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/tccourtt of Ptofejsor Linnæus'* Systema NaturaS: 57

/k Actotnt of the Second Volume of a new and plants into Bu/bcsar, Siliauosr, 11 mbelliserte,

enlarged Edition as PnfJJhr Linnæus'* Verticil}*!*, &c. These indeed were so

SfMcma NatnrSe: h -.uticb it exhibited a many classes upon winch nature herself had

View of tie Author't System so fir m rispeilt (lamped such evident characteristicks, that

the vegetable kingdom. (Sec an account if tbe they could not escape their notice, and wo

fist. Vol. xxW.p. 555, Vol.xxv.p. 3i7J find that some of the btst writers of the

THt id tome of Professor Linna-ut't A last century preserved them entire; such newSyfiema Natarte it zn 8vorn Which were John and Caspar Baubinc, and our the pages are continued from the former o»n countrymen Gerard and Parkinson \ tome, from 8n to 1384; thi» volume con- 1° 'heir subdivisions or chapters, however, tains ia a compendious manner, a view of they so far neglected the minute parts or the whole vegetable kingdom, disposed ac- distinction taken from the fructification,. cording to the system of which the author 'hat nothing like generical notes can be was the inventor, fjunded as to the classi- _ discovered in their method ; so that the only cal part upon the lexesef plants j a system " resource in finding many of their plants which is no* almost universally received, waS to read over their long and tedious deend which has framed its author immortal scriptions, which after all were frequently, honours. It is in this branch of the study iDsufficienttodistinguifh the plant sought for of nature, that iht illustrious Sweda so emi- Thar. great naturalist Ctmrade Gesner, nently sltines; from him botany may boast whom Bcerbaavi very emphatic-ally styles a new arra. and without derogating from Monflwm Eruditinh, appears to have been' the merit of former writers, it may truly p the first who cliouttht with any precision be said, that it was never really reduced to °'* method of classing plants from the a science before. flower or f-uir j he but slightly touches

It is almost needless to urge the necessity vpon it in his epistles, he lived not to bring

of a method in the study of nature j it is the 'VI thing to perfection in this way. This

very foul of science, and amidstsuch a mul- w'» reterved for Cafalpinut, who was the

tiplscryof objects as the vegetable kingdom first author that arranged plants in a true

affords.all attempts rewards the acquisition systematic manner. He was professor at

of knowledge without it, must emi in un- r» ?']"> and physician to Pope Cement VIII.

certainty and confusion. We have luffici- and published his Libri de P.'amii in 1583,

ent proofs of this in the writers upon plants he takes the classical characters from the

bciore the invention of systems ; and we fruit itself. It is wonderful that after his

fee and deplore the want of it in the loss time, tho' so many very eminent Botanists

of maoy valuable articles, not only in the flourished, amonp whom were thciicyiinei,

Materia Medita, but in the Pitftria and none ever thought of pursuing the plan he

TinSoria of the antients. Articles, whose h»d l«'d down, until DrMorfon, and MrRay,

virtues and properties appear to have been 0 w"0 both published nearly together, their

admirably well ascertained, but, which are seperate systems founded upon classical dif

■ow lost to us, lor want of a more scien- unctions drawn from the fruit. Since

tific arrangement of their subjects and ac- their time others havq laboured to bring

curacy of their descriptions. their systems to perfection as Knattt, Herman,

Botanic writers have chose very diffe- Boerbaave, &c. and Dr Ditltniut had still'

rent methods of arranging plants, not only farther perfected /cay's method as is evident;

before, but since the invention of systema- from the arrangement he has given to the

tic borany. The alphabetic has been p Britifa plants, in the third edition of that

much followed, especially in local cata- author"* synopsis.

logues arid dictionaries. Some have dis- The fruit of plants is not the only part posed their plants according to their time upon which former authors have establishof flowering, as Path in his Siuadripartitum ed their classical distribution. Several elcBatanittmt; Bister, in the Hortui Eyftettenfii; R»nt systems have been formed from the Detleniui in the Catalogm Giffenjlt; others flower, in considering which both the rehave arranged them according to their dis- gularity or inegularity.as well as the numferent places cf growth j as the authors of G *"=r °^ t*,e Pet*'s n« been made the basis the lit fan a LugJiincnft; and some again of different methods by diss.i ent writers, according to their virtues in medicine; Rrvini, and his followers Hcucber and Rapothers observing that numbers of vegeta-■ /»« are of this number j Tonrntjhrt, whose blcs agreed with one another in their gene- method may be allowed to be the most rai habit and appearance, or had a cer- perfect till Linneens wrote, established his tain harmony and proportion in the dis- - classical characters upon ihe figure of the position and form of their roots, leaves, H flower, and the orders upon the different flowers, or fruit, in their particular mode situation of the pistil and calyx, of-jrrowing.flowerinfr, or foliation, saw that Befldes these methods in which the authey naturally, as it were, fell into classes thors have chiefly considered one oart orly, according to such distinctions. Hence, either the flower or fruit, as the basis of their division of trees into Pimifere, Prum- their classical character, several o*'— '■■ ftrat, Bacciftr*, Nucifra, GlandifcotJSt. of *•»•• bwe ■*•». i»»STUed »f I" (Gent. M-ii. f 13. 176c.J H

which the plants are arranged as far as a» hive the fl/m:na and p-s'ih. both within possible according to their natural classes, the fame empaletnent or petals, or where The very eminent Dr lialltr, in hit Enumt- those are wanting arising from the same raiic Stirpium Ht/vaiat, 1741, and in the receptacle. Of these 20, the first 10 classes Horiui Gcttingtnsti; Dr Wacbtndotf in the proceed regularly, having so many /lamina, II rtus ViirajtHinu 1747, have shewn great as the title expresses, beginning with the ingenuity in the execution of different " K nandria and proceeding as far as dtcandna, methods upon this plan; Dr Van Rnytn'% The nth class- is called dndtcandna; for too, in the ProJrtmut Flora! Ltyacnfii 1740,. there are no plants yet discovered which whose scheme seems to he less artificial, is have only eleven stamina. 1% Ic-sandrio\ cc tainly a very elegant attempt towards such plants as have about 20 stamina or that frtmum tt ultim-.m in botany. Lin- sometimes more, but always arising horn taut himself attempted a natural method, the calyx, or corolla, and not from the rebut he only seduced the genera into orders; _ ceptacle. 13. Pn/yanaria, (ulu as have from he did not venture tb form a classical fy I - *' twenty even to a tliousand/Pawi/iahut always ttin on that plan. arising from the receptacle. 14. Didynamia,

Methods have also been formed from the such as have tout ftamina,tvio long and two

different species and arrangement of the short; the essential character of this class

calyx in plants. Professor Magiul 4710, does not consist in the number of the

published on this plan, and Unman himself stamina, for if so,the plants might be referred

1737, but he soon deserted it. to the tetrandria; but in having two of the

Every system has its advantage in some stamina shorter than the other; one pistil

respect or other, and as all artificial me- *>• only, and an irregular shaped corolla. 15.

thods are only so many succedane* to the Tttradynamia; plants with six stamina,

natural one, a due attention to each must four long and two short, the latter placed

tend to illustrate the natural classes and opposite to each other, 16, Mtmadelpbia;

pave the way for the completion of the such as have the filaments united at their

natural scheme in botany j a perfection base into one body. 17. Diadelpbia; such

which if possible to be attained we must as have the filaments united at their base

not hope to see in our days. J) into two bodies. 18. Poljadtlpbia; such ac

l.inr.tu. is the first who constituted the have the filaments united at their base inro. Stamina and Pistilt as the basis of an atrti- several bodies, if. Syngettfia; such as have filial method of arranging plants, and-he the antberte, but not the filaments coalestells us, in his Claffts Plantamnt, he was led cing together so as to form a cylinder thro* to this by considering the great importance which the pistil it commonly transmitted, cf those parts in vegetation. They alone zo. Gynandria j such as have the stamina are the essential parts necessary to fructifi- springing from the pilstil itself. 21. Mataacation all others except the Antbtrm and cia; such vegetables as have separate male Stignuita,beinf wanting in some flowers,and and female flowers on the fame plant, aav the present philosophy os botany regards Dioecia: such as have separate male and the former as the male, and the latter as female flowers on separate plants. 23. Pathe female organs of generation in plants. lygamia; such as have constantly besides As such indeed they may be considered in hermaphrodite flowers, others either male a philosophic view, but perhaps the Lid- or female, on the fame plant. 24. This Koran system,' admirable as it is, would not class is called Oyptcgamia; because it conhave been less acceptable had the classical ^ tains the plants whose fructification is not terms been expressive only of number and yet sufficiently discovered, situation, without regard to the offices of The orders or subdivisions of the forethe parts. Ludwig. in his Destnitiena Plan- going classes are established upon the nutntarum, where he has endeavoured to coin- her of the pistils, or female parts of genebine the systems of /train and Linnaniinto ration. But this arrangement is pursued, one, has avoided this mode of expression, only thro* the first 13 classes; that is, sit by substituting the terms Mmantbua, Mo- long as the classical character depends on Ktstyt*, Se. _, the number of the stamina, so long the or

Besore we speak of the volume under *■* ders likewise depend upon the number of

consideration it will be proper to exhibit the pistils; but when situation takes place

a compendious view of the sexual system at the character of the class.thcn the orders)

itself. All known, plants are divided by are founded upon other distinctions which

Uimarm into 24 classes, Xhe characters of we (hall briefly specify.The 14th class,or the

which are established upon the number or D'dynamia, is divided into Gymntfpirmi*?, Sa

different situation and arrangement of the Angrmptrmja, the former have four naked

stamina or male organs: and the orders or teeds j the latter have the feeds inclosed in

subdivisions of these, classes,as far as possi- {] a Pencarpiun, or feed vessel. 1 $. Tctrtdymi

ble, upon the similar arrangement of the mia, has two orders according to the sue

fisti/', or female organs of generation, and shape of the pod or shale; Silicates*

The first twenty classes contain what the short, and Siliano/a long shale. The order*

Mthor e|llt, k<rm*£bfi4<ti showers, or suth of the three next dalle*, Was. the OUnaJe**

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and invariable at possible. This Indeed it the ultimate intention es all method whatever, and here Lhmtut has done infinitely more than all who wrote before him; hi has upon this plan,however, been obliged to give new fpecifick names to all the plants

the rad. us and the diik; the filth order is j^ <hat have come to his knowledge; names

Kitifuma. 20. GyiiamJria. Here the orders take their titles from the number of the stamina, n, aft, Monotcia, Diotcia; in these two classes the orders take the characters of the foregoing classes of the system itself, as far down as the M.v.icia class itself. »j. The Poygemia, ia divided into three or

not taken as had been customary, from the name of the inventor, the likeness of the plant to other species, its place of growth, time of flowering, its sue, the colour of the flower, or plant, smell, taste, virtue in medicine, or any other Yuch vague and mutable circumstance, but from some reroark

ders, aa the plants are, MuKtciir.Dioecia, or JJ able difference in the root, trunk, and parr

Trim*. 24. The Crypttgamia'i* divided into
FiHea, tttsti, Alg*, Sc Fungi.

The establishment of the two next branches of the Litntran system, viat. the gencrical and specincal characters of plants, as they are by far the most important, so they are what the author has laboured at with

ticularly the leaf, the stipuhe, or the gene. ral foliation, ramification, or some other abiding distinction. So happily indeed are his fpecifick characters constructed^ that they generally distinguish the plant in a few words with more precision, after having taken in the classir.il and generical clia

■nwearied and uncommon diligence, and C rlcter*> than the long and labouieddeftrip

brought them toan amaung degree of perfection; fir indeed beyond what could have been expected from the labour of any one man, and who but a Lmnttut was capable of it.

The generical characters are established ■pon the aslamblageof all the parts of fruc

lions of former writers.

Besides these specific characters, Lir.rtext has invented, and, in his later works, applied what he calls trivial names to each plant; these, consist of a single epiihet expressive of some more remarkable distinction. of the species j as for instance, inirgrifo/ia,

tificatioa, compared together according to D '"'""<"«» trtSa, tipetu, aotutica.muntana, Sec.

sometimes of the aamc of the inventor, and where he has changed the generical name of a plant that was remarkably well known before, and especially if it is ah officinal one, he frequently retains the old generic ij name as the trivial epithet. Thoi tht penny royal of the fhips.as it really belongs

their number, figure, proportion, and litua tion. These at large snake an 8vo of 500 pages, and are really the natural characters of plants, having the advantage over those of all former writers in several respects, particularly, because they are applicable to any kind as-classical method that can be

invented, supposing it founded on any pars E to the Mtnrba Otmi, according to his cha

os the fructification j whether that be the calyx, corolla, stamina, pistils, or fruit j and whatever may be the site of the classical part of the Linruun system, there is no doubt but these generical characters will stand the test of ages, and if it will not be thought too much to fay, 1 may add, that

rasters, therefore be calls it Btrntba Pulegiun. The horse-rhaddilh as it agrees with the Gtniti Cccblcaria, he calls Catbkaria Armmraris.

In all former editiona of the Syfiema Natural, oar author was very short a< far as related to the vegetable kingdom, having

they must remain firm while nature herself p after his Clam's u Cbarafterci Clajswm only

given the names of the genera, with their essential characters, without teaching at all upon specific distinctions 'hat was reserved! for another work, which was published in 1753,entitled Spain Pbmarum, where »H the known plants are enumerate*], and the most remarkable, best known, and useful synonyms are added j bsrt in this wurfc there are no kinds of generical characters' prefixed.

The author beejnt this near ant enlarged edition of the Sj/kw, by premising'.* compenuioue view of the philnfbpfty of vegetation, and then proceed* to wlrat he calls Dtlimatk Ptamrar, somerfttng stnln.ni to what he had entitled in the former editions, MirrWui oamutfrmj} ftattaiilu j here he introduces all the terms he makes use of, in describing plants, and by a methodical ■nd apt cHftraVurioa rosily expii'

/hall endure.

Betides these natural characters art large, our author has invented, for brevity's fake, two other kinds of characters, which he cajls factitious and essential; the former farvss to distinguish each genus from other genera of the tame artificial order only, by enumerating the most remarkable difference* in each. The essential characters, could they be investigated, are designed to distinguish the genera from one another in the nat oral orders, but these are discovered as yet, but in a few instances, & possibly they exist but in few; nevertheless, our author hat attempted them as far as they will bear thro' bis whole system, for the sake of brevity, and to save the trouble of turning over the natural characters at large.

In forming tbe fpecifick characters of plants, Ltmaatat has taken incredible pains

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at the fame time; this is a cations and mous P/umier'i, most of which were Ml* useful addition. After this he gives the described before. Dr Brofun sent our au* CUvit etCburailcretClaJJium, and then comes thor hi> whole collection of Jamaica plants, to the system itself. and he has many Hew species Irom MrAf/7As this volume -.j,', intended to contain /c's elegant plaies lately published. Those all the plants hitlrerto known, the natural published by Dr Trtiv of Nurimberg, from generic characters at lai t- could not be drawings made by that 'admirable artist Introduced, for we hjvr before observed j^Mr Ebrct \ Dr Rujsesi natural history of that they make an Svo volifvoe os thc.-n- Aleppo; Dubamel'a tract De Arboribut, and selves; to supply, however, :he want of M. AUions* Piedmont plants, have all these the author has here introduced the helped to enrich our author's volume: fictilious and eslciitial characters.' The fur- The private communications from his mer stand at the head of each class, not al- friends have likewise been very considerawayj according to the naturilorderin which ble ^ to instance a frw only t CapeefGeoml they fall in the system itself, but are dis- Hf? pian:s train Dr Ub'bot; Asiatic from posed Under each order, or the subdivisions Dr David Carter, lately resident at Pettrtof the Older, in an artificial method, the " bur^b; American, from Dr Brrwn, Mr Milbest adapted to catch the eye and facilitate ler, and Mr Eliii : Italian alpine plants from the labour of the youns botanist in investi- M. AUiwi of Turin, Stgnur of Verona, and gating the genera. After this the author Dr Scbmiedel; southern plant* of Euros*, inserts the essenti.il characters at the head from M. Sauvitgit ot M,ntpelier, from Dr of each genus, and then gives the specific Gerard, M. B, Gabrie't and others, characters with the trivial names as they The excellency ot all classical systems in stand in his Speciei Plaa'arum, except where botany is suppoicd to tonsiit in their keephe has seen occasion to amend them, which ing together a. much as possible the genera is the cafe in many instances. Theie are (J in the natural dalles, and thus so far apfew or no synonyms introduced into this proachin< to the lyllem of nature. All arwork, the plants stand under each genus, tificial systems will be found) in many info the order in which they are found in the stances, to lne.il; the order of ihe natural species, and the new ones are distinguished classes, and disjoin genera which nature by capitals, and arranged in their natural seems evidently to have classed together. places under each genus. The mote simple and uniform the classical The present work is very considerably chaiactets of a system aie, the more they augmented by the addition of many new are likely to inteileie in this respect; negtnera. The last edition os our author's D vertltekss it is beaut.ful to observe how characters cs plants, published in 1754, well many of the natural classes are kept contains 1105 genera ; in this volume they together in the sexual system, the character* are so far enlarged as to extend to 1174. of which have the advantage of being very The old genera stand numbered as in the simple, and easy to retain in the memory, last edition os his characters, the new ones and of being founded upon the parts of are all introduced in their proper places in plants, as little subject to variation as any the body as the work; and their natural whatever j and, yet perfect as it maybe characters described at large at the end like all other methods, it has its defects, of of this volume. .Our author's Spain PUn- -, which no one can be more sensible, than iuttm comprehends almost 6000 plants ; in the illustrious author himself. There are this work there is an addition of upwards many instances of particular species which of 800 species. Varieties, which, for want break thro'the generical, and of course es true specific characters, had almost en- often the classical characters of the system .Creased the number os plants double what itself t but for these delects there is no t'nrutut thinks they really are, in this work remedy at present, it is matter of surprize as well as in the Sficei, are totally exelud- that the scheme is so fir elaborated as we ed. For the'e additions the author Is in- fee it.

rlebted not only to many censidei able wotks In this new edition, wherever the species

of great reputation, published since his of any particular genus bteaks thro' the

Speteet, but also 10 the communications of F classical character, or that of the o'der, our

his friends and correspondent* in almost author has mentioned it among the ficti

all parts of the woild. Two centuries of tious characters under 1 lie class or order ia

new plan's, or at least such as were un- which the number of stamina, or pistilst

known to him before, published in the entitle it to a place j this is a great -help

Amotnitatei Academ-cat are introduced. Our to a young botanist.

author has made great use of Rumpbiut'a The space of time elapsed since the pub

Herbarium Amb;inenjt, published in seven lication os the Genera, indSpeciet Plans rum,

volumes folio, by Dr Burman of Amsterdam; G has enabled our author to make numerous

of which wck only the two first volumes improvements in liis.syltem. The specific

had reached Sweden, when the species was characters are frequently amended, and

Atinrcd. The fame Dr Burman has also many removals <f ilie genera, have been

-published a. collection us si toots of the la- made, which greatly tend to advance the

■1 system

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