« הקודםהמשך »
Gentleman s Magazine;
For JANUARY 1765.
An Historical Account of the Eruptions of Mount Vesuvius, in the year 1760, from a large IVork published at Naples, by order of the Cardinal Anhbijbop of that City. (See M. D'Orville't Account of Ætna Vol. xxxiv, p. ill.)
N order to form an idea of mount Vesuvius, as it was on its summit and the parts adjacent, in the year 1760, one must suppose a mouBtain in the of a sugar loaf, * whose point taken away, leaves a fort of platform hollow to the depth of 130 feet, forming a cup, or funnel, whole circumference is computed at two thirds ot a mile, or about 5614 Paris feet. Its border is wide enough for two men to march there abreast. One descends from thence to the bottom of the funnel thro' a soil fullof chinks, from whence exhales a suffocating sulphureous smoke, and sometimes fames, whose colour shews them to be of the fame kind. Sometimes this groilnd rises very near as high as the border of the cup; some of its chinks often close, but others are perpetually formed. From the bottom of this funnel appears another opening which is continually growing larger ; a thick smoke frequently issues from it; one heart a noise there like the boiling of many large cauldrons on a very ardent nje, or rather like that of a torrent which dashes violently on the rocks from whence it falls; and at certain seasons are discovered there not only a number of paths, which the fire has made in the sides of the abyss, but alto, torrents of inflamed matter as dazzling as melted chryftal. Such is the form of the great and principal mouth of Vesuvius. There is ano her, but less considerable* befides, it is in a manner filled up, as it*
fides are covered with an immense quantity of ashes, and calcined stones Mention is made here only of the. first, and all was in the state abovedescribed, from the end of March, to
A. the 10th of December 1760, the happy æra of the cessation or an eruption which had begun in November 1759. But on the nit of December 1760, the shocks of an earthquake for the distance of 15 miles round Vesuvius, and after that the roaring of the lea, terrified the inhabitants of the country
B bordering on the mountain. The shocks were frequently repeated for three days 5 on the 23d they amounted to five, in the midst of which, the Vulcano being tranquil, emitted neither flames nor smoke, when suddenly on the South of Vesuvius, near the place called U foffo delle Campagne, in
L the territory delta torre del Greco ; one mile from the king's road to Naples, two new Vulcano's were seen to rile and expand themselves, which began to vomit forth, with a horrible nolle, smoke, flames, allies, and a vast number of burning stones; while a thiid
D Vulcano, smaller than these, increased their number, and while the earth shook with more violence than ever, Vesuvius began to roar, and a black smoke issued from it j which, alter being raised like a rapid whirlwind, diffused itielf on all sides. The gulph tluew out a prodigious quantity of
£ ashes and pumice-stones. It was near evening, but before the fun was set, twelve other Vulcano's appeared at some distance fiotn these. AH the fifteen, as well as the large abyls, filled the air with their inflamed explosions, and at half past five in the afternoon of the 14th, two orthese Vulcano's be
p> gan to pour forth with a drrfdful noise, torrents of burning Lava,* hich uniting ran for eight days, burning and destroying .on the right and left, as far as the sea, thro' a laige tract of land, all that this river of fire could
reach, plantations, hamlets, farms, considerable increase of heat, a (Irony
cW. and spreading terror on all sides, sulphureous smell, and more or I- *
which was increased hy the constant traces of chinks by which it was dif>
eruption of lome of the other new fused.
Vuicauo's.' In the 4th chapter, the author de
The above is the substance of Afc,ibeg the openings from which the the author's tit it chapter; in the Lavas issued in three places, and the second be obseives, one of the molt various materials of which they were remarkable circumstances ot this pine- composed. The bottom os them was romenon, is, that tome ot the formed of Hones oi different colouis, fiones.thrown out by thele Volcano's. ■ 'and which (if one niny so fay} weie took up in falling to the ground 13, 16, petrified with a number of mgredland even 18 vibrations of the pule. B ems; land, antimony, talc, pyrites, And it we sup no e with the au'lior, and man ames j octocdion-, & gitcf>that on account of the extreme heat Wh, tine, aiul almost transparent (tones \ in which he breathed, not tar from saline concretions, sulphureous in- t thele vulcanoes, and in the miriit of eruditions, nitre, vitriol, sea salt, saliulpliuieous vapouis, we (hould rec- ammoniac, isY. M. dc Hoitii bns m <de kon two second?, instead of one, lor a chymiui analysis of them, of which the interval between two pulles, even he his given the result. then these stones had been railed 10 Q AH theie volcanoes being formed in. the height of 960 fans teet *, since a plain, almost eiviiely cultivated, the» they took up 3 leconds in falling to damage which was done to it by the the ground. One stone which might tonent of lava, with which this plain weigh 160 pounds was thrown 90 was ovei stowed as far as the sea, could paces; another, which a man could not btrt be very considerable, flumliarce lift was carried 190 paces; a bers of peasants were by this means third lighter, 180 paces, and a fourth rj reduced to beggary, and a multitude lighter Hill 390. For the abuve facts, of persons of all ranks put in mournthe author appeals to two of bis friends ing, their houses being consumed, and whom he names. Vifuuius itself, tho' their pol'tslions swallowed up. extremely agitated, all the time of the The evil did not even end there, explosion of the new vulcanoes, was Our author l)ir*s, in the 6th and hit \ not calmed with them, but only to chapter, how fatal were the c lifecommence again with great fury its quinces, in various respects, in the own eruptions, December »6. They E nisti icts l>oiderint;on/'V;t<^;its,to which continued till the ;th of January sol- neither the eruption ot flames, stones, lowing, together with 1 tpeated shocks and ashes, nor the inundation of the cte.inhqi.ikps, which greatly alarm- burning la-va extended. When the ed the city of Naples, but which by conflagration of the volcanoes was good providence had no other bad over, their explosions stopped, & the filter?. earth was a,tiest; exhalations ilsued
Mi/.- Bo'.tis had not confined his ob- from v .rious places, in lome degree
fei v.tuont to wh.it passed at the foo- of f pestilential, which at two different
feswuius, especially on the south. He times, -viz. first >n January and six
has collected also what happened on months after, in July and August, oc
the west and on the north of the casioned great alarms. These exhala
mountain, and accompanied them tions, or, as they are called by the
with suitable reflections in Chap. 3. peasants of those parts. Mojetes, in
There we find that the ashes of Vtfii fected the air and the waters, killed
wivs were thrown as tar as Neeeret, Sar many animals, and were fatal even to
no, Nota, Samma, k other places, even G the lives of lome persons, as well as
ii miles d stanti that these eruptions tothe health of many others. Someap
occasioned earthquakes, even atter preaching coufhgi ations were appre
they had ceased, by the sublet raneous nended , and, indeed, one of the new
fires which they kindled, and whole volcanoes began again to fend forth,
effects extended by degrees to a great in July, much snvke 5 some flames
distance. also iilued from it; the earth round
The author, who visited many places about was peiceived to shake; but'it
where these ihocks were molt violent, H wii abandoned thio" fear; and since
found there, by the thennometcr a that time no mention has been made
of any eruption, either ol ''efuvius, or
A further Account of the celebrated German "Poetess. g
IHave with no small satisfaction read in your Magazine of last month, an account of the famous AwuiLaiisaDurbacb, there justly termed i literary prodigy.
As your correspondent has given the publick the historical part of this extwoidinary person, give me leave to »dd a few words con erning the nature of her genius and other productions, as they are set forth by the editor, in the preface to the collection of her poems tiom whence your narrative is taken.
"Plata, in his discourse called Jo, "lays it down as the character of a "true poet, that he delivers his "thoughts by inspiration, himself "not knowing the expiestions he is "to make ule of. According to him '! the harmony and turn of the verse 41 produce in the poet an enthusiasm, M which furnishes him with such "thoughts and images, as in a more "composed hour be would have "sought for in vain.
"This observation is verified in "our authoress, who, without design, "without art, and without instruct!"on is arrived at a wonderful per"lection in the art of poetry, and "may be placid amongst poets of "the first class. It issrom this cause, "the has been more succelsful in such "pieces as she has wtitten whilst her "imagination was warm, than in 14 those which she has composed cooly "deliberately and in leiluie hours 5 "the latter a)w»ys besring some "marks of art and betraying the ab"fence of the mule.
"Whenever our authoress is in a "particular manner struck by any
"object, either in her solitary hours, F more be eloquent
*' wife our authoress is a living in"stance. No sooner has she hit upon "the tone, as (be calls it, and the M foot of the verse, hut the words ge* . "on fluently, and she is never at a "loss for thought or imagery. The "most delicate turns of the subject A " and expression arise in her mind. "(whilst the is yet writing) as if they "were dictated to her."
Of her extempore performances, Mr Urban, we have an excellent specimen in that beautiful OAt. sacred f the memory os her deceased Uncle, th mB firuBor os her infancy, •written m tbt year 1761, at a time when stie happened to be engaged in company of tne fiiftrank at Berlin: it consists of eight stanzis of fix lines each, of which the 3d and 6th have nine syllables, the olhers ten. It seems, whilst trie was isa p this select company, she was touched by a sudden reflection, with a keen sense of the great difference between her present condiiion,and her situation in the early part of her life, and of the great obligation (he was underta the good old man, who, by hittendet care for her better parts, had laid the D foundation of her present happiness. Overcome with the fense of her happiness, and with a heart replete with gratitude, the could contain herself no longer, but, before all the company, poured forth the overflowings of her foul (it must have been a very affect„ ing scene, Mr Urban) nearly in the following words:
"Arise from the dixfr, ye hones that rest in the land, where I palled my infant years. Venerable Sage, re-antmate thy body; and ye lips that fed me with thehoney of instruction, once
"or when she is in company, her "spirits immediately catch the flame, "(he has no longer the command of "herself, every Ipringof he foul is in * raoti«n j the feels an irrelittable im"pulse tacompoie, and with an a•* mixing quickness commits the "thoughts to paper, which the muse "inspiies her with; and, like a watch "just woundup, as soon as her foul *' is put into motion by the impres"sion the object has made on her, "(heexpressts herself in poetry wilh"out knnwing in
Or thou, bright (hade ! look down upon me from the top ef Olymfws: Behold I I am no longer following the cattle in the fields. Ohserxe the circle of refined mortals that surround me. They all sneak of thy niece's poems ; O listen to their conversation, thy praise.
"For ever flourish the broad lime, under whose (bade I was wont to cling round thy neck, full of tcnderneis.
* ULr: ft
6 'A Comparison of Alexander, Hannibal, Scipio, and Cæsar.
were much above my comprehension j personal virtues, Scipio seems to me,
»nd when I alked thee the meaning of by his wisdom, his moderation, and
many a dark sentence in the Christie. the whole tenor os his life, to have,
ans sacred records—Good Man I thou been the molt virtuous of the three.—
didst explain them to me. . I" Alexander may be leen many mark.
"Like a Divine in fable vest, who of an excellent disposition, of a noble
from the lofty pulpit points out the ¥"tJ'And oi a" hJroit vlr'Ve»
way that leads to life \ so didst thou but clouded by an excessive brutality,
inform me of the fall of man, and co- an impetuosity of temper, andI wo lent
venant^f grace; and I, all raptures, Paffio,lt I b? a fo°ll(h and "diculow
snatched the word, from thy lips with l^lt7'r and byF thL extJ'"a8a«« <£
eager kisses nis dellSn*- In Hannibasi conduct
■ _. .' . ... c, , -- , B may be observed the fierce & haughty
"Thou inhabitant of some celestial genius of his nation, void of huma
sphere! behold aoe silent tears of joy | nity, and unfahhtul to their treatie*
may they often swll.dow. my cheeks. and their promises. But I do not
If thou canst speali, dear fltade, teU here examine what were their moral
me, Didst thou ever conceive any talents. I attend only to their mili
bopes of my present fortune and ho- tary virtues j anu in them I give by
nour, at the time when my eyes were far tne preference to Hannibal. He
successively engaged in the reading ot c wageit war with the molt valiant men,
books, every day more improving. tiie he* disciplined troops, and the
"When at thy fide on some rosy molt powerful state, then in theknown
bank I sat, weaving into chaplets for woild j being already matter andcon
thy temples, the flowers my little querorof his own. Before lie was 15
hands had gathered, and looking up years old, he was declared Generalissi
to thee, smiled filial love; did thy n mo of the Carthaginian armies. In
foul then presage the good things that three years he conqueied Spain, freed
are now come to pass ) the Pyrenees, he son. ed his way thro"
I" « Mayst thou be eloathed with ^"i^tVnT^A Z^Rf°m ^
.1 r ii j- j n. .. piogieis, and palled the Rhone in the
threefold radiance , and mayst thou g ,*and' in ff of h ff f h
be refreshed with the emanations of ^ £ ^ d n A, h h d
divine complacence more than the of ^UB^ with a boldneft and an
foul, of thy companions. May every ad(j,£|8 Q, ^hich 0„e ,d fa
drop of temporal pleasure witn wh.cK h ht fl ^ w b f h
my cup of ,oy overflows, be rewarded He ,* ht b,P , wl(h fa £
unto thee with continual draught. c „,5-.„ „ „ A Ji
from the ocean of eternal beatitude." man "'"'"•,t0,umanded b> brave and
V - "~J"U1 Blc' "' uc V, experienced generals, scarce meeting
Jan. it, ,76S. Your,, fife. „$ the ,e,,f ch(ek. He carried th|
.r, •/■ 1 . Ai J n terror of his arms even to the gates
A Compa^n hetwen Alexander, Han- of Rme and ^ . he was b «?,»
iub.1, Scipio, W Cesar. supported by his countrymen, who
WHEN Minos passes judgment, _ envied his glory, he found means to in Lucian, between these great v keep his footing for sixteen years in General., and places Alexander first, the enemy's country. When he left then Scipio, and last of all Hannibal, I it, he left it voluntarily, and without cannot agree with him any more than being compelled by force, but only with Appian, who has been of the to obey the orders of the Cartbaginisame opinion, in his Treatise on the ans, who recalled him. He lost, 'tit wars of the Romans in Syria. It ap- true, a battle against Scipio, but then pears, that they have judged.of the ~ he lost it against the Romans, the most merit, of those heroes by their enter- wailike people then in being. And prizes, and the consequences that have who is the General that has not sufattended them; and not, asthey should fered some reverse, in a long succession have done, by their actions separate- of wars ?• Does one defeat efface the ly considered.and by the conjuncture. glory of an infinite number of vicand dispositions of time and place. If tories? That victory indeed was very they had carried their reflection, thus brilliant, as it put a period to the sofar, they ought, in my opinion, to " cond Funk war, not so much by the have given Hannibal the first place, loss the Carthaginians suffered, as by Scipio the second, and Alexander the the brutality and fierctness of their third. I confine my lilt to their mili- * Answer, The tifak Prince, aadlhc Qi. tary talents; for it »< attend to their of Marlhrju^b.
General Gage** Account os the Reduction of the Indians. 7
government, which prevented Hann»- tentedly starve, or go naked, either tal from taking the necessary mea- in those countries or in these. If sures to repair that loss. Did those they are deprived of the means of Kings of Ajia, Antiocbm and Prusiat, felling their superfluities of food, in, with whom he took ihelter, suffer the order to purchase cloathing of ut, least loss while he managed their as- they must of necessity lessen their apfairs, and till their haughty and capri- A plication to agriculture, the great procious tempers forced him to consult ducts of which will be of no use t<» bis own safety f them, and apply themselves to ma. When Scipio, therefore, in Lucian nurturing,for the supplying of tliemamd Appian, ridicules Hannibal for ha- selves with those necessaries which they ving dared to prefer himself,by whom cannot otherwise obtain, he had been conquered, he seems to If from real want in the nation, or me not to reason consequentially, be- B by iniquitous practices, our inanufaceause one single event does not deter- turers and other labouring people here mine the difference between them. cannot acquire the means of comfortAs to Alexander, I give him only the able subsistence, can it be imagined that third place. In the flower of his age, they will not seek in other countries be found himself at the head of an what they cannot find at home .' army of brave Macedonians, trained to Is it to be considered as good poliwar by his father Pbilip; but poor.un- C cy, to reduce our colonies to the neacquainted with the elegancies of life, ceslity of inviting over our manufacand inhabiting a barren and unfruit- turing and other labouring people r ful country. He was absolute master and at the same time increase their of his kingdom, and of his troops, temptations to leave us, by suffering and had only his own will to consult them to experience great misery and in the undertaking, conducting, and want? and are there not great proofs) supporting a war. He attacked an e- of that want and misery, from the neroy enervated by pleasure, and by D subscriptions that have been and are long prosperity 5 and a southern na- raising for'their relief in several part* tion, by the heat of their climate, is the kingdom? naturally indolent, and always infe- The numbers of Tabouring people rior in courage and strength to the of all kinds in any country, are justly people of the North. Alexander, in- considered to be the strength and deed, was personally brave, intrepid, riches of a state. Itmust therefore be and resolute, but ralh and inconsi- - well worthy of timely consideration, derate; valiant as a soldier, but not if we are not two ways contributing as a general ; by his genius, but not to the undoing of ourselves; for with. by reason; and not rightly employing a transfer of arts and people, we make bis valour for the good of his army such a transfer of strength and proand of his subjects. Though if we perty, as will soon throw out of our compare Osar with these great Gene- own hands all power and wealth. Mull rals, in whatever light we consider it then not be worth while to look a him, we (hall without doubt find him F little way before us > greatly superior to them all; and we
must acknowledge that former ages Tbi sollc-ailnf Advices bavtletn received, fnm
furnish us with no instance of so great "'"J".' M>jorCener»lQtV, Ommander m
an assemblage of virtues, and, in a g"/'" Nort.h-.ATMc"a'." '*» EarJ 't
_„,j .u,f £■-./■„.. .„,. .h. n,.hl.A »r Halifax, me cf the Secreurut of State, dattd
word, that Casar was the noblest ef- „,n<.m.YotkJlbt lyi 6/D«. 1764.
fort of Nature. Huetiana. -_-ur c* A V.. i V. r. ,
rp H E perfidy of the Sbamentse and DeU
■*. „ G J. tr/erei, and their having broken the tie*
1 Aar Urban, which even the f»»age natioos hold sacred a
T IS something remarkable, that mongst each other, required .ieorousmeasures
ever since the regulations were ,0 reduce them. We had experienced their
made last year, concerning the North treachery so often, that 1 determined to m»Ue
American trade, we hardly read a news- no peace with them but in the heart of their
paper that does not mention manu- country, and upon such termi ai should make
sacturers of ene kind or another go- it as secure as was possible. This conduct hat
ing from Enoland, Scotland, or Inland, H P^ced *" the good effects which could be
to fettle in those colonies; which, if !" '" Vf"t'i, "T ",' T r
- „. • , 1l t A. U nave been numoled, and reduced to accept of
true, is certainly a matter hat mould „,, ,er^ scrjbtd t0 the^ in
to the last degree prove alarming to hieh a manner as-ill gi»- reputation to hit
these kingdoms. majesty's arms amonglr the several nations.
Vnrhinir run hr mnrf w.alf tlnn rhf» Tk. ...ul.. ,„.t .M.lnm.1 irwinc ,*nA*r (