« הקודםהמשך »
EpitoWie of the Philosophical Tnmfact'softs. * v 562;'.
sections to construct this frame cannot the wings there are two yel-ow lines
be peifectly understood without the running tiansveifely downward! j jurt
cut that is annexed to this article, in overthe insertion of the wings, two
tie transactions, to which therefore bail s go out of each fide ofequal length,
the rear!** is reteired. & very near twice as long as the whole?
IV. An easy rule for determining body: from the upper part of the neck •the moon's distance, from the received A also go out two hairs as long as the theory of central force*; by P. Mur- body.
doth,!) D. 1 bil cannot tt abridged.- The abdomen is divided into fix
V. An attempt to account for live segments, of which the first is very formation of the extraneous fossil,call- narrow at its bases, and quite black, ■ed a Btlemnite, bv Mr Joshua Plat. except the hind margins which aie
Extraneous fossils are theexuviaor yellow; liom this segment there
remains of animals afltl vegetables B grows out only two hairs twice a*
chiefly of marine production. T-he long as the abdomen at the base, but
Btlemniti is of two forms, the most no where else; the other five segment*
common is known by the name of are between ■brown and yellow, thew"
t-'.e Thunderbolts the other is of a spin- hinder nurgins, a little paler, and the
die form i It belongs to the teflaceou* second has a black girth near the fore
part of the animal kingdom, and -to margin j five hairs go out near the
the family of ths Nautili. It is like all £ fore legment as rays; in the second
other testaceous bodies, formed by only three, and they are (hotter than
j .xi a position.—As the animal, for no the abdomen, especially the side one;
testaceous body canbefoimed with- in the third, fourth, and fifth fe?-'
out an inhabitant, grows in bulk, the aunts there are four or five hairs
shell is encreased by a mucus emitted longer than the body, and scvei.il
from the body of the animal, which fliorter ones, especially underneath,
by degrees hardens into a testaceous where there are no longer ones; the
substance; and, as the oyster strength- D sixth segment is laminated with a
ens its shell, and excludes its firII ha- longhair.
bjtation, by additional lamina, formed All these hairs which are of a light
within, the beltmnite incloses its dwe-1- biown colour, seem tobettiff.buttherr
ling by adding new lamina without. ends are quite foist, like papilla, and
This article is illustrated by several from thence thicker,
figures, in three prints from copper- The wings are fliorter than the ab
plates, marked Plate III, IV, V , but £ domett, the upper ones folded,
the references being only to Plate III. The legs are black except the
the reader has some trouble to find thighs, which are yellow; at tire
the figure he is referred to, especially 'joints there are short hairs like rays,
a* he is first referred from the text to tjie ends of which are likewise short,
the margin, and then from the mar- and thickened.
g"n to the cut. The locust, he calls Rbebea dead*
Art. VI. An account of a •singular rliorace tomprtffo membranaceo soltaceo
Secies of waifs and locusts; by Sam. F sub rbombeo pnjliro laUore.
//on, Esq; The thorax is like a leaf raised per
Thele insects were found in J«- pendicularly from the body, being
r>iai(a, and Mr Felton, fays, have never three times as broad, but of the fame'
been described. length; it is of a rhomboid figure,
The wasp, he calls erinila<ve^asitis membianaceous, hats pellucid, with
coli tboracii abdomenifque radiantibut two spots that are transparent; the
rvf'ore kngkribus; aud describes as ^3 fore part of it it double, and the nun
follows 1 gins waved.
It is as large as a common wasp, The abdomen project* a little sar
bot rather narrower. ther brick than the leaf.
The head is brownish, the vertex The insect had not got its cole op
tiack, in a triangular form. tera and wing*.
The antennas are shorter than the The hind thip.hs, which are the
thorax, a little thicker towards the thickest, have an additional narrow end, or a yellowish brownish colour, membrane on the upper side,
but black in the middle. H The head and maxilltr are like those
The thorax isa light brownish on of the erylltu, an;l it resemiiles in all
the back, but on the fides and under- parts the cifaA/cbata or t.tnnam, r~ fieatlil>l.nk, before the inlertion of reps that the thorax isbrvicttilr
(Gent. Mag,. Dec. Ii&s) tmvards the end.
The antenna were broken off, so When Mr Pott first saw it, if was a
that their length could not be deter- bout as big as a chelnuf, and he oai
mined. of opinion, that it was not formed by
Art. VII. An account of an Ame- the testicle, though he could find no
r'uan Arm.tdilla; by Dr Watson. testicle on that side.
This animal, which has been very The swelling was whohV without seldom seen alive in England, it now « pain, but had a stony incompressible
in the possession of Lord Southwell, hardness; it appeared to be depen
anrt is called by Ltnn.tui, Dasypus cin- dant from the spermatic-process,
gulis m-vem, salmis tetradaelylts flantis which was rather larger and fuller
ftertadaSyl'tt. It has been described by than the other, yet hid no ippe.tr
Margra-ve and Ray, by the name of ance of being diseased.
Tatue Brofilienfis; it was brought a Mr Pott was ata loss to guest what few n.on • hs ago, from the country, ~ it was, but' was very clear that it
near the Mufqmtt shore, upon the A- ought to be removed, as well, because
mertcan continent: It weighs seven it was now troublesome, as because it
pounds, and is about the size of a com- had a manifest disposition to cncrease.
men cat: It is ted with raw flesh and He determined, however, to act
milk, and refuses greens and fruits; very cautiously, be made an incision
i<i its own country it burrows in the through the skin and cellular mem
grour^. The best figure of it exist- brane, from the upper part ot" the log, is annexed to this account.:: > ~i r. scrotum to the lower; by which he . 'art. VIII. An account, of ifcbe C discovered a firm, strong, white, mem
•quantity of rain fallen at Mount's Bay, branoiis cyst or bag, connected loosely
in CormvaJl, and os the weather there j with the skin, by means of the dartoa;
by If. Borlace. he dissected al) the anterior part-of
The quantity of rain in June was the cyst quite clean, and found that
4,6' inches; in July 4,1 inches. as he traced it upward, it became
The weather was calm and hazy, narrower, and seemed to proceed from
With sunshine at Mount's Pay, with the the groin; this determined him to wind at N. E. when the gieat hurri- u try if he could not free the posterior cane passed through some part* of part also. In doing this, he difeover
Kent, from West and S. W. on the ed the testicle which was much coro
19th of August i7»r3. (See sol. xxxiii. pressed, slat, and very small, and lay
^iii.) immediately behind the tumour.
Art. IX. An account of a hernia When he had finished this operation
of the urinary bladder, including a he found that the cyst was dependant stone 1 by Mr Pertival Pott. 'from, or continuous with a mtmbra
T.v patient, a healthy boy, about E nous tube, or duct, about as broad ac fix years old, was suddenly seized with a wheat straw, which seemed to pass a most acute pain at the. bottom of his from the abdomen, thro' the opening belly; white it lasted he could dis- in the oblique muscle, along with the charge no water, but in about an hour spermatic vessels. •» ■ and an half, he became suddenly easy When he had perfectly freed this and tile water passed freely. duct from all connection, he cut it . A few days afterwards a small tu- through immediately above the tumour, about the size of a pea, was dis- F rnour, upon which a quantity of liirrcovered in the up; er part of the sper- pid fluid, not less than two ounces foimatic process, just below the groin, it lowed, and the mouth of the cyst exgave no pain, but descended lower, & panding, discovered a large stone ex* encreased in size, the child was also actly resembling the calcnli in the observed to make water oftener than urinary bladder, which stone the cyst u'ual, but without difficulty or pain; closely embraced. in about five years it got as low as the As there was no appearance of fluid scrotum, and then encrtaled very fast. G in the bag, or duct, before it was cut When the Hoy was about 13, ("even off; this dhchirge together with the years after Its first appearance, it was stone, induced him lo suspect that the become so troublesome, that he was < afe was a hernea tyfiich\ to ascertain sent up to Ijsndon fr«m a J emote the fact, he desired the boy to make place in the country, where he was water, and, upon his endeavouring,-so born. to do, a full stream of swine flowed
Several surgeonsto whom his friends H outof the wound in the groin,' which
applied, took it fora sebirrous testicle, put the caseout of doubt,
id proposed to cut it out, but they He dressed the patient 'sriper£cia»r.
Distress of the ManufaSlitrers in Yorkshire. 567
smd had no bad' symptom, hit urine wheat is 5 /. per quarter, it may be all passed for a fortnight by the ("old in Franci much cheaper than it is wound, which, gradually contracting, bought in England, and leave the exall the urine came through the ure- porrer a sufficient profit. This will thra, and at the end of a month, he enable our rivals to eat cheaper, to was perfectly well. nuork cheaper, and conseqtiently, t<* (To be continued.) A fill their commodities tbeafer than ive
pojjiblj can. And will not this induce
Mr Urwan, Deal. 1765. our manufacturers to remove to that
I Live in a manufacturing country, country where biead is cheapest: T* where the -people are exceeding it not very easy to tell what the issue numerous, and where very little pro- of all this must be? I dare even provision of any kind is produced toward* phefy (without pretending to the spittle support of human life. The pa- „ rit of extraordinary inspiration) that if rishes of Leeds, Wakejield, Bradford, things go on as at present, most of our Ketgbley, Halifax, Hutherssield and Roeb principal workmen, and artificers will dele', together with a few of the ad- leave the kingdom, and seek for emJoining country towns, such as Mor/y', ployment in some other country, Burstall, Batley, Pvdfiy, Devftmry, Osfet, where they may meet with more enKirkbcuton Kirkburton, Almonfbury, lie. couragement. The present circum«re mppoled to contain above five hun- stances of things point to America; and dred thousand men, women, and chfl- C if our manufacturers are driven away, dren, all engaged' in one" branch or our late flourishing trade will soon Other of the woollen manufactures. So follow-. Let the gentlemen concerned many people mutt consume a prodi- then look forward a little, and comgiousquantityof provifionsof all kinds, mon fense will tell them, that it is As little, very little, corn in propor- their own interest, and will be the intion to the number of their inhabi- tereftof their future families, to the rants, is raised within this circle, it is n tenth generation, to use their utmost chiefly brought'from distant parts of endeavours to promote plenty in Greatthe country. From the Eafi and North Britain: As plenty only can promote Ridings from Lincotnjbire, Nottingham- trade, and trade only can raise the Jbirt, Derbyshire, and Cheshire; and head of this kingdom above its neigh likewise, large quantities are imported hours.—But if the persons in power will to Liverpool, and Hull, and consumed pay no regard to the cries oj the poor, in these puts. For some time past all or ro the present interest of trade; or to the necessaries of life have been ex- E the future advantages of themselves and ceeding dear. Trade in general is families; please to inform them, Sir, now very dull; some branches are that there is another argument, which, almost ruined; many of the manufac- perhaps may have greater influence, terer* are'out of employment; and on some, than all the rest: viz. If others have not half work. As the provisions should continue so dear as generality of this kind of people make at present, and the poor have no work, no provision ftfr futurity, 'til easy to it is to be feared that we shall soon see guess at their present diftesses. If' many terrible insurrections in this things should continue in this state kingdom. Hunger viitl break through (and I lee no prospect but of their fione walls.——From which evils, may growing worse and worse) 1 dread a good Providence, and the wisdom the consequences before.another har- of our governors deliver this happy vest. We shall certainly have a fa- land, Amen. I am,&c. T. M. mine, in some degree, in this country, Wefi-Kiding of Yorkshire. but whether real or artificial I will Q not pretend to fay. 1 presume that SIR,
our governors are not sufficiently ac- "\T THether the legislative powers, quainted with the real state of things VV originally delegated to the in this- pars of the kingdom, other- colonies by royal charters or otherwise they would not surely permit ex- wise, and hitherto established by a reporrarion. As the bounty upon ^ular course of unimpeached legisla■ [.j tlon, will constitutionally operate in ex• The gresteft put 0* the psrifh of Rctb- elusion of any parliamentary particidalyhl'm Lamifhin: But Suditltvnrib, one pal ion in all local eases not "tnvnt of it> m«nT tliapchi*«, and tjcesd'ng po- to the laws of Great B';" pulous, tho' a «ry barren and mojrisli spot, to be a claim of privilege t* in tac Weft Rjdiar ot Tut/hire, alarrnhiz. than as it m.
to hare a tendency towards weakening necessary supplies of all kinds, as well their political dependency on the mo- a> for a vent and la le ot their proper
ther country. produce; and by her local right of im
The Condition annexed to the privi- posing duties on their alternate images of legislation gi anted to the co- Donations here,and exportation* from Ion;ts, namely that their laws should hence t a power one would think l'uf. cot be repugnant to those of Great- A ficient to enable the mother-kingdom Britain, implies, as strongly as words indirefily to raise contributions upon and necessary incidents can imply, an them, for any extraordinary occasions, exclusive legislative right in all internal without having recourse to a direS cases that are toysisteni tv':tb them. On unnecessary infringement of their the other hand, this condition, sub- charters} which stands with the royal testing all such of their laws as should honour and national generosity to be inconsistent with those of Great „ observe and maintain—even to their Britain to be repealed, insures the sub- B most liberal extent, serviency ot their legislative acts to the It was the erection of this new £n. legal system and polity of the mother- glish Empire in the colonies, apparentkingdom; because none but those Ty sounded on the translation of £*raws which are consistent with them, glish liberty thither, governed by our ■may obtain. Moreover, a latitude ot common-law and their own local acts, final determination witb respect to, and only confiolled by a reasonable their repugnancy being wholly left to Q subordination to the religion, polity, the Royal Prerogative, a more &ii$\ jurisdiction, and aggrandisement of subordination of this kind, bearing' the mother-kingdom, that afterwards any face of Liberty, could scarcely. drew over numbers of people as to a have been devised. That these logil- refuge from the ecclesiastic and civil latures might also equally act under oppjession* they had undergone at the sovereign directive influence of home; and which they no doubt trusted the mother state, and pursue one ge- touid not, even by the fewer so rigoronjly neral undivided welfare, the same ** at that time exerted here, be extended to //.ad fundamentally exercises the two them in America. These oppressions capital functions in both regions; or, were of so grievous and intollerant a in other words, the King remains not nature, that if the plantations had not only the sole executive Magistrate, but afforded them such an asylum, they forms one of the constituent legislative must have fought one in some foreign branches equally in the colonies as in pait of the globe. Had this happenthe mother-kingdom. Without the E ^i tne diain and damage to the moexerrise of which regal functions by thtr-country would have been rtal his delegate or representative, the and dangerous: Whereas by their whole course of their public govern- going to our colonies, it has been scent, and of their civil and commer- proved to a demonstration, that the tial transactions would be obstructed, trade, commerce, weahb, and potency and a general anarchy ensue; which of the mother-countiy, have been must necessarily in the end prove fa- considerably more advanced, than is ta] to themselves. And this being s* they had remained in it. But should the actual cafe, it would hardly sol- a door be ntrvj opened to the introlow that the colonies must be inde- ductionof any grievances there, which pendent, should the Brit\sb parliament tiieii ancesters had so happjly and fehave no power of laying internal taxes curely fled from here, and the free conon them. But the supposition—that ftitutions, which the colonists have the colcrties, in supporting this their thus long enjoyed and Sound.t-d unframe of government, want to throw Q der, be as it were subverted.—by renoff all dependence and subjection, is dering not only the domestic laws of certainly injurious as ivell as absurd, their polity and etconomy of no ctr. wryrn both the one and the other aie tain effVct, but subjecting all their inessential chief principles of that very Urnal forms of civil communication, constitution they are reclaming the and probably their persons and local continuance and enjoyment of 1 properties by and bye, to be taxed at The Ministration of the colonies to liberty by our parliaments, of which our trade, commerce, wealth, and H they are rieither members present nor stability, was provided sol—by their ti- represented, and to which they aia mnus exclusion from all foreign mar- consequently in this respect as rlr.M>-° Ws: thereby obliging them to have gets; this would necessarily calf such
■jurse to the mother country for a damp upon their spirit of cultivation.
Tbe Impotta net of the N. American Coloniet considered, -c^x,
so depreciate the value of labour, aid at the same time so enhance the price of provisions, that a cessation of all rural improvements must ensue; and their extraordinary attention be confined to the mamisaSuring the necessary accommodations of life. So that, instead dr proving useful and dutiful children to the mother-country, as they have hitherto been, a state of reciprocal alienation, if not of mutual hostility, must take place between them. And how far such an event would affect the interest and consideration of the mother kingdom, I leave others to display.
But in the name os freedom may I ask, of what political species would the'governmentof thexoloniesbe, supposing them made liable to be locally bound in all cases by our statute?, \f> which they are not parties > It is'an undoubted universally acknowledged maxim in the theory of government, that wherever tha legislative and exi. «/:w po-.vtrs aie united, or, what is tantamount, wherever the gowned have no (hare in either, there is no public liberty; and consequently such a government, with respect to them, must necessarily be an arbitrary one. Can such a bale shoot spring from so noble a stem? And is it possible that the free constitution of England should be any where generative of servitude r I make not this question, as thinking that the execution of the act alluded to would immediately produce such a state in the colonies: It is sufficient to justify their apprehensions, that it might have a consequential tendency, and that nothing more would seem necessary to establish it,—than repeated exertions of the same power.
It contributes little to the removal of such an apprehension,—that the last accumulated duties are expressed to be necessary for the defence and protection of the colonies j—whilst it appears palpably strange and preposterous that a country in peace, and delivered from all real danger by the extirpation of its avowed enemies, mould notu require a greater military force for its establishment, than lately, when it bad the enemy on its back; and than formerly, when in the fame circumstances, it'had no military force at all. Stranger still, that notwithstanding the occasion of this.defence must be supposed at longest to be only temporary, the fund, which is allotted for the support of it, should nevertheless be m^Ae perpetual!
Upon the nhole, there appears onlV the choice of two alternatives, whicn can bring all these disorders to a happy issue, and substantially reconcile u* to our other selves. One is,—to repeal the offensive stature: the other, to put
Alt under an indefini-e suspension} which would open as handsome a retreat as may be to the projectors of it. and might satisfy the Colonists. And surely, if ever a variety of momentous considerations and luhnrdinnfe dependancies, concurred to make any
B measure necessary and seasonable, there do at this time subsist an equal concurrence and as gieat an exigency— to give one or other of these iathfactions to the colonies.
The Importance of the Colonies of North
America, and the Interest of Gre at
C Britain tuith regard to them,' con
fiiered: Together with remarks qn the
Stamp Duty. is. Peat.
WITHIN thete few years frequent alarms have been spread, that the state was in danger, nor always perhaps without foundation. We
D have had powei fill enemies abroad, distressed allies to support, rebellion at home, faction and discontent amonp; the people, which has risen to an enormous height, and has even extended it self to our colonies in Ucrlh-America, where the spirit of riot has broke out at Boson, and passed to
E Rhode Island; and altho' the other colonies, much to their honour, have not proceeded to violence, yet we are well assured that great uneasiness and discontent prevails in all of them, on account of an act of parliament, imposing a stamp-duty, to which, they fay, if they submit, it will be an in
F troduction to all the variety of taxes which are paid in England, besides the numerous taxes imposed on them by their own representatives.
To justify themselves, they presume to call the right of the Houle of Commons over them in question. This cannot fail of being the first
_ thing considered by that august Houses
"in the mean time I wish to lee the ministry act with spirit, but should be sorry their actions were mere deed* of power; for it should always be remembered, that the colonies are our brethren, free born subjects e
H qually as we are, and intitled equally with us to every right and privilege of Britons. The first right of * Briton is, that he cannot be tried but by hit peers; the next, that be cannot be