« הקודםהמשך »
Cetltrine, was acknowledged to be proached each other, they gave intel-. heir to the crown of France, after the ligenceofit; then the molt resolute death of Charles, and it was to be warriors on either fide presented possessed by him and hit heirSj perpe- themselves to support them. Tf*y tuaily and inditiifibly united with that gaveamutualdenajice,and therendezof England. Charles, on account of vous was appointed at the bottom of his incapacity to govern, from that the mine. At the extremity of the time resigned to the English monarch A besiegers mine, a barrier was placed the regency of the kingdom. All the brealt-high ; as soon as the workmen orders in the state were to take an of the besieged had reached it, and oath to him in that quality ; he,onhis had made an opening, t'.iey retired, side, promised to observe the laws, to and were succeeded by the knights, maintain the rights, privileges, pre- The combatants were equal, and they rogatives, and franchises of the tri- fought by the light of torches. An bunals, cities, communities, as well established custom forbad their strikes of the Lords and individual;, who B jng any part of ihebody that was besubsoribed all the clauses expressed in low the barrier. On both sides there the treaty, and swore to the inviola- were judges of the combat, who deble observance of them. The dau- creed the prize of courage, and mmphin Charles was absolutely disinherit- ed the conquerors. The vanquished ed, Considering, it is said in article 19, commonly paid for their defeat a sum iht enormous and horrible crimes and of- os money, or some trinkets, by way fences perpetrated in the said kingdom of r> of a ransom j sometimes it cost them France, 6j Charles,styling himself the their liberty.
Dauphin os Viennes, it is agreed that As to arras, besides that kind of
neither isie, nor our said son King Henry, Arquebuses, called portable cannons, "or our most dear fan Philip Duke of they had invented for sieges mortar
Burgundy, fkail treat of any peace or pieces, which threw stones of 150 and
union tvitb the said Charles, or cause aoo lb. weight. The large cannons
siUb peace or union to be treated, •without _ were of a very different form from tbt advice and consent of all and every of u wnat they are now. Their figure was
us three, and of the three estates of the like that of hollow cylinders, streng
tiiio aforesaid kingdoms. This agree- thened from space to space by several
mem, which our author considers as embossed citcles; the breach termi
nnll, whe'her on account of the in- nated in a nob, and the match Was
sanity of King Charles VI, in whose placed between the first and second
name it was signed; or of the sunda- circles. These cannons resembled
mental constitution of the kingdom, E what our architects call rustic columns.
which does not suffer a monarch to The artillery was usually employed
disinherit his son, nor to annihilate, only for sieges; it does not appear
the rights of the other princes of the that it was made use of in battles,
blood, whom the laws call to the The principal strength of the army
throne for want of a son; or on ac- consisted in the Gendarmerie; they al
count os that constant custom, which ways sought on foot, and armed at
has established that a prince must be all points. Every warrior carried
of the blood royal, or born a French- F with him archers, cross-bow-men, &f>.
i.ian,\x) order to succeed to the crown; The number os these inferior warrior*
this agreement was nevertheleft exe- not being limited, one man at arms
cuted, r,nd France saw herself under m'glit sometimes have is or 14, while
the dominion of England. his companion had but 5 or 6, an tn
The operations of the war afford equality which must necessarily oc
several particulars, which it will trot casionconfusion.
be uieltss to remark.in order to know Amidst the tumults of discord, and
in what manner sieges and bartles the disorders of war, it is evident
were then carried on. On occasion t'lat the sciences could not be usefully
of the siege of Melun by the Engi-Jh, Q cultivated, or make any gieat pro
our author fays, that they there'dug greft. Nevertheless, there were some
mines and count«r-mines, in which scholars who graced thereign of Char
they bad many rencounters. These les VI. Such were Peter d' Ailiy, an
kind of actions were then esttemed eloquent preacher, afterwards a car.
the lea!t equivocal proofs of courage: din d ; Nicholas CUmingts, a %xen ora
Thty were thus conducted: As (00a to: ,and distinguished by many works:
as the miners on lioth shies apprehend- (U'pn, or John Charlier, cliai.cellor of
ed by the noise that theif wwj>s au. t};e university of Paris, and arr.uaÆulor
Ch&ratttr of Henry V. of England. 553
from France to the council of Con- an excellent horseman, a knight well fiance; Thomas ConnttH, a Carmelite, skilled in arms, in short, lays an anremarkable for the austerity of his tient author, if a man could live u* life: He went from city to city, and hundred years without eating, drinking, from province to pro»ince, as far as or sleeping, he could never learn <iihat Italy itself, preaching in publick plac- thatyoun% man knew. es against luxury, and depravity of Henry V, King of England, and remanners, above all, he declaimed a- Ager.tof France, died the 31st o("Angus, gainst the ridiculous dresses with 14.12, aged 34 years. Charles VI. loon which the ladies of that age pretend- followed him, dying in the month of ed to set off their charms, among o- Ofliber, in the lame year. Is it aethers, thole head-diesses with Jong dible that there was not money eand large horns called Henins, and he nough in his treasury to defray the incensed against them the children exper.ces of his funeral? Nevertheless and the people. But he was not fa- nothing is more certain, as the partisSed with attacking trailing sleeves, 3 liament was obliged to order, that all headdresses, nine-pins, dice, chefs- tht late King's moveables should be fold by boards, and catds, whish he burned patent as advantageously as fefitie, in without mercy, he ventured also to ordir to raise the Jums 'necessary lo Jimjb attack the monks, and the Pope him- his funeral.
self: His holiness delivered him to Tne King being dead, the Dauphin the Inquisition, who condemned him caused himself to be ciowned at Potto the flames for heresy, because he tiers, in an assembly of the Lords athad maintained that the Pope's ex- tached to his p3rty. But at Paris, a comunications were not to be seared, Q general assembly tendered the cro*n while we weie doing God service, to Henry VI, King of England, who and that incontinent ecclesiastics ought was yet an infant, and the regency to to be allowed to marry; Eufiache dt the duke of Bedford, in pursuance of Parvtlly, a Carmelite, a furious and se- the treaty of Troyes. ditious orator; Charles Duke of Or- Charles VII. saw himself reduced to leans, whose poems breathe those fen- provinces of lœnguedoc, Daupbiny, Autiments, that taste, that politeness, vergne. Bourhonnois, Berry, Poitou,Sainwhich are wanting ill the poets his tenve, Touraine, Orleanois, and part of contemporaries; Beneit Gentien; John D Angan, and Maine. The Duke of Brede Courtecivjfe, who was bishop of Ge- tagne maintained a kind of neutrality. neva; fincenl Ferrier, who was cano- And the English, masters of Paris, posnized ; Juvenal det Vrfins, the orna- felled Normandy, the isle of France, merit of the bar in his time; brother La Brie, Champagne, Picardy, Pontbicu, Richard, a Franciscan, who, armed with s.e Eouhnois, Le Calefis, as far as the the revelation of which he pretended frontiers of Flinders, and the most to have the key, terrified the people considerable part of' Aquitr.n, as far a* with predictions of impending cala- the Pyrenees and the 01 tar.; by their rr.ities, the vengeance of heaven for E alliance with the Duke of Burgnudy, the disorders of the earth: The they still disposed of the riutchy as fashion to reverence him as an npos- well as the county of thai name, and tie, did not last long; the Parisians of the provinces of Flanders and Arcnrscd him as soon as he espoused the tois. The Duke of Bretugne did not Dauphin's party. All the science of long delay to embrace their party, those times consisted in amassing au which afterwards he abandoned for immense fund of learning, but with- another.
out taste. There was then seen at The Inglijli by their supeiior force, Paris one ot those piodigics of know- and by the (kill of their gei.eials, exledge, which would be thought very F tended their conquests without teasremarkable in our dayr,. At the at,c ing. Claries Vis. a weak and impruof 20, he spoke all the known langua- dent monarch, the victim of his own ges, ancient and modern; he was a blind prejudice tor his favourites, fadivine, a physician, a lawyer, gram- ciiliccd everything to the ambition raarian; he maintained alone a eourle of LaTrcmouillc, who governed him, of public disputation in the colic?/: of and conducted him from pleasures to h'jvarre against 3000 of the molt tf- C pleasures. This prince was one day lebrated clerks in the university. This employed in directing the prtpararhampion of literature was at the tinni for a fesft, when La Hire Lime fame timea dar.cci, a iiimbiei, a sill*- to icccive his order?, Charles very 111. et, 3 musician, a poet of the first ciali, attentive to what that warrior'
asked him what he thought of the en- C Y M B E L I N E.
tertainment, which he proposed to This play has many just sentiment*,
give his court. / think, replied La some natural dialogues, and some pleasing
Hin, that a kingdom cannot be list scenes, bat they are obtained at the cx
nvith more gaiety.—Charles the VII. A pence of much incongruity.
Would have lott it, hut for the fa- To remark the folly of the fiction, the
mous Maid of Orleans, whose history absurdity of the conduct, the consussior. of
is too well known to be enlarged on the names and manners of different times,
j,ere . and the impossibility of the events its any
system of life, were to waste criticism
Mr JoHHSOK-t Amu»t ts Shakespeare's »P°n unresisting imbecility, upon fault.
Play,. (CnelaiedsL *. 500.) too evident for detection, and too gross for
VOL. VI. B aggravation.
CORIOLANUS. TaOILTFt AKD C.ESS1DA.
THE tragedy of Ciolanu, is one of the TM«J** u,morf ^^'^"Æ.
',' , . r . most of So->itfpeart s compositions, but it
most amusing of ourauthour spersor- » £ 1J .J ^ „.
nancei. The old man s merriment.nJfas- of his views or elevation of his fancy
•»« I 'he ,0^ 'ad? S^'8Ty ""twL! h full displayed. A. the story abounded
the bndal modesty .n^/,.; the patrician ■ • P > he has J^ BMja .„.
and m^liury haughtiness in C.r,fW.i the diversified hi. cha
flebet.n mal.gn.ty and tr.bun.t.an info- C „cters with ,reit variety, and preserved
knee in Brntn.nAS.amu.make avery S?m lid. great exactness. His vicious
pleasing and interesting variety ,and the sometime, disgust, bu, cannot
various revolutions of the hero s fortune 5 ^^ ^
blithe mind with anxious curiosity. There P. conte^|led# The comick
i.. perhaps, too much bustle in the first haye been lhe fovou.
att, and too little in the last. ^ of the w|i(w> Uwy are ot ,he superfi.
VOL VII. cjal hintjj and exhibit more of manners JULIUS CÆSAR. D than nature, but they are copiously silled
Of this tragedy many particular passages and powei fully impresled.
deserve regard, and the contention and re- VOL VIII. concilement os Bmtus and Cjjsui is uni
versally celebrated j but I have never been *°MI° AK,V';,',IT,,..)fc„ ^
strongly agitated in perusing it, and think Th„ play ,s one of the most pleasing of
it somewhat cold and unaffecting.compar- o»r totheur's performances. The scenes ed with some other of SkakSpearf* plays j - are busy and various, the incidents numeb\. adherence to the real story, and to E rous and important, the catastrophe irre
Rman manners, seems to have imp^ed s>»'bly affecting, and the proce's of the
the natural vigour of his genius. ■ ct'°" earned on with such probab.hty, at
° least with such congruity to popular opi
Antony Aki Cliopatia, riicns, as tragedy requires.
This play keeps curiosity always busy, Heie is one of the lew attempts of
and the passions always interested. The Shakespeare to exhibit the conversation of
continual hurry of the action, the variety gemlemen, to leprefent the airy spiightli
cf incidents, and the quick succession of nest of juvenile elegance, one personage to another, call the mind F The nurse is one of the characters in
forward without intermission f.om the first which the authour deliuhted i He Iua,
act to the last. But the power of delight- with great subtlety of distinction, drawa
ing is derived principally from the frequent her at once loquacious and sec. et, obse
changes of the scene; for, except lhe quious and insolent, trusty and dishonest,
feminine arts, some of which are too low, His comick scenes are happily wrought,
•which distinguish Cleopatra, no character is but his paihetick strains are always pol
very strongly discriminated. Upton, who luted with some unexpected depravations, did not easily miss what he desired to find, Q His persons, however distressed, km a
ha? discovered that the language os A>tcny eontcit i,Jt item in their mi/try, a mifoniM
it, with great skill and learning, made am.tit.
pompous and suptrb, according to his ieal HAMLET,
practice. But 1 think his diction not dis- If the dramas cf Shakespeare were to be
tinguilhable from that of otheis; ihenn.fr characterised, each by the particular excel
tumid speech in the play is that which lence which distinguishes it f.om the rtst,
Cafir makes toOflavia. we must allow to lhe tia^tdy of hcnltt,
The events, of which the principal a'e H the praise of variety. The incidents aie
described according to history, are produc- sn numerous, that the areumtrt cf die
'-/iilioui any art of connexion, or care, play wouldmake a long tale. 'Jfce (tenet
csi.icn. ate interchangeable CiyeiUied with mcxri
Mr Johnson's Account tf Shakespear's Plays. '555
merit and solemnity ; with merriment that perseverance in her suit, and her slowr.es*
includes judicious and instructive observa- to suspect that she can be suspected, are*
tions, and solemnity, not strained by poe- such proofs of Sbalt/speare's (kill in l.umm
tical violence above the natural sentiment! nature, as, I suppose, it is vain to seek la
of man. New characters appear from time any modern writer. The gradual progress to time in continual succession, exhibiting A which/j^o makes in theMoor's conviction,
various forms of life and particular modes and the circumstances which he employs
of conversation. The pretended madnese to inflame bitn, are so artfally natural,that
of Hamlet causes much mirth, the mourn- tho'it will perhaps not be said of him at
ful distraction of Ophelia sills the heart with he fays cf himself, that he is a man not easily
tenderness, and every personage produces jealoui, yet we cannot but pity him when
the effect intended, from the apparition at last we find turn perplexed ir.tbe extreme.
that in the first act chills the hlood with There is always danger lest wickednesif
horror, to the sop in the last, that expose* o conjoined with abilities should steal upon
affectation to just contempt. esteem, though it missel of approbation;
The conduct is perhaps not wholly fe- but the character of lago is so conducted,
cure against objections. The action is in- that he is from the first scene to the last:
deed for the most part in continual pro- hated and despised.
gression, but there are some scenes which Even the inferiour characters of this play
neither forward nor retard it. Of the would be very conspicuous in any other
feigned madness of HamUt there appears no piece, not only for their justness but their
adequate cause, for he does nothing which strength. Cajfio is brave, benevolent, and
he might not have done with the reputa- C honest, ruined only by his want of stub
tion of sanity. He plays the madman hornness to resist an insidious invitnion.
most, when he treats Ophelia with so much Rodorigo's suspicious credulity, and impa
rudeness, which teems to be useless and tient submission to the cheats which he
wanton cruelty. fees practised upon him, and which by pei
Hamlet is, throu;h the whole play rather suasion he suffers to be repeated, exhibit a
an instrument than an agent. After he strong picture of a weak mind betrayed by
has, by the stratagem of the play, convict- Jj unlawful desires, to a filse friend; and
ed the King, he makes no attempt to pu- the virtue of /Emilia is such as we often
rush him, and his dealh is at last effected find, worn loosely, but not cast off, easy
by an incident which Hamlet has no part to commit small crimes, but quickened
in producing. and alarmed at atrocious villanies.
The catastrophe is not very happily pro- The scenes from the beginning to the
duced j the exchange of weapons is rather end are busy, varied by happy interchanges,
an expedient of necessity, than a stroke of and regularly promoting the progression of
art. A scheme might easily have been the story j and the narrative in the end,
formed, to kill Hamlet with the dagger, and E though it tells but what is known already,
Laerttt with the bowl. yet is necessary to produce the death of
The poet is accused of having shewn Othello.
little regard to poetical justice, and may be Had the scene opened in Cyprm, and
charged with equal neglect of poetical pro- the preceding incidents been occasionally
bability. The apparition left the regions related, there had been little wanting to a
of the dead to little purpose; the revenge drama of the most exact and scrupulous
which he demands is not obtained but by regularity.
the death of him that was required to take „ [Osthe other Pleyt there it no general Gait j and the gratificaion which would arise jur, „ Commendation.] from the destruction of an usurper and a
murderer, is abated by the untimely death Description os tht Centrifugal Enqini, in
of Ophelia, the young, the beautiful, the vented by Mr Robeit Krlkine; and
luioilcs.. and the pious. from hit Defiant, txteuted by Mr Cole
OTHELLO. Mathematical Instrument Maker, near
Th; brauties ot this play impress them- Westminster-Bridge, Surry. (Stt
felues so strongly upon the attention of the G tbt Plate annexed.)
reader, that they can draw no aid from ^^j, g machine w;ii he most wej
critical ..lustration. The fiery openness of understood, from an account ot
Welt., magnanimous, artless. a.d crerlu .» princip,es on wn jch it ,t founded:
0111, boundlels in I,,s confidence ardent V Y
in his affection, inflexible in hn resolution, 11 _ _ £ .„_
and obdurate in lus revenge , the cool ma- vertical, and the part B C, horizon
l.gnitybf Us, silent .n hi. resentment, « t.l, suspended upon, and movable
subtle in his defuns, and studious at once ro"»J a" aX,»A B » and riie aPerfu,re
of his interest and hii vengeance j the soft C led than the aperture A j let tint
simplicity of fi^«r<>m», confident of merit, tiiJ.c Infilled with wafr- Tier
and conscious of innocence, her attics* seel in the wattr
being (hut by a valve opening out. the use ot this, is to stop the botfofB
wards; 'tis evident, the whole tnhe of the machine, when it is tilled with
»»ill icinain full though open at bor- water, at an aperture on the extrcrni
tom, if the height A B is not greater ty of one of the ejecting tubes, repre
than that to which the air will fits- sensed in the drawing screwed up, On
tain a column os water. A the ejecting tube towards the left hand.
Again, suppose the tube turned At the bottom of the drawing to
r "-nd its axis, the water in the (5art wards the left hard, is likewise repre
BCwill acquire a centrifugal force, sensed a valve, which answers the lame
which, sufli iently increased, must purpose with the slider, in machines,
overcome the piessuie of the air on where the required centrifugal forte
the valve at C, and be thrown out; can immediately be given to the e
and since the air cannot enter against n jtctingtiibes.
a stream of water, which has already The valves on the apertures of e
overcome its pressure, the weight of jectton shut of themselves by springs,
the atmosphere on the water D D, and open only when the centrifugal
must r.ecssaiily force it up, to supply force overcomes the pressure of the
the place of what is ejected. air; the machine once fiLled, remains
Hence, in this machine, the water full after working, as long as there if
thrown out acts the part of a pilton water at the bottom to be raised, on thecolutiin of water to be lifted. c The joint, by which the ejecting
The part B C is called the ejecting tubes have liberty to move, while the
tube, or radius, snd C, the aperture conveying tube is at rest, is contained
us ejection. in a cylindrical cup, immediately
In conducting the machine, there under the head, and the whole weight
may be two or mote ejecting tubes, of the moveable part is sustained on
provided the sum of the apertures of e- the extremity of the axis, which jection be less than that of the bore of _ axis ends in a conical point, and fertile tube thro'which the water ascends 5 ** minates at the top oft-be fixed tube.reft
snd the higher the water is raised, the ingin a socket, upon a screwj which
larger mult he the bore of the tube, in screw & socket are supported by three
proportion to the apertures at which radii at the upper part of the convey
thewateris discharged, because the ve- ing tube: The air is excluded by a
locitywithwbiclitheatmolphereforces collar of leather (in the drawing- of
tip the water thro'any tube diminishes the joint shaded with dots .•••.) which
in a certain pioportion the higher it is E lies upon a flanck of polished brass j
lifted. the leather is immoveable, being fai
From this account of the princi- tened to the cylindrical cup, by a ring
pies, the annexed drawing of a real of brass with screws pasting through:
machine, will be readily comprehen- both. Another brass ring presses with
ded; where the ejecting tubes are re- its weight (which is sometimes ausj
piesented immediately under the deck, mentecl by springs) upon the inner
moveable by a wheel and pinion, the circle of the leather, to keep it
frame work of which rests on the deck, p flat on the brass flanck, which, a
and in the largest machines, takes up long with the head of the machine,
a space of about 3 feet square only; moves below it. The under fide of the
thespaceoccupiedbytheejectingtube*, flanck touches nothing; the only fric
supposing the case which prevents the lion of this joint then is that of po
•ister from dispersing all round, to be lished brass, moving under oiled lea
,>pun the deck, needs not exceed live ther, which from the smoothness of
fi-et diameter, and a foot deep, tho' the surfaces, and their proximity to
the machine be made large enough to G the center, must necessarily be *ery
throw out three tons per minute; be- small. That the air cannot enter the
cause by a machine lastly made machine by this joint is evident, be
tliiity fix feet high, it was found cause the suction b»ing inwards, and
by experiment, an ejecting radi s water or oil in the cup above the lea
of two teet only, was sufficient (or ther, the air pressing to get in ex
that height. This engine threw out eludes itself, the joint aa, being, ia
.at the rate of a ton a minute, with fact, a circular valve,
six ordinal y hands, not jccustcraed to H Under the section of the joint, it a
wo'k ar << wii ih. drawing, which represents the man
At the b 't jin of the macl-ine h a rer of setting in the teeth of the wheels
Aider,' piili-d up a'id p'lihrd (iann '.v rii.^onally 5 a method now used, in
=uj iron rod wl.k!i inches the dn.k j tlit machines lately made, and found