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Interesting Events relative to Bengal. 415

method. This seemi to require pa- gious principle* of the Gentoat, parti.

tience and perseverance; but with culai ly two correct copies of their Bi

thefe qualifications other workmen ble, called the Shasta; that he had

need not despair of success equal to translated at much of this work as core

Mr Harrison't. There is no reason to him eight months hard labour; and

suspect that Mr Harrison has concealed that he loft both originals and tranfrora us any part of his art. A lation, with his other MSS at the

If our opinion of the excellence and capture of Calcutta, in 1756.

usefulness of this machine be afleed, I He fays, that both the mythology

must fairly own, that nothing but ex- and cosmogony of the Egyptians,

perience can determine the value of Greets, ana Romans, were borrowed

it with certainty; however, I think it front the doctrines of the Bramins,

my duty to declare to the Board the contained in this book, even to the

belt judgment I can form. n distribution of their idols, and the ri

The first of Mr Harrison's altera- tuals of their worship,

tions is, I believe, an improvement, He fays also, that, by an accident,

but not very considerable. Probably, during the last eight months ot bis

if the other defects in common wat. residence at Bengal, he recovered some

ches could be removed, the changes MSS, which, in a certain degree, re*

in the force of the main spring would paired bis loss, and enabled him to

not occasion (uch errors, as would gi*e a better account of the Hindoos,

snake them useless at sea. C »n.<- the religious tenets of the Bra

The next alteration seems to be of mins, than is yet extant in any langreater importance. I suppose that it guage.

contributes more to the exactness of All modern writers represent the

the watch, than all the other changes Hindus as a stupid race of gross idola

put together. But it is attended with ten; but Mr Holwe/l fays, that they

some inconvenience. The watch is have, from the earliest time*, been an

liable to be disordered, and even ftopt n ornament to the cieation.

by almost any sudden motion, and, They have two books, supposed to

when stopt, does not move again of contain a divine revelation, the Shasta,

itself. But a* it has gone two voy- mentioned above; and the Veidam.

ages without any such accident, it may The Veidam is follswed by the Gen

seem, that this danger at sea is not toos of the Malabar and Coromandel

considerable. coasts, and the island of Ctylon; the

The principle on which Mr Hor- Shasta is followed by the Gentses of the risen forms the alterations of the third E provinces of Bengal, and by those of sort is, that the longer vibrations of all the relt of India, vrhirh, he lays, it a balance moved by the fame spring, commonly called India Proper, and inare performed in lest time. This is eludes part of Orijsa, Bengal, Bahar, contrary to the' received opinion a- Banarai, Oud, Eltabat, Agra, Delly, mong-philosophers and workmen. But and other places that lie along the Mr Harrison is right; yet, whether Ganges and the Jumna to the Indus. tbe method he has proposed will cor- _ These books contain the institutes rect the errors, or not, is tome quite of their respective religions, with reuncertain, fpect both to principle and ceremony j _ The last alteration before mention- also the history ot their ancient Rajas, tioned is ingenious and useful; but or Princes, often couched under allethat it can be made to answer exactly gory and fable: They appear manito tbe different degrees of heat, seems sestsy to have been originally one; & not probable. William Ludlam. as the Veidam abounds with impurities

G and absurdities, and the Shasta is re

A farther Account of a Book, infilled, In- markaMy rational and chaste, Mr

terefting Events relative to Bengal. Hohvell concludes, that the Veidam is

(See p. 3S4.) a corruption of the Shasta, and not

THE author, Mr Hoi-well, informs that tbe Shasta is an improvement of

us, in a preliminary discourse, tbe Veidam.

that his leisure hours, during thirty The author proceeds, from his pre

years residence at Bengal, were em- fj Hminary discourse, to the historical

ployed in collecting materials relative part of his work 1 an account of the

to its revolutions and religion ; that succession to the empire of Imhstan,

he had, at considerable expence, pro- from Auring-Zebe to Mahomet Shaw:

cured many curious manuscripts re- but it happens unfortunately, that he

Using to the philosophical and reli- is perfectly intelligible only to those who hive some acquaintance with the of suture constqnences. The Rujfianr

lenguage of the country. He uses when first attacked by Sweden, did

terms, without explaining them, un- not possess a tenth part of the courage

der which those for whole instruction and discipline that these our enemies

he professes to write can have no i- have now acquired, and yet the event

deas; where these occur, we have & i» known to the world. —Let us reason

supplied the author's defect as far as upon veiy probable suppositions, and

we were able; as to the rest, our rea- not rest in a too great and flattering

ders mull be content with the bell security, at a time when we have the

guess they can make. greatest cause to be alarmed.

Aureng Ztbe died in 1707, and most Suppose the Mogul's Vice Royi of his luccestors, astir a short reign, mould from experience at last discover, were deposed and murdered, accord- ]j that the only way to conquer us, and ing to the custom of the country, by render our courage and discipline of their nobles or kindred, till the inva- no effect, is to avoid coming to a gefion of Nadir Skaiu, celebrated in £a- ntral aJUon with us j with the great rope by the Name of Kouli Khan in the superiority of numbers they will ever year 173?. In this part of the work be able to bring into the field, they there is nothing either interesting or may by this precaution and dividing curious; the account of one revolu- Q their army (which consists chiefly of tion being, with only the variation of cavalrv) into small bodies, cut off our a few ciicumlfances, the account of provisions and foiage, beat up our all- This is followed by an account quarters, harrass our handful of rhen of transactions in the Suuab.!ary * of without ceasing, an.I finally destroy us Bengal, from 1717 101756, when Su~ without danger to themselves—and it rajad [Joiv/a, the sncce,ilor of Ali-verdi i» morally impossible they should not scan, invaded and destroyed 0111 let- at last adopt this conduct, tlements at Bengal. Of those tians- rj Let us again, suppose a rupture with actions an account has already been France, whilst we are engaged in this given in oar Miscellany, from a pam- war with the Mogul, our presidency phlet published by Mr Scrojton in the of Fort William, and our other factories year 1735, to which Mr ihl-iueii him- in a manner deserted, and the chief self refers. (See Pol. XXXIII. p. 156.) strength ot all our settlements ailing Mr Hol-uiel) proceeds, in his thiid at the distance of eight or nine hon* chapter, to remark, that the war car* died miles from the center of our posriedon by our East India company a- *- sessions. Each rupture will (et at gainst the Mogul, his veeroys, and nought the article in the last treaty of subjects, must t-.uvoidably prove the peace, which gave us an exclusive ruin of the company. It is his ad- right 10 l.enal, and therefoie ought vice, that we should no longer busy to he attended to; for it is not to be ourselves in pulling down one Nabob, imagined, that they will negleft so and setting up another, but that we favourable an occasion of attacking a sliOuld he Nabob ourselves. The Em- p settlement, that constitutes in the East peror, he fays, has more than onca the very essence of our being, when offered us our own terms, and it is, they find it left defenceless by the abin his opinion, madness not to com- . senceof our troops, ply i for that the present contention Permit us most humbly to advise, and hostilities, if they are continued, fays he, addressing our East India Cornwill render the country not worth pany, that express orders be sent possessing. What he says on this (ub- without delay to your President and lect is so important, and so manifestly O Governor of Fart William, to make the just, that we lhall give it nearly in following overture of peace to the Mohis own words. pul; t»x. ' Thar on condition of his It is true, f'avs he, we have seen our • appointing and investing (to all inforces in the Ivist, under the conduct « tents purposes) vour governor tor of an able and active commander, the time being, Soubah ot the Prodrive the Mogul's Vice Roys out of « vinces of Bengal, Bahar, and Orijd, the provinces; but it is also true, that Jj Vou will engage on your part, that we have seen a spirited conduct and 'the stipulated lum of one Kborore* ai biaveryin the Mogul's troops, that « Rupees, shall be annually paid into ought to strike us with apprehension

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Interesting Events relative to Bengal. 415

*_<he royal treasury, free of all de- The chief towns of these district*

* «luction«.' are, Malda, Hurrial, Seerpore, BaleAs this sum doubles in one year, any koojby, and Cwmarry; all separately advantages the Emperors have receiv- famous for manufictuiing t life foiled from the revenues of these pro- lowing species of piece goods, -viz. inces, for the space ot~ forty years last forthe.£i«-£>/*markets,cossa. s,e!arches, "{ we cannot entertain a doubt of hummums, chowtahs, ootally looses,

is most readily acceeding to the terms A seerluchers and raw silk :—for the

proposed, as thereby he would also markets of Bujforab, Morta, Judda,

secure a poweiful ally, who could be Pegu, Acheen and Malacca, thedilfetent

occasionally of service to him on any sous of coflVs, biftas, sannose, mul

emergency, in his government. mulls, tanjebs, ordinary kencliees, &c.

When we are invested with, and The towns ofBcwangunae.Sielgunge,

empowered to display the Mogul's Sorupgunge, and Jummaahunge, are all

royal standard, the provinces will be g famous markets lor grain; as their

easily governed, at a less annual ex- names imply.

pence and force, than the company Contiguous to this last mentioned

are now from necessity loaded with— district, but (till more to the N. E. lie

but suppoleit double, the/lahis amply the lands of Rajah Praunaut of the

sufficient, as we (hall presently de- Koyt or Sciibe Tribe; his district

xnonstrate.—aut Soubah,aut nullus, muli extends about-500 milts, mostly low

now be our motto. lands, and in gi> ?t part annually over

We cannot enough applaud the C flowed; his stipulated yearly payseasonable measure of sending out Ld ment, 10 lac, the real produce of hit Cli-ve, which weesttema happy event, revenue, from sixty to stventy—the notwithstanding what could be done chief products of his country, are upon the present plan of politics, has grain, oil, and ghee, (an article much been done without him—the weight used in Indian cookery) it likewise of his lordship's reputation and expe- yields some species of piece goods, and rience-in those parts will most essenti- T, raw silk, also foolesugar, lump juggre, ally promote this our new plan; he is ginger, long pepper, and piplymol—• the best qualified to negociate it, the articles that usually compose the gruff fittest to be first invested with that high cargoes of our outward bound shippower, and the most capable of fixing ping.

and leaving it upon a solid basis. The principal towns of this district, This measure was advised, and are Rungpore, Gooragat, and Santoji might have been successfully taken in Buddaal, the capital residence of the the year 1760 ; if it had been, murders E head of this family; from these and massacres would have been pre- Arungs, the East India companies are vented, but it is not now too late to supplied with (annoos, mulmulls, tanregain the opportunity which we then jehs, and raw silk. loft; inconsequence of the truth of The great market of Bugivan Gola*, this assertion, Mr Holiuell, proceeds to is supplied from this diltii'ir, with the show, by a rough sketch of the pro- three important articles of grain, oil, duce of the revenues, the vast stake j, and ghee. The customs on grain only, for which we throw ; if we win, fays * amount to three lac of rupees fer ann. lie, our gain will be immense; if we All the customs and duties of Bugivan fail, we are but where we were. Gala, rank in the list of revenues, un

The sketch is in substance, ai der the head of Kbqfs Mbol, that is, du

follovs 1 ties which are kept in the govtrn

At Naloor, about 100 miles N. E. vnents hands, and not farmed out.

of Calcutta, resides the family of the The whole of its revenues are usually

most ancient and opulent of the Hindoo ., valued in peaceable times at thirty

Princes of Bengal, Rajah Rbaam Kbaunt la1- per annum.

of the race of Bramins, who died in \ North Welt of Tort William, a

the year 1748, and was succeeded by bout 35 miles, lie the lands of Rcjah

his wife, a princess named Bovjanny Tilluck Chund, extending no miles;

Rhaanee, whole Dewan, or Minister, tiie stipulated rents ol these Linds, are

was Diaramof the Teely Tribe i they Jj lac per annum, hut it; real produce

possess a tract of country of about 350 and value, from 80 lac to one khorore.,

miles, and under a settled government, H This is the principal of the three dis

their stipulated annual icnts to the ■

-crown was seventy lac of Sicca ru- • Col-«Snifics a £t<n»iy, wi Cun£e, »

»ee«,—'—the real revenues About one 8rilnilk^ .„

Ibororl and a half. tFlctS tricti ceded in perpetuity to the com- cossaea, and cotton yarn are man*. pany, by the treaty with Co/Jim Alt factured ior the Europe maikets. Khan, in the year 1760. The revenues of the city of Dacca,

Iti principal towns are Burdivan, (once the capital of Beiges) at a low Kirpy, Radnapore, Dewaugunge, and estimation amount annually to two Baltikijsagur; these supply the haft In- A khorore, proceeding from cnltomt and (fa companies with the following sort- duties levied on cloths, grain, oil, ghee, incuts of piece goods, viz,, doorcas, beetlenot, thank metals, salt, and toterrandams, cuttaniet, looiies, foot bacco, fife romaals, gurras, leflerloys, santoncou- The foregoing instances of the va

Sees, cherriderries, chilys, cultas and hie of the lands in the province of oosoota's: the capital, Burdivan, may Bengal only, held by the Rajahs, mall be pioperly called the center of the - suffice, says Mr HtltveU, without partrade of the provinces, in tranquil ° ticularifing those held by the Zemin. times 1 this place ..Horded an annual dan, scattered through the provinces | large vend for the valuable staples of some of whom are very considerable lead, copper, broad cloath, tin, pepper land holders; these are generally taxed and tootanague. The Puggiah. mer- nearer the real value of their lands, chanti from Delhy and Agra, resorted than those which are held by the yearly to this great man, and would Rajahs.

again, if peace was established in the _ A bare mention of the principal recountry :—They purchased the above ** maining souices, will fully and amply staples, either with money, or in bar- shew the valt importance of the stake ter for opium, tincal, salt petre and we are pushing for. torses. The revenues of the city of Patna,

This district produces raw-silk and and those of the province of Bahar— conose, sufficient only for manusac- The government of Partita, a rich NetHiring their soofiet, cuttanees and D bobjbit—The revenues of the capital of gurras.—The lesser towns mantifac- Morjbndabad, the city of Rojabmbol, the ture other inferior sortments of cloth, towns and districts of CoJJimbuxar, Cat' as scerbunds, gollabunds, &e.—It pro- ivab, Mtrcba, Buxbunder, Aximgunge, duces grain equal to the consumption Jtlingbee, Baaier Gunge, Rajapore, seveosthe people only. ral petty Nabobships, and fmusdaaryt,

The family of this Rajah farmed &c—The governments and districts lands to the amount of four lac per of Mtdnapore, and Cbitygangb, already annum, contiguous to the bounds of ceded to us by the treaty of 1760—And Calcutta, and had a palace at Beallab, the Purgunnabt, ceded by the treaty about seven miles South ofit—the fort E 1757, all held by a most precarious teof Buzbudjee on the Ganges, was also nure, whilst this war with the governtheir property. ment subsists.

To the Weft of Burdwan, something To sum up the whole, says he, we

Northerly, lie the lands belonging to venture to stake our credit and verathe family of Rajab Copaul Sing, oft he city on the assertion, that the two proRaazpout Bramin Tribe; they possess vinces of Bengal and Bahar, will fully an extent of 160 miles; this district P yield a revenue of eleven khoroie, per produce* an annual revenue of be- ■ annum, or 13,750,000/. fieri.—\\ it tween 50.1ml 40 lac. -^"ylelds'tniii under a delpotic and ty

Bi/naport, the capital, and chief refi- rannic government, in times of peace deuce of the Rajah, which gives a and currency of trade, what may <tr/ name to the whole district, is also the not expect more from its improvechief feat of trade, ments under a mild and Briti/b ones

North Weft of Bisnaptre, contiguous To conclude, we repeat. lie the territories of Buidier Jamma O If we should succeed in the attempt. Khan, son and successor to Ajioola Khan, great and glorious will be the Britifir a Mogul, and Prince of Bierbtbem.— name in those parts, and immense the He is taxed at ten [ac per annum. gain to the company and nation—if

North East of Calcutta, distant about we fail—nothing temaint, but to ob30 miles, lies Kijsnagur, the fort and tain a lasting peace on almost any terms capital of Rajab Kijsen Cbtmd. He pos- —for if this war continues much lontesses a tract of country of about no H ger on the present ineffectual and e»«ile«, and is taxed at nine lie per ann. pensive footing, the company, as & though his revenues exceed 15 lac; company, cannot possibly support it. his principal towns are Santiport, *.* As Mi Holivell is about to ob

JtfaVeak, Emren, Stc. where inulliuullt, lige the public with a second part of

Comparative Vitio os Men and Brutes: 41 y

till* work, it is requested, in behalf of reason and no reason, it the same as

his readers, that he would write in that between some matter and no mat

English, The Indian words that occur ter. There is, indeed, in brutes,

without explanation in tbis part, are something that cannot be resolved in

the following: Mohurs (supposed to to mere matter and motion; but, it

be raedali) Seyds, Rajab, Mahab Raja, A does not follow, that it is specifically

Ornrab. Munfubdar, Rupee, SUca-Rupee, the same with that which cannot be

I.ac, Subabdary, Den van, Zemindar, Ja- resolved into mere matter and motion

gir, Pulivaars, Btd^erirw, Foivzdar, in nan, and differs only in degree. Begum, Sunnads, Durbar, Mutxnud, The author, indeed, acknowledges,

Burkundaffn, Cutcherry, Arunfs, Seerpab, that if man is not the only animal pos

Gemtt, Hindoo, Kborab, Nabut and Gruff5 sessed of reason, lie has it in a degree

there are other wotds, equally uniutel- R so greatly superior, as admits of no

ligible to an English reader, which are B comparison $ and, he proceeds to com

rtot explained till they have occurred pare him with brutes, by observing,

many times, particularly .Kooruri, Corfu, that he is not only capable of all the

Phirmaund Niab, and Cast. pleasures which they enjoy, but of many others to which they are strangers;

Some Account of a small Volume, just Pub- particularly, the pleasures of imagina

ie/bed, under tbe Title of, A Compari- tion, of science, of the fine arts, and

tive View of the State and Faculties Q of that which arises from the princi

of Man, with those of the Animal pie of curiosity : but, above all, saya

World. he, the moral sense, with the happi

H1S work consists of five dis- ness inspired by religion, and the va

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courses, said to have been deli- rious intercourses of social life, is the

Tered in a Philosophical Society, but peculiar characteristic of man. The

where this society met, we are not author proceeds to observe, that cer

told; possibly on the other side of the tain advantages which brute animals

Ttvetd, tor there are some expressions D seem to have over us, though they are

in the work which are now seldom the necessary result of their state of

used, but by natives of Scotland; par- life, are not exclusively so, but might

ticularly/r*/i*r/v possessed, for possessed be enjoyed by us in common with

at present. them.

In the first discourse, the author con- He lays that all animals, except our

fiders, the knowledge of human na- selves, and those that we take under

ture as very imperfect, and endea- £ our direction, enjoy every pleasure of

vours to assign the cause of that im- which their nature is capable ; that

perfection. One cause, he fays, is, they are strangers to pain and sickness,

the little acquaintance of thole who and, if not injured by external acci

Aave studied the philosophy of the dents, arrive at the natural period of

mind, with the structure of the body, their being : and it would be strange

and the laws of the animal ceconomy j to suppose it a necessary consequence.

for, in his opinion, the intimate cen- of our superior faculties, that not one

section of the mind and body, and F in ten thousand of our species should

the mutual influence they have over die a natural death: that we should

each other, make it imyossitise tho- struggle through a frail and feverish

rouphly to understand the conllitutiun being, in continual danger of ficknels,

of either, if they are examined apart. pain, and dotage. It is therefore

Another cause assigned by him, for worth while to consider how these'

the imperfection ofour knowledge of evils may be remedied.

human nature, is, the considering man He fays, that instinct, is possessed by as a being that has no an?' jgy with G men in common with brutes, and that

the reft of the animal creation. in both it constantly impels to what it

He fays, after most other moral phi- proper tobe done; but that in man,

losophers, that nature is an whole it stands in need of a guide to assist it

made up of parts, which, tho'distinct, in obtaining its end, to restrsin it

are so intimately connected with one when improperly directed, or in err

another, that the lowest of one species, ciimstances in which the public good

often runs almost imperceptibly into requires a sacrifice of private gratithe highest of another. This, howe- « fie .lion.

ver, cannot be pretended with respect He observes, that the advantage*

to men and brutes. There is infinite which brutes have overmen in po

diftance between rational and irra- listied states, are possessed by savages

tionai; the difference between some in common with brutes, and therefore

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