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gyaia order j V e Spjr.J.ai from the Enntan-
drta trigyma, to the Dtcondrta ftntafynia;
the Bimbo* from the Pelyandria monagynia to
the Mwtadtlpbia pentandria; the Gundtlia a-
moog the Syagentjia, from the Polygamia at-
fujin to the frustrance of the fame class.
The Zmboxjhjm from the Pentandria to the
Diteaa class; the FivtlUa, on the authority 3
of Dr Broaa, from the Mmxcia Syngtnrfia,
to the Diucia pentandria; the Ctffampelot,
from the Dmcu h;xar.dr j 10 the Mtnadtlpbia
of the fame class; the Apluda, from the
Triar.inm to the Polygawtia class j the Ciujia,
from the Ptlyandrta 10 the Pilygamia class;
tUe Minofa genut from the Po/yandria mono-
gyna to the Ptlygamia mtnucia class; and (J
the Pifonia from the Oiotria pentandria to the
Polygamra dioecia. Among these removes
rj<e most material, of which wehave s^eci- .
tied, we do not find that our author has
taken notice of the 7/ot Aou?folium,or holly,
which stands in Ms characters a.nong the
Tttrandna tetrotyiua; whett.is ibeoblerva
tions of Dr Martyn, Dr IVaifoit.
Miller, published in the Pbth optical Trjit-
JaUimt, fd. 4.8, />. 6f 3. have proved that it
should have a pbee among the P.tygamia

Our author we observe has has more occasion to make removes among the plants of the msnoetia, dioeeia, and polygarria classes.

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insnTiave unanimously agreed 1 hat the cure mould he commenced with purgatives, hut they knew no medicine or that clasi appropriated to the purpose j for thole thr.t operate principally by relaxing, if they are given in such quantities and form as seem best

than in any othtr part of his system, which E to answer the intention, the dose

Unot to be wondered at, since observations have now confirmed it,that there are plants oftboie classes which in their younger state have produced only male flowers, afterwards both male and female, and at length only female. These considerations, together with the great laceration which these

quired is so large that they will frequently be rejected by the stomach s and those that operate chiefly by irritation are justly dreaded and condemned, because they draw the bowels into spasmodic contractions.

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had been disposed among the other classes as they should fall in, according to number and situation of parts.

It would be tedious were we to attempt to point out the many alterations and improvements the author has made in subdi

viding the orders.the genera and species and y- certain effect.

making it known is a singular service to mankind. Dr Caavant has used it 14. years, 7 in Ame7iiaT~ini 7 in £»• rope,and he solemnly affirms, that except the bark in intermittent fevers, he never met with a medichie of more

The plant from which this oil is extracted is the Riciitus Americamu major, cattle tjtrescintt H. R. P. It is the tlhambu guacu of Pifi, and the Rianus Amcricanm fru3u rafemo/o hijpidoot%\r Hant Shane.

TfiTr-aTled ricifus because it bears a. seed likelTT^r, of which riciitus is the scheme, the illustrious author of which is H Latin name: It is also called palmar farafcov* all praise that we can bestow, hut Christi because the leaves resemble •' we cannot help subscribing with g,«M plea- pa|m of the hand; it has by sosure to that encom urn which a laic ingcni- cMti os-ntu coflus, sromi' a>ut author ih.*lu to justly slue tr.hnKr.at qiUnty, and by a corr

in amending the lesser branches ol the system; it it sufficient to observe that the present volume may be considered as a most elaborate and compleat compendium of the science of botany, and we make no doubt will be received with great p'easuie by the naturalists of all nations, and particularly by those who are attached to the Lmaaun illustr

name its oil hat been called castor oil. corrugation, they must operare as lax

We call it the great fpunge. stives;

The plant grow* as tall as a little Constitutions that are dry and hot, tree, and is so beautiful that Millar atrabilious and troubledwithtiie piles, lays it deserves a place in every curi- A will be purged by oily medicines oat garden, and he planted it himself when the strongest drastics will pro*t Chelsea*. It expands into many duce only anxieties, sweatt, and vomitbranches, the leaves are sometimes tings, without purgation, two feet in diameter, and the Item as Castor oil, though the most efficalarge as a middle sized broom staff; cious in removing the dry bellyache, towards the top of the branch it hits a and the iliac passion, two of the most duster of flowers, something resemb- painful and daneerous disorders to ling a bunch of grapes; the flowers R which we are liable, yet is so gentle are small and staminoui, but on the that a tea spoonful has been given body of the plant grow bunches of with success to infants, to lubricate rough triangular husks, each con- the passages, and expel the meconium. taining three speckled seeds, generally It is of the greatest efficacy in clysomewhat less than horse beans j the stert, and when children cannot be shell is brittle, and contains white made to swallow any medicine, if the kernels of a Iwtet, oily, and nauseous navel and hypochondria be rubbed taste. with this orl.it will produce one or two

From this kernel the cil is extracted, C physical stools,

and if the medicine should become of- Given in small draughts,_or by cly

. ficinal, the feeds may be imported *t a ster, or by embrocation, iris an excel

reasonable rate, at the plant grows lent and wonderful vermifuge : The

wild and in great plenty in all the Bri- very smell of the oil will purge some

tijb and French American islands. very delicate and weakly children;

The feeds of this plant were given and, indeed, as H«wAaa<w observes,that

by Hippocrates, but they were some- part of a medicament which purges,

times very violent in their operation j D bears a very small proportion to the

end it is very remarkable that oils ob- whole mass: If euphorbium, or coloquin

tained by expression are mild and le- tida, be dissolved in water, and the wa

irient, tho' the substances from_ which ter be afterwards gently evaporated, so

they are extracted are very acrimoni- at to leave them again dry, though the

ous. Mustard seed, which is so acrid mass will be scarce perceptibly lessened,

as to be caustic, yields an oil by ex- yet they will hare lost all the parts that

pression as mild at that of sweet al- rendered them purgative, and remain

monds. _ _ wholly unactive.

The oil of the ricimit, or, as it it **■» The manner of obtaining the castor commonly called, castor oil, is essica- I oil by expression it this: cious in all obstinate constipations,' Pound the kernels in a mortar, or and isaigvereign medicine in all bili- f grind them in a mill j tie up the poun■}f cus, calculus, arid fTepftntic com- *■ ded mast in a strong thick new canptaints. in warm Viiloul constitutions; « vase bag, and put it into a press bebut it does not succeed 10 well in cold tween i iron plates, squeeze it strongly, phlegmatic habits. "and the oil will run out in streams in

It has been observed of oili, thatina to the receiving vessel, dysentery they bind, but that in hy- It may be procuied by decoction, pctchondriacal affections they relax, but then it is by no means so good, and it has therefore been made a ques- The dose is from two to three or four tion whether they are laxative or a- spoonsulls for adults, in two spoonsulls stringent: But the different effects in of pepper-mint water.or the Tinil.stodysenteriet and "hypochondriacs will G maebica of the London Dispensatory. be easily accounted for, if we consider It may be made into a potto alba by that the cause of a dysentery is some- mixing two or three spoonsulls with a thin^ acrid that vellicates the fibres of sufficient quantity ofthe yolk of egga the intestines, and that mild oils ob- to incorporate it thoroughly, and thea funding the acids mult prevent their- adding two ounces of simple, and two ritation, and so operate as astringents, or three drachms of compound pephut that in hypochondriacal affections Hper mint water. the passages of the intestines are dry It may be given to children mixed and crisp, and their surfaces unequal with honey.

and rough < and that as mild oils lu- The author treats of this medicine

■"•irate and remove the ci ilniness and with respect to the dry belly-acbe, to

See the pljte hereto annexed. fever*

Account os the Oleum Palma; Christi, or Castor-Oil. 63

fevers, bilious complaints in gener.il, fight, great weakness in the loins, a the tetanus, cr cramp, the gonorrhæa, tingling or uneasy sensation thio' the and ot her diseases. whole substance of the medulla spinalis, I. In the dry belly-aebt he says the the doctor repeats the clyster before great point is to keep the belly open, described, and orders blisters to the that the noxious aud irritating matter , thighs and arms, and sinapisms to the contained in the intestinal canal may A soles of the feet, to be renewed every have a free passage out of it. Dr Can- fix hours, and tlie following liniment: vant't method, therefore, is first to o- R Spir. <volat. ammon. unciam i. pen the body by an emolient clyster as Campb. inf. v. v. /. dragmas iiu follows: Liniment vol. diagmas vi, R Deto3. emit*, pro eljsier, uncias viii. Unq. Nervin unciam fs. Ol. Riein. uncias UL Pijfe'tei Indie. Sapon ni$ri unciam fs. B 01. Palm. Cbrisi. aa unciam i. Fin. Antimtnialturb. dragmas vi. _ Bats. Peruvian uncias ii m. AfiesertiJ. (<v. o.salut.) dragmas iii. F. Linimtnfum quo illinatur dorsum & spits, f. Enema si alim injiaendum 6? pro re na dorsriis pofl/rifiltmes.

natajues. naSib. repetend. . At the fame time the Barbadoei lev After this he gives a table-spoonful is likewise to be taken inwardly, ai of the oil, either with pepper-mint- there is nothing more likely to piewater, or the tinfi.siomaebica, and re- Q vent the paraljjie so often attending peats it every hour, or half hour, till it this disci Je: ; and during the whole produces a stool, which the 4th spoon- time of the paroxysm emolient embroFul generally does if it remains upon cations of this oil, with spirits of wine, the stomach. If the stomach will not ancl balsam of Peru, mult be often rekeep it he gives two ounces of the in- peated, and cloths dipped in it must fusion of ipecacuanha, drawn from a be applied, and tightly bound round tea pot with boiling water (the quan- the whole abdomtn, to which bladder* thy of the root he does not mention, E f»U*d with warm water may b« also apconfequently the strength of tie in- plied with advantage. fusion is not ascertained) this, he fays, After the pains are gone, the patiwill act without much straining, and ent should carefully abstain from malt better than the powder or tincture. Iiqii'-r, and every thing that is windy. If after two or three pukes the uau- It. In Fevers. Fevers being nothing fca continues, so that theoil cannot be els,: than a niggle <jf nature to throw kept on the stomach, he gives a neu 1 off the morbific matter they sometimes tral saline draught, with simple and indicate one evacuation, sometimes acompound mint-water,t in etiiuse'-men- nother.

tationu sumeudui; if this does not sue- In lownervousjfeverjjlusoil will

ceed he repeats the fame draught with not succeed, but in ardenFand lndani

a small pill of a grain and an half of tnatory fevers it has succeeded when

the Tbtbaic extract, to be repeated oc- nitroosmediciries and J ame?* powcasionally ; this seldom sails to enable F d^rsTavVTa^led,"giving every ofHer

the stomach to retain the oil till it has ""y .two ipoontuTIs of the oil, and in

donehsoffice. tne intermediate days three or four

The belly must be continued open spoonfuJls of the castor emulsion e

by the following potto alba: very six hours.

R Aq. Memb.simpl. seiquiunciam. «Æ.2K ,emal';on •».ra*Je TMh

r*i D- * ri .\ A . _ - "* or eight almonds, and one castor

In the mean time the following a- worst symptoms of an inflammatory

nodyne bolus is to be freely given to fever and fore throat, but he had rea

take off the pain if it is great: son to suspect the pain in the throat to

R FaUriansylv. p. serupulum i. be gouty, because one night he had a r a D % u Pa,n ,n nw gTM31 toe> during which a££££2£\\ H the other pain abated. As he had

£xtra3 Tbebaie qr. 1. syr been twoor three days without astool,

E nuam V. m.f. bobtefro renatafimtnd. the Doctor gave him two spoonfulls of

The quantity of the opium cannot castor-oil in a little pepper-mint ■>—

be exactly ascertained, because some ter, which produced four stoof

constitutions require more, some less. next morning his fever left' If the oatient comnlaint of loli of


he had a regular fit of the gout, which it would he as efficacious at sorrel or

Jailed ten days, and which he had not vinrgar whey.

had for many years before.. V.The tetanus. This is a continual

TheDoCtor lays, lie hasseen rhisoil and involuntary contraction and ri

cnre the bilious yello*- fever of the gidity of all or most of (tie muscles in

WtstlnMes: first exhibiting an emetic, A the human body. The Doctor hag

then the oil and emulsion occasionally, cured it by fomenting the præcordia,

at the lame time giving diluting acids, jaws, neck, and spine, with warm ca

which, especially in the beginning, stor-oil, and Barbadats tar, then giving

are of ^reat service, two or three spoonfulls of the oil, with

III. Bilious disorders in general, or a clyster of the fame, repeating every disorders th.-'t arise from a vitiated three or four hoars emolient termenbile, at 0 more effectually relieved by tations, and anointing the parts afthis oil than any other medicine, as B fected; after which he has recourse to no medicine does in the fame dtgree musk and opium, having given to 10 cool, purge, and correct the acrimony grains of opium in to hours ; but of that humour. gives emolient relaxing clysters with

IV. The aphtha,thrush, or fire mouth. the castor-oil every day to prevent This disordei is chronical and acute; costive'ness.

the chronical has been known only After the cure the bark and anti

■within a few yeaKs j it is endemial Q epileptics should be persisted in for

in warm climates, and seldom or ne sometime.

ver seen in cold ones, except brought f A course of warm tar-water taken thither by the patient. by half a pint morning and evening, The acute, which is well known in / cured a woman of the cr<mp, whicli Europe, is commonly attended with a ^ had afflicted her several \ears. sever. VI. Caleuhui complaint.'. Dr Mead The cause as the chronical aphtha: was of opinion that the ralculus wai is an acrid lymph, turned at length D a tartar formed in the kidneys by a upon the whole intestinal tube. To preternatur?l coagulation; and that cure this the Dr vomits with 15 grains the proximate cause of the disease is a of ipecacuanha in substance, ana next tartarous salt conveyed out of the day gives a full doseofthecastor-oil.to blood into the small ducts of the kidbe afterwards occasionally repeated in neys. This notion of ihe disease insuch proportions as shall bethought dicates two intentions of cure; r. to proper; After this the workings and p prevent the salts from (hootine; into efforts of nature should not be aistur- chrystals; i. to keep the chrystal from bed by too frequent purges, since the coalescing into a stone. To prevent end is better answered by gentle dia- thechryltalization os the salts, lixivia! phoretics and tempering emulsions salts, or the lees of soap seem to be exprepared with almonds, and a small treamly proper ■. To pi event the coaquantity of'poppy-feed. The pati- lesccnce of the chryltals, oily medient, during the whole cure, should cines are peculiarly adapted, and of take every morning and evening a pint F these the castor oil is molt efficacious, of warm milk, in which an ounce of The treatment of the stone is verydifmutton suet has been melted ;rtiis_ ferent in the tit and out of it. In the

,j>dH also perform miracles in the dy- fit the inflammation is to be taken off

sentery. When the|)Dlleiil luiliplatns the parts by bleeding, and by emol

"of pains in the shoulders and feet, a ient and turpentine clysters with caf».

perpetual bli'.ler applied to the part toroil, the fame oil taken internally

affected is of great service. r and warm baths. After the fit re

When the aphtha; has resisted the course mult be had to lithontriptict

callor-oil, ipecacuanha, and rhubarb, and diuretics. The lixivium siipona

it has often yielded to sorrel whey and ceum diluted in ale or veal broth, and

vinegar whey. The following topical the castor oil blended, have cured ,say»

application, where the aphtha; can be theDoctor,many calculous complaints,

touched, is almost infallible: He adds, that Dr Chitticlss medicine

Mel. rosar. uncia. ii. "h.klv he believes t0 •* so"P '*« (fit

BoralPragma iii. . H *«■ **x.u. P- ♦?!■ and Vol. xxxiv. p.

Sp. Vitriol, dragmas ii. ?°?' 33<• J never performed any cure

r ^ but what the castor-oil in the fit, and

Probably, fays the doctor, if this the lixivium out of it hasexecuted and

composition was well diluted and con- will execute.

veyed into the stomach and intestines, Out of the sit the Doctor gives twice

a week;

Account es the Revisal of Shakespear'j Text. 6r

I week.two or three spoonsulls of the titles, and assisted by proper diluents oil and in the intermediate day, gives will become aperient and deobftruent'.

nfnrrof\°u'0pS I'u16 l'x,vlum ,n * =>nd may be rendered either sudorific

pint of Me. or veal broth. or diuretic; its use thererore in ma

Sometimes he gives instead of it ny chronical cafes it evident'

theI'oytter-fhell lime water, and he Lastly, the castor-oil is an'r*r»ll..ni

add, that Hme-.-w.ter- is a powerful purge in'the gout, and has beeuse] nZ' Vkgan • m,fcarV*°e* ln T" A «ternally i„ dropsical cases with sue

men. The Dr Is of opinion that the cess, for rubbed over the abdomen

castor-oil has a l.thontriptic quality, after a few drastics, especially the"'

For the sake of those who greatly laterium, it has produced a great and

dislike us smell and taste, a few drops v sudden discharge of urine

of the oil of roses; or a few spoonfuls / Upon the whole, it is not the doc.

of rose-water may be addedin the tor's intention that this medidnl

beatmg up the seeds or ruts into a \ mould be considered as a cash" icon

Paste. -This w II rarify the oil, sacili- B It will, like all others, be excelsent or

rate its extraction, add to its colour, < otherwise, as it is well or ill applied

and correct >ts taste. This is a secret , Persona afflicted with, MliouTdsor

U[ hiC.°?,*jr,e «*\bY: Ds ^m/""e I deP' aCUie £ver8> inflammatory dis. in his Scripture Herbal, in the use of eases, and all of warm bilious consti the exniesled oilof sw.eet and bitter al- tutions, will find great benefit from

The Doctor takes this opportunity^ c sons afflicted with coVdisorder, PcT to acquaint his West Udian readers. chexia, leucophlegmatia. and droosithat they have an excellent medecina cal complaints mould by no meins for all gravelly complaints in what is take it, for in those disorders and con. called the bottle cod root, a species ha ftitutions it will cause spasms, and luppotisot the rapbairut, or rapbanoidos, sometimes convulsions, which has all the pungency of the - .

rapbartuj, or borferadijb, and all the """ ,'""' $ a Work lately published,

mucilaginous property of the marsh- D '"""id, ARevisalof Shakespear'j mallows. 1 ext.

VII. Gonorrhæa andstuor albitf. In nPHIS is an attempt to restore the these dilorders castor-oil will not only .■*■ *?*.' °* s"^/fieare where it ha, purge but mend the habit; it will ' een inJur*di not only by the ignoprove an excellent balsamic, and may ra"Ce or negligence of editors, or be taken combined with aromatics, P"nter», but by the innovations of and in some cases with calomel. p r'li " TMe autnor fays, he has careWomen who are thin and apt to be L Z co'la!e'1 Mr PopeS and Mr Tib. costive are often miserably afflicted f. r,s £d'«°ns, has considered theoiby an obstruction from an indurated r im8 °* Dr Warburton, now Bisliop matter in the colon, perceptible even °L T?"/rf the "marks of Mr Upton, to the touch, and sometimes mistaken TMr 7^y0» s remarki on Mackelbi and for the placenta, or the spleen : This •aU \\h?MP*are restored, with some obstruction can be removed only by P1"" of less importance. lenient purges, for if drastics are eiv- P r*f f teXt is obscure, and supen, vomitings, cholics, and hysterics Jf • jTfTto be corruPt. he ha. will ensue. In this case a spoonful admitted soch emendations as apof castor-oil taken bv the mouth, and Pearedto h"n to restore the true readfour or five spoonsulls thrown up in ln£' JTM any such were to be sound i the form of a clyster, will certainly ex- wnen they, were not, he has endeaH the infarction. * Y * .vo"red to supply the defect by conIn gonorrhaeu it answers the fame r ».eCtures of h's °wn, and when the text endasra/iiw. ° .ha» appeared to him to have been unJn all pectoral and consumptive ca- J,",• yfl!a'g!d with obscurity, he ha, ses if is the best and softest purge that ?efe"ded » rn>m alterations, by (hew. can be taken. In the WestUlte, tha Vu r",? aI.ter«'on was necessary, patient should atthe sametimetake an .„..' .,olI°wlng soecimen, mav both infusion or decoction of the wild li- fn,?rta'n the reader, and enable him quoriih, or bead-vine, sweetened with *°rm a 'udSment of this work, the syrop of calabash. H Tempest, di7I: Sctaez. We have nothing in Europe compa- (Me old reading.).

table to the last medicine in consurap.. -_ . . . Hk.oa,

tive case,. r Who having, mo truth, by telling of ;t.

The castor oil given in small „„. %**&SJ»~«£~!*'

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