMEA ; BiGurian, been spoken in the language in which he was born. Though BITUYNIA; and Koàixeky, Cilicia : all these stand on very this is by no means so likely as the opinion which states, that slender authority, as may be seen in Griesbach ; and the the disciples themselves spoke all these different languages; last is a mere conjecture of Dr. Mangey. If Judea be still yet the miracle is the same, howsoever it be taken : for it considered the genuine reading, we may account for it thus: must require as much of the miraculous power of God, to the men who were speaking, were known to be Galileuns ; enable an Arab to understand a Galilean; as to enable a now the Galilean dialect, was certainly different from that Galilean to speak Arabic. But, that the gift of tongues was spoken in Judea—the surprize was occasioned by a Jew being actually given to the apostles, we have the fullest proof; as able to comprehend the speech of a Galilean, without any we find particular ordinances laid down by those very apostles interpreter and without difficulty: and yet it is not easy to for the regulation of the exercise of this gift, see 1 Cor. suppose that there was such a difference between the two xiv. 1, &c.
dialects, as to render these people wholly unintelligible to Verse 9. Parthians] Parthia anciently included the north each other. ern part of modern Persia: it was situated between the CAPPADOCIA] Was an ancient kingdom of Asia, compreCaspian sea and Persian gulf; rather to the eastward of both. hending all that country, that lies between mount Tauris and
Medes] Media was a country lying in the vicinity of the the Euxine sea.
originally a part of Cappuilocia ; bounded on the East by Elamites] Probably inhabitants of that country now Colchis; on the West by the river Halys ; on the North by called Persia : both the Medes and Elamites, were a neigh- the Black sea; and on the South by Armenia minor. The bouring people dwelling beyond the Tigris.
famous Mithrilates was king of this country; and it was one Mesopotamia] Now Diarbec in Asiatic Turkey ; situated of the last which the Romans were able to subjugate. between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates ; having Assyria Asia] Meaning probably Asia Minor; it was that part on the East ; Arabia Desertu with Babyloniu on the South; of Turkey in Asia, now called Natolia. Syria on the West; and Armenia on the North. It was Verse 10. PuryGIA] A country in Asia Minor, southcalled Palun-aram by the ancient Hebrews; and by the ward of Pontus. Asiatics is now called Maverannhar, i. e. the country be PamphyLIA] The ancient name of the country of Natolia, yond the river.
now called Caramania, between Lycia and Ciliciu, near the Judeu] This word has exceedingly puzzled commentators | Mediterranean seu. and critics; and most suspect that it is not the true reading. Egyer] A very extensive country of Africa, bounded by
The people are amazed at the miracle ;
but some cavil and mock.
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1. M. 4033. strangers of Rome, Jews and prose 12 And they were all amazed, and A. M. 4033. An. Olymp. lytes,
were in doubt, saying one to another, An. Olymp. 11 * Cretes and Arabians, we do hear What meaneth this? them speak in our tongues the wonderful works 13 Others mocking said, These men are full of God.
of new wine.
4 Isai. 11. 14. Gal. 4. 25.
Hos. 8. 12. Luke 9. 43.
the Mediterranean on the North ; by the Red sea and the tinents and provinces, (says he,) are full of Jewish colonies, Isthmus of Suez which divide it from Arabia on the East ; but the most celebrated isles also, Eubea, Cyprus and Crete, by Abyssinia or Ethiopia on the South; and by the desarts not to mention the countries beyond the Euphrates. All of Barca and Nubia on the West. It was called Mizruim by these, (a small part of Babylon and some other præfectures the ancient Hebrews, and now Mesr by the Arabians. It excepted, which possess fertile territories,) are inhabited by extends 600 miles from north to south : and from 100 to 250 Jews. Not only my native city entreats thy clemency, but in breadth from east to west.
other cities also, situated in different parts of the world, Asia, LYBIA] In a general way, among the Greeks, signified Europe, Africa; both islands, sea coasts and inland countries." Africa : but the northern part, in the vicinity of Cyrene, is Philonis Opera, edit. Mangey, vol. ii. p. 587. here meant.
It is worthy of remark, that almost all the places and CYRENE) A country in Africa on the coast of the Medi- provinces mentioned by St. Luke, are mentioned also in this terranean sea ; southward of the most western point of the letter of king Agrippa. These being all Jews, or proselytes, island of Crete.
could understand in some measure, the wonderful works of Strangers of Rome] Persons dwelling at Rome, and God, of which mere heathens could have formed no concepspeaking the Latin language; partly consisting of regularly tion. It was wisely ordered that the miraculous descent of descended Jews, and proselytes to the Jewish religion, the Holy Ghost should take place at this time, when so many
Verse 11. Cretes] Natives of Crete, a large and noted from various nations were present to bear witness to what was island in the Levant, or eastern part of the Mediterranean done ; and to be themselves, subjects of his mighty working. sea ; now called Candiu.
These, on their return to their respective countries, would Arabians] Natives of Arabia, a well known country of naturally proclaim what things they saw and heard ; and by Asia, having the Red sea on the West; the Persian gulf on this, the way of the apostles was made plain ; and thus the East; Judea on the North; and the Indian ocean on the Christianity made a rapid progress over all those parts, in a South.
very short time, after the resurrection of our Lord. The wonderful works of God.) Such as the incarnation of Verse 13. These men are full of new wine.] Rather sweet Christ; his various miracles, preaching, death, resurrection, wine, for yasuxous, cannot mean the mustum, or new wine, and ascension ; and the design of God to save the world as there could be none in Judea, so early as pentecost. The through him. From this one circumstance we may learn, reunos gleucus, seems to have been a peculiar kind of wine; that all the people enumerated above, were either Jews or and is thus described by llesychius and Suidas : TAEUMOS, TO proselytes ; and that there was probably none that could be a Octayua TYS Otaçuans, Tipi Tatrbr. Gleucus is that which strictly speaking, called heathens among them. It may at distils from the grape before it is pressed. This must be at first appear strange that there could be found Jews in so many once both the strongest and sweetest wine ; Calmet observes, different countries ; some of which were very remote from that the ancients had the secret of preserving wine sweet,
But there is a passage in Philo's Embassy to through the whole year; and were fond of taking morning Caius, which throws considerable light on the subject. In a draughts of it; to this Horace appears to refer, Sat. 1. ii, letter sent to Caius, by king Agrippa, he speaks of “ the s. iv. ver. 24. holy city of Jerusalem, not merely as the metropolis of Aufidius forti miscebat mella Falerno, Judea, but of many other regions, because of the colonies Mendose : quoniam vacuis committere venis at different times led out of Judea; not only into neighbour. Nil nisi lene decet leni præcordia mulso ing countries such as Egypt, Phænicia, Syria, and Cælosyria; Prolueris melius.but also into those that are remote, such as Pamphylia, Cili Aufidius first, most injudicious, quafl'd cia, and the chief parts of Asia as far as Bithynia, and the Strong wine and honey for his morning draught. innermost parts of Pontas : also into the regions of Europe, With lenient bev'rage fill your empty veins, Thessaly, Beotia, Macedonia, Ætolia Attica, Argos, Corinth, For lenient must, will better cleanse the reins. and the principal parts of Peloponnesus. Not only the con.
Peter proves that this mighty efusion
of the Spirit, which they all saw
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14 I But Peter, standing up with || shall prophesy, and your young men An. Olymp. the eleven, lifted up his voice, and shall see visions, and your old men An. Olymp.
said unto them, Ye men of Judea, || shall dream dreams : and all ye that dwell at Jerusalem, be this 18 And on my servants and on my
handmaidens known unto you, and hearken to my words: I will pour out in those days, of my Spirit ;
15 For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, e and they shall prophesy : seeing it is but the third hour of the day : 19 'And I will shew wonders in heaven above, 16 But this is that which was spoken by the and signs in the earth beneath ; blood, and fire, prophet Joel;
and vapour of smoke : 17 And it shall come to pass in the last days, 20 5 The sun shall be turned into darkness, saith God, o I will pour out of my Spirit upon and the moon into blood, before that great and all flesh: and your sons and your daughters notable day of the Lord come :
* 1 Thes. 5. 7." Isai. 44. 3. Ezek. 11. 19. & 36. 27. Joel 2. 28, 29.
Zech. 12. 10. John 7. 38.-cb, 10. 45. ch. 21. 9.
Ch. 21. 4, 9, 10. 1 Cor. 12. 10, 28. & 14. 1, &c.—Joel 2. 30, 31.
& Matt. 24. 29. Mark 13. 24. Luke 21. 25.
Verse 14. Peter, standing up with the cleven] They prob- the Old Testament. Sometimes he revealed himself by a ably spoke by turns, not all together; but Peter began the symbol, which was a sufficient proof of the divine presence : discourse.
fire was the most ordinary, as it was the most expressive All
ye that dwell at Jerusalem] Oi ratoiXOUVTES would be symbol. Thus he appeared to Moses on mount Horeb, and better translated by the word sojourn ; because these were afterwards at Sinai: to Abraham, Genesis xv. to Elijah, not inhabitants of Judea, but the strangers mentionei' in verses 1 Kings xix. 11, 12. At other times he revealed himself by 9, 10, & 11, who had come up to the feast.
angelic ministry—this was frequent, especially in the days of Verse 15. But the third hour of the day.] That is, about the patriarchs ; of which we find many instances in the book nine o'clock in the morning, previously to which, the Jews of Genesis. scarcely ever ate or drank; for that hour was the hour of By dreams he discovered his will in numerous instances; prayer. This custom appears to have been so common, that see the remarkable case of Joseph, Gen. xxxvii. 5, 9. of even the most intemperate among the Jews were not known Jacob, Gen. xxxii. 1, &c. xlvi. 2, &c. of Pharoah, Gen. xli. to transgress it: Peter therefore spoke with confidence, when 1–7. of Nebuchadnezzar, Dan. iv. 10–17. For the different he said, these are not drunken-seeing it is but the third hour ways in which God communicated the knowledge of his will of the day, previously to which, even the intemperate did not to mankind, see the note on Gen. xv. 1.
Verse 18. On my servants and on my handmaidens] This Verse 16. Spoken by the prophet Joel] The prophecy properly means persons of the lowest condition, such as male which he delivered so long ago, is just now fulfilled : and and female slaves. As the Jews asserted that the spirit of this is another proof that Jesus whom ye have crucified, is prophecy never rested upon a poor man; these words are the Messiah.
quoted to shew that under the gospel dispensation, neither Verse 17. In the last days. The time of the Messiah; and bond nor free, male nor female, is excluded from sharing in so the phrase was understood among the Jews.
the gifts and graces of the divine Spirit. I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh] Rabbi Tanchum Verse 19. I will shew wonders] It is likely that both the says, “ When Moses taid his hands upon Joshua, the holy prophet and the apostle refer to the calamities that fell upon blessed God said, In the time of the old text, each individual the Jews at the destruction of Jerusalem; and the fearful prophet, prophesied: but in the times of the Messiah, all signs and portents that preceded those calamities. See the the Israelites shall be prophets.” And this they build on notes on Matt. xxiv. 5–7. where these are distinctly related. the prophecy quoted in this place by Peter.
Blood, fire and vapour of smoke] Skirmishes and assasYour sons and your daughters shall prophesy] The word sinations over the land ; and wasting the country with fire prophesy is not to be understood here as implying the know- and sword. ledge and discovery of future events : but signifies to teach Verse 20. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the and proclaim the great truths of God, especially those which moon into blood] These are figurative representations of concerned redemption by Jesus Christ.
eclipses, intended most probably, to point out the fall of the Your young men shall see visions, &c.] These were two civil and ecclesiastical state in Judea : see the notes on Matt. of the various ways, in which God revealed himself under | xxiv. 29. That the sun is darkened when a total eclipse
Was the fulfilment of a
prophecy delivered by Joel.
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21 And it shall come to pass, that|| 23 Him, being delivered by the de- A. M. 4033. * whosoever shall call on the name of terminate counsel and foreknowledge an. Olymp. the Lord shall be saved.
of God, ye have taken, and by 22 Ye men of Israel, hear these words: Jesus wicked hands have crucified and slain : of Nazareth, a man approved of God among 24 e Whom God hath raised up, having loosed you by miracles and wonders and signs, which the pains of death : because it was not possible God did by him in the midst of you, as ye your that he should be holden of it. selves also know :
25 For David speaketh concerning him, 'I
a Rom. 10. 13. John 3. 2. & 14. 10, 11. ch. 10. 38. Heb. 2. 4.
- Matt. 26. 24. Luke 22. 22. & 24. 44. ch. 3. 18. & 4. 28.“ch, 5. 30.– ver. 32. ch. 3. 15. & 4. 10. & 10. 40. & 13. 3, 34, & 17.31.
Rom. 4. 21. & 8. 11. 1 Cor. 6. 14. & 15. 15. 2 Cor. 4. 14. Gal. 1. 1.
takes place, and that the moon appears of a bloody hue, in chery of Judas, and the malice of the Jews, were only the such circumstances, every person knows.
incidental means by which the great counsel of God was fulVerse 21. Whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord filled : the counsel of God intending the sacrifice ; but never shall be sured.] The predicted ruin is now impending; and ordering, that it should be brought about by such wretched only such as receive the gospel of the Son of God shall be means. This was permitted ; the other was decreed. Sce saved. And that none but the Christians did escape, when the observations at the end of this chapter. God poured out these judgments, is well known: and that By wicked hands have crucified and slain] I think this reAll the Christians did escape, not one of them perishing in fers to the Romans, and not to the Jews; the latter being the these devastations, stands attested by the most respectable agents, to execute the evil purposes of the former. It is authority. See the note on Matt. xxiv. 13.
well known that the Jews acknowledged, that they had no Verse 22. A man approved of God] Atod=de17 layov, ce-l power to put our Lord to death, John xviii. 31. and it is as lebrated, famous. The sense of the verse seems to be this : /well known that the punishment of the cross was not a Jewish, Jesus of Nazareth, a man sent of God, and celebrated among but a Roman punishment : hence we may infer, that by die you by miracles, wonders, and signs : and all these done in ZELENY arou won, by the hands of the wicked, the Romans are such profusion, as had never been done by the best of your meant, being called arouos, without law, because they had no most accredited prophets. And these signs, &c. were such revelation from God; whereas the others had what was emas demonstrated his divine mission.
phatically termed o nouos Tou Oscu, the law of God, by which Verse 23. Him being delivered by the determinate counsel] they professed to regulate their worship and their conduct. Bp. Pearce paraphrases the words thus : Ilim having been It was the Jews, therefore, who caused our Lord to be crugiven forth ; i. e. sent into the world, and manifested by be- cified, by the hands of the hcathen Romans. ing made flesh, and dwelling among you, as it is said in John Verse 24. Whom God hath raised up] For, as God alone i. 14. see also chap. iv. 28.
him up to death ; so God alone raised him up from death. Kypke contends, that excotoy delivered, does not refer to Having loosed the pains of death] It is generally supposed God, but to Judas the traitor : “ the Jews received Jesus, that this expression means, the dissolving of those bonds or delivered up to them by Judas; the immutable counsel of obligations, by which those who enter into the region of the God so permitting.”
dead, are detained there, till the day of the resurrection ; By the determinate counsel, wpisueen Bovar ; that counsel and this is supposed to be the meaning of sip ban chebley of God which defined the time, place, and circumstance, ac. maveth, in Psal. cxvi. 3. or 5980 15an chebley sheol, in Psal. cording (peyewcsi) to his foreknowledge, which always saw | xviii. 5. and in 2 Sam. xxii. 6. to which, as a parallel, this what was the most proper time and place for the manifesta- place has been referred. But Kypke has sufficiently proved, tion and crucifixion of his Son ; so that there was nothing that every tas wäivas Gavatou, signifies rather to Remove the casual in these things, God having determined that the sal. pains, or sufferings of death. So Lucian De Conser. Ilist. ration of a lost world should be brought about in this way; says, “a copious sweat to some, Eduos Tov TUSETOV, REMOVES and neither the Jews nor Romans had any power here, but or carries off the fever. So STRABO speaking of the balm of what was given to them from above. It was necessary to Jericho, says, dues de reparanysas Gaup2Otws-it wonderfully shew the Jews, that it was not through Christ's weakness or REMOVES the headach, &c. That Christ did suffer the pains inability to defend himself, that he was taken ; nor was it and sorrows of death in his passion, is sufficiently evident : through their malice merely that he was slain; for God had but that these were all removed, previously to his crucifixion, determined long before, from the foundation of the world, is fully seen in that calm manner in which he met it, with all Rer. xii. 8. to give his Son a sacrifice for sin ; and the trea. !! its attendant terrors. If we take the words as commonly
Peter proves also that Christ's
resurrection was forelold by David;
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A. M. 4033. foresaw the Lord always before my life; thou shalt make me full of joy
29 Men and brethren, · let me freely 26 Therefore did my heart rejoice, and my speak unto you of the patriarch David, that he tongue was glad; moreover also my flesh shall is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with rest in hope :
us unto this day. 27 Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell, 30 Therefore being a prophet, and knowing neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of corruption.
the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he 28 Thou hast made known to me the ways of would raise up Christ to sit on his throne ;
a Or, I may.--1 Kings 2. 10. ch. 13. 36.- 2 Sam. 7. 12, 13.
Ps. 132. 11. Luke 1. 32, 69. Rom. 1. S. 2 Tim. 2. 8.
understood, they mean, that it was impossible for the Prince it was not naturally liable, had it not been for the purpose of life to be left in the empire of death : his resurrection of making an atonement. It was therefore impossible that therefore, was a necessary consequence of his own divine the human nature of our Lord could be subject to corruption : power.
for though it was possible that the soul and it might be separaInstead of Garatov, of death, the Codex Bezæ, Syriac, Coptic ted for a time; yet, as it had not sinned, it was not liable to and Vulgate, have Adou of Hell, or the place of separute dissolution; and its immortality was the necessary consespirits : and perhaps it was on no better authority than this quence of its being pure from transgression. various reading, supported but by slender evidence, that,
Verse 28. Thou hast made known to me the ways of life] Ile descended into hell, became an article, in what is called That is, the way from the region of death, or state of the the apostles' creed. And on this article, many a popish dead and separate spirits ; so that I shall resume the same legend has been builded, to the discredit of sober sense and body, and live the same kind of life, as I had before I gave true religion.
up my life for the sin of the world. Verse 25. For Duvid speaketh concerning him] The Verse 29. Let me speak freely—of the patriarch David) quotation here is made from Psal. xvi. which contains a most In Midris Tillin, it is said, in a paraphrase on the words, remarkable prophecy concerning Christ; every word of which my flesh shall not rest in hope, “ neither worm nor insect applies to him, and to him exclusively. See the notes there. had power over David.” It is possible that this opinion
Verse 26. And my tongue was glad] In the Hebrew it is prevailed in the time of St. Peter; and if so, his words are 1799.3 999 vaiyagel kebodi,“ And my glory was glad :” but the the more pointed and forcible; and therefore thus applied by evangelist follows the Septuagint, in reading xau ryan195276' Dr. Lightfoot : “ That this passage, Thou shalt not leave my gy.wooo jou, what all the other Greek interpreters in the soul in hell, &c. is not to be applied to David himself, appears Hexapla, translate doča Mov my glory: and what is to be in that I may confidently aver concerning him, that he was understood by glory here? Why the soul certainly, and not deal and buried, and never rose again, but his soul was left the tongue; and so, some of the best critics interpret the 'Els dãou, in the state of the dead, and he saw corruption; for place.
his sepulchre is with us to this day, under that very notion, Verse 27. Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell] Eis 'Adou that it is the sepulchre of David, who died and was there in Hades, that is, the state of separate spirits, or the state of buried; nor is there one syllable mentioned any where of the dead. Ilades was a general term among the Greek writers, the resurrection of his body, or the return of his soul & cãou by which they expressed this state : and this HADES was tar- from the state of the dead.” To this the same author adds tarus to the wicked, and elysium to the good. See the expla- the following remarkable note: I cannot slip over that nation of the word in the note on Matt. xi. 23.
passage Hieros. Chagig. fol. 78. Rab. Jose saith, David died To see corruption.] Dust thou art, and unto dust thou at pentecost, and all Israel bewailed him, and offered their shalt return, was a sentence pronounced on man after the sacrifices the day following. This is a remarkable coincifall : therefore this sentence could be executed on none dence; and may be easily applied to him, of whom David was but those who were fallen ; but Jesus being conceived a type. without sin, neither partook of human corruption, nor was Verse 30. According to the flesh, he would raise up Christ] involved in the condemnation of fallen human nature; con This whole clause is wanting in ACD, one of the Syriac, the sequently, it was impossible for his body to see corruption ; Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, and Vulgate ; and is variously and it could not have undergone the temporary death to which I entered in others. Griesbach rejects it from the text, and