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from the Conquest to the Tear i j£%. yx

NOTES.

sa) The standard of gold is commonly estimated by caractt, but in this table I made use of Troy ounces, penny-weighti, and grains, for that purpose, as being more generally understood x However, it may be remarked he>e, that a caract is not any certain quantity, or weight, but a 14th part of any quantity or weight; the mint-men and goldsmiths di>ide the caract into four equal parts, which they call caract grains, or graiol of a caract, and this grain it divided into two-eights, and each of those eights into two-sixteenths, each of which are again divided iota two thirty-two parti of the caract. Thus in the foregoing table,

oa. dwu.gr. r?ct,^ Sight.

II 18 i8-jin the co-s 13 3 1 01 6 } inthecnl. s 00 x

II to Of luannofsiuej 13 o o o 10 of of allay it J 10 o

11 o o(

lo o o J!

So in oar present gold coin the standard is iz caractt of pure gold, and two caracts of other

metal, as standard silver, or equal parts of silver and copper, or all rose copper; these two caractt are called .Vlay. The first guineaa, erras. those of Cbarlu II. and Jatui II. were generally allayed with standard silver, but those of William III. and since, are allayed with filter and copper, and the goldsmiths commonly allay their gold with all copper. Hence the different colours of gold,

(b) Most authors have been of opinion that there was no gold coined in England before A.D. 1345, the iSth Edward III-VI; bat this has of late been controverted,—(See an excellent dissertation on this subject by that learned antiquarian the Rev. Samuel Perge, A.M. printed at Louden in 1755, in 4to. entitled, Afirtii ofdissertation! on Jovu elegant and very valual'e Angloajaxon rrauiiu, &c.—Consult also the Gait. Meg. Vol. xxvi. p 285, 466. and Vol. xxvii. p. 499, 500, upon this subject.)

(c) It it proper to observe here, that in 1671 the zzd Cbarlu II. the pound, or 11 ounces of standard gold (was II ounces fine gold, and 1 ounce allay) was coined into 44 pieces and a half, (each weighing 5 penny-weights, 9.438 grnntj which were called guineas, (because the gold of which they were coined was brought from thcGuinee coast inAfriea) and their current value was fixed at the fame time at zo shillings each; and about 1690, the zd rfiUiam HI. the fame pieces was raised by proclamation to zu. and bd each, at which value they continued (except it* taut instances mentioned in the nest paragraph) till 1717, the 3d Gtorge I. when they were by another proclamation reduced to zi r, each, which it their prelent current value ; their standard and weight have always been and still continue! the fame.

In 1695 the English silver money wat so much reduced by clipping, &c. that a guinea wa* worth or went for 30 shillings of this clipped silver (or rather 30 millings funk by clipping.£sY, to a guinea, zu. and bd ) but in a few montht an act of parliament reduced them to 28 millings, and soon after to 26 shillings, and in a few weeks after to 22 shillings, and when the new coined silver began to circulate (which it did the fame year) they presently sunk to their former value of zu. and bd. each: But as each of these variations were of so short continuance, I did not insert them in the table.

During the debates in parliament concerning the proposed re-coinage of the silver money, the following computation of the value of silver money coined in the reigns of Q__ Elixabttb, K. Jamet I. and K.. Cbarlu I. was published in Ar. essay for tbe atr.trjir.tnt of ibt fiver coin, Lmdon, printed in 1695. £ S D

The author computes that the silver sterling monies coined in the reign of Q^Elixabetb (exclusive of some base Irish monies) amounted to - 4631932 32}

Tnc silver monies coined in the reign of K. Jamtt I. are computed at 170 000 o o

In JCing Cbarlu l't reign wat coined of silver money - - 87761:44 10 3

Then he considers how far this sum it to be abated - - 15109476 13 cl

First, all Q^E/iawtfWur't crowns, half-crowns, groats, quarter (hillings, half groats, three-half, penny pieces, three-farthing piecet, and halfpence, are wholly funk.

Secondly, great numbers of her shillings and six-peacetare melted down or lost. Thirdly, the crowns, groats, two-pence*, pence, and half-pence of King James I. and King tCbarUi I. are quite gone ; with many of their half-crowns, shillings, and six-perxes ; so t tat he reckons there was not left above a third part of the whole, coined in those £ chree reigns, which makes - - - 5036401

"3"» this he adds the" unmeltcd coins of K. Cbarla II. K. Jama II. and K. William III? ■

which he supposed to amount to about - - - '{ asSfcaA

So the whole of the silver money, clipped and undipped, hoarded le current, then was 5600000 Cff this sum he reckons four millions consisted of clipped money, and the remaining million fix Xzsandrcd thousand pound* to be undipped and lying in hoards, or current,in the remote counties.

The author proceeds to compute how far the clipped pieces may have been diminished in tt mrright. la order to thit he observes, that one hundred poundt sterling in silver, ■ late standard of the mint, ought to be 32 poundt, three ounces, 1 penny-weight, ft 09 then had been brought in promiscuously, in the months of May,Jwu, ar

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bag* of one hundred pounds each,which five hundred seventy-two bags accor
ding to the standard should have weighed Troy weight
But utit.n axstmihation they weighed only . . .

Deficiency ir» the 55200c/. ...

The weight osone Cundred poundi sterling according to the mint v

The medium of the weight of each hundred poundi of the clipped money
The medium of the deficiency T - - 15 (T 3 1;

Hence it appears that the current silver coins were diminished near one half, about the proportion of 10 to 22 j consequently if there were four millions of Clipped money to be re-coined, it would make but about two millions, so that there would be a loss of about that sum. The real lolsproved'ro be 2,too,oco/ . ■! II

Formerly there was in England, ai there are still in other countries, what we eall the rights of leigrrorape and brassage; but since the i8'.h of Cburlti II. 1667, there is nothing taken either fer the king, or for the expences of coining, it having been settled by act of parliament that all money should be struck at the publick expence (which it defrayed by a duty of 101. per ton on wine, beer, and brandy imported, called the coinage duty) so that weightIs returned for weight, (in proportion to their standards) to all persons who carry their gold and silver to the Tower. In our present coinage, Fine silver to sterling silver is in value As 1 to .0250. And sterling silver to fine silver >• in value As 1 to 1.081081081. Fine gold to standard gold is in value As I to .91667, or as 24 to 22. And standard-gold to fine gold is in value

As 1 to 1.090909090.

In both the tables, in the column entitled. Atr.i R/gm'*», there i* two Rotran numerals find to the several names of FJivart!; the firsti or uppermost of which denotes thenumber or kingt«t?' that name since the Conquest, and the other the number of king* of the fame name from Egbert, first monarrh of ail England; which distinction is proper to be observed.

The specific gravity of sine gold is 19185, and of our present standard or coined gold, is 17732, frtfm an actual trial of 20 guineas of different dates.

The specific gravi'y of fine silver, is 1043'/ and of our present standard or coined silver is 10360, scorn an actual tryal of fix. crownpicecs of different dates.

Remarks on tivo curious Grai/'-flones d:f

cm/tred lately in removingsome ftubbijh

in the Chdreh yard of S~t Peer in Mon

mo\jthlh\te,no'WtheSeatofMrLswii.

'Mr Urban,

ST. Pere, that is St Pietre, as is evident from the Latin St Ptlri Ecciefi 1 *, is a parish in Monmouthshire; si ■ tuate on the æstuary of the river Severn, a little South of Cbepjto-w, and is now the feat ot Mr Ltivis. In the removingof some rubbish this summer in the church-yard of this place, an antierit'grave-stone wa6 discovered, of •which Mr Perry of Liverpool* wat pleased to send me a very neat and elegant drawing, with leave of i-ommunic.iting it to the publick, attended with some necessary remark*, by means of your valuable miscellany.

The inscription is in old French, and in rhyme as I apprehend ; and this will appear by the distribution of it on the Plate annexed.

The sense of it is this: 'Here lies

• the body of Urian de Senepere; ptay

• for him heartily, that Jesus, for the 'fake of his passion, would grant him

• pardon of his fins. Amen. H. P." The observations I have to make on

this stone and its inscription are as follows:

j ■ ■ 1 1 1

* See BBmiVahr,

The inscription Jjegins evidently at the two dots »< (joining to the right arm' of th,e cross; and whereas it might be expected there should be a cross in that place, thus -{-, ssis usual in such', inscriptions, and even upon coins, I look upon it that the large cros» bo-, tonne fitebr, with which the whole done is covered," supplies the place of it j. insomuch that in fact the cross, that necessary appendix of funeral tr.onuments, is not absent.

As I take this tomb-stone to be as old as K. Edward 1. when fur-names were by no means general, and Cbri-' stian names were consequently of the greatest importance, and seldom or never omitted, I have divided the let-' ters of the first line in this manner,

Le Cors v De seNe peRe ■, taking •

the V, that is U, for the initial letter of Urian, it appearing from Sir Willi, am Dugdale's History of JVayjuiik/birt, p. 126, and 358, edit. 1730, that Urian de St Pere, Knt. lived in the reign of Henry III. and dying 3 £. I. left issue by his wite Margaret a son named Urian,. who was also a knight, and 16 . years of age when his f.ither died. He left issue John de St PereZ E. III. who was probably the last male heir of his family of that line, for Isabella de St Fere, his sister and heirels. about -jo E. III. was married to Sir Walter Cokt

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