« הקודםהמשך »
bishop IJlip, in the room of one Wadt- them to put their trust in a scrap of hall, whom the Archbishop dismissed parchment, and the prayers of hypotor tuibulent and factious behaviour, elites.
with three of the scholars,, who were He did not however yet avowedly
regulars, and"had zealously taken part question any doctrine of the church,
with the warden. A but he took care to lead his adversa
But Wukjf was scarce established in ries into logical and metaphysical dishis waHemhip, before the. Archbishop putations, accustoming them to hear (fled, and was succeeded by l.angham, novelties, and to bear contradiction j Bishop os Ely. Lanqbanr had spent his be bewildered them with learned fcrlifs in a csoylter, having been first a guments on the foimof things, on. Monk, and afterwards an Abbot; the the increase of time, on space, subjected regulars therefoie instantly ap- B stan. e, andidentiry j and he artfully, plied to him to be re-instated j and "but cautiously, intermixed some new l^ixpbavi was so well inclined to their opinions in divinity, cause, that he not only ejected W~ulijs, At length, finding he had a strong burthe regular schohis, and fequelt- party in the schools, and that he was «ied tilth revenues. listened to with attention, he ventured
From so flagrant a piccr of injustice, gradually to display his opinions.' WMff appealed to the Pope: The He began by invalidating all the Pope found it critical; and therefore C writings of the Fathers after the 10th referred it to a Cardinal: The Arch- century: He traced many of the spebilhop was cited; he put in his plea; dilative corruptions from their orj■ <id, accusation and answer being often gin, anil (hewed their gradual increase repeated,,the bui"mess would have been as they descendc I tinough the ages of protracted to great length, if an acci- ignoiar.ee and superstition; he prodent had not brought it to a speedy ceeded to the usurpations of the Pope, Conclusion, speaking with great freedom, and sup
kthuard the Third, who was now D porting his positions with a strength of
ICing of EngtanJ, had for some time reasoning far superior to the learning
withrid the tribute which his prede- of those times.
ceflbrs, from the time of K'ng John, A violent clamour* was immediately
had paid to the Pope) and his pailia- railed against him ; and the Arch...
ment had determined, that such tri- bishop prosecuting him with great vi
bute ought never to li3ve been paid; gour, he was at length deprived and
advising the King, «hen the Pope silenced,
threatened, not to submit. g At this time the King, Edward the
But while the K-ing and Parliament Hid, was so much impaired, both in,
v»erethus calling inqueHinn the Pope's body and mind, that the whole admi
authoriry, the clergy, especially the hiltr-ition os affairs was in the hands
regulars, preached and wrote ?.ea!ous- or his fan, the puke of Lancaster, com
ly in its defence. These advocates mo'iilv called John of Gaunt,
were answered by Wieliff, with such This pi ince hid made the clergy his
strength as turned the scale against enemies, as well by his principles as
them ; but, loon after the publication F his conduct; he had free notions in
erf this book, Wlclijf was informed, religion, a„d he had made some efT
that the suit a* fcomi was determined forts to cut r> the exorbitance of eccle^
•gainst him. (iastical power. For this reason, the
But, notwithstanding his dis>p- cletgy were continually provoking
jiointmenr, he continued at Oxford, him, and he let flip no opportunity of
where bis friends procured him a bringing them intothesamecontempj
benefice; and soon after, having ta- _, with others, in which he held them
ken a Doctor's degree, he was elected " himlelf The Duke therefore patio
Tioiestbr of Divinity. nii'ed Ifitlif, rescued hjm from the
He now continued his attack upon hands of his enemies, took him into
the monastic clergy, in his public lee- his confidence, and treated him with
Mi/e», and imputed the decay of re- j>aiticular.,kmdness.
'igion to their scandalous lives, and About this time an embassy was
•lin'gtrons doctrines; alledging, that sent to the Pope, in consequence of
they had nothing in them but tempo- "petitions from parliament, in very
•ral advantages; .and that, instead of warm terms, against the giving all
enforcing the se'Ciffity of a good life, church priserments, even rectories 3f
they entertained the people with idle vicarages, to foreigners who resided
tales, ajid l/iDgmiiaclet, and taught abroad. And tue Bishop of faweerand
■/In Account of the Life of Dr John Wicliff!, 15$
tViefiff were at the head of this em- a bUl to deprive London of its privi
balTv. leges; upon which the corporation
The embassy so far succeeded, that it met, ar.d the populace assaulted the was agreed the Pope should na longer houses of the Duke and the Earl Mardispose of any benefices in the church seal, who both left the city with preof England: But the negcciation was f^ cipitation. These tumults, which contedious, and gave IViclff a still worse tinued some time, put a stop to aH opinion of the court of Rome, with re- proceedings against, Wicliff, who respect to its doctrine,ministry, and de- mained at quiet for the rest of'Kinj signs, than he had before. When he Edivard's reign, returned, he was more vehement in The Piince died in 1377, and wa» his le6lures against its infallibility, u- succeeded by bis grandlon, RUhari (iirpation, pride, avarice, and tyran- the lid, then only eleven years old. jay; and he was the first that gave the B The Duke of Lancaster having arm Pope the name of Antichrist. lost his power, the regency being put
In themean time he was frequently. into commission, a new_ persecution, at court, where he continued in great was commenced by the Bishops against credit with the Duke of Lancaster, who Wtclff; and articles of accusation hagave him the rectory of Lulterivortb ving heen dispatched toKo/ro.thePope in LcictCerlhire, a good benefice, which ftnt over no less than five bulb, three rendered him independent without e- Q directed to the Archbishop of Canterminence, aud was therefore less likely bury and theBishop of London, a fourth to stimulate the malice of his ene- to the University of Oxford, and a fifth mies, and less exposed him to it. ■ to the King ; ,the Bishops he required
But he was scarce settled in his pa. to examine, whether Wicliffreally held
rifli, when they took advantage even the heresies of which he was accused;
of his retirement, to persecute him and if he did, to imprison him, or
with fresh vigour. cite him to appear at&H« within three
Hi* principal adversary wa* Court- D months.,
sy, B.lhop of London, an inflamed bi- Hitherto the Pope had been impli
fot: and bavin? got letters IramRome, citly obeyed by all the potentates in
e cited fTulif to appear before him Christendom; but Wicliff had by thit
•t St Paul's. time diffused such a spirit of liberty.
Wiclff immediately applied to the that the University would not so much
Duke i and the Duke, to give him as receive the bull; and the Regency
countenance, attended him to his trial, Jj joined with the Parliament, to make
and engaged Percy, Earl-Marshal of their contempt of it a* notorious at
England, to accompany them. possible, by appealing to Wicliff forthe
They found the court sitting, and a determination of a question in which great croud assembled: The arrival of the Pope was a party, such personages occasioned no little The court of Prance, taking the addisturbance in the church) and the vantage of the minority, was makingBiseopof London, piqued to fee Wicliff great preparations to invade England; so attended, told the Duke, that if he F and as more money than could easily had known whajplilturbance he would be raised was wanted to put it into a have made, he mould have been flop- state ot defence.it was debated by parped at the door. This produced a liament, whether, upon such an emerquarrel between them; and the Duke, gencjj, the money collected for the use being haughty and passionate, at last of the Pope might not be applied to • said to a person who stood near him, the service of the nation. The expeloud enough to be heard by otheis, p diency of the measure was acknow. that, rather than take such usage from ledged; and it was agreed, hot b by the Biseop, he would pull him out of the Regency and Parliament, that Withe church by the hair of his head. cliff should determine whether it wa« Xhesc wends spreading among the la.vful.
crowd, produced a great ferment } Wuhff determined at they intended
and voices were heard Tromeveiy part, and expected he seould: but tho' he
crying, thar the Bishop should not be ptatified them, he provoked the Bi
insalted.. This confusion put an end shops to proceed against him under
to all business, and the court broke up H the authority of the Wulls, with yet
without having taken one step in the greater vehemence. The Duke of
business for which it was held. Lancaster, however, sr-'''
The Duke went directly to the house London a peremptc—
es peers, and that very day preferred ii» to irnprisor
cited him before * provincial synod at Lambeth, sending a copy of the her*, tical articles of which tie was accused, and requiring him to explain them.
Witltfs appeared and delivered in a paper, in which he explained them so as to exculpate himself from the charge of Heresy, but in a sense so forced am) unnatural, and in so unmanly a strain os complement, that, it must be confessed, exhibit this celebrated Reformer in a very unfavour-. able ligiit.'
wlt was not, however, satisfactory to the synod; but the populace,who were not so nice, and who had profited by WitVff'% determination, with respect to the application os the Pope's money, so as to lighten their taxes, cried out, that he should suffer no injure.
At tn'a junstury Sir lewis differ J, a gentleman about the court, entered the chapel, and, in an_ authoritative manner, forbid the Bishops to proceed to a definitive sentence; & then retired. The Bishops, taking it for granted that he tame properly authorized, which however does not appear, were thrown into some confusion, and the tumult at the door increasing,they dissolved the assembly, without perfarming any other judicial act, than forbidding Wtcliff to preach the doctrines that had been objected to, any more.
To this prohibition, however, he paid very little respect, going about furs-footed, in a long frieze gown, and preaching ever)' where occasionally to the people, without the least: reserve. It has been suggested by his advocates, that, by this zeal, he might intend to atone for his want of sincerity in his written answer.
Sift at this crisis, \yjt, the Card?being dissatisfied wjth Pope Urban VI. pretended to find a flaw in his election, and chose Clement the Vllth in his stead.
The contests between these two venerable Vicegerents of Jesus Chrijt, which deluged Europe with blood,gave Widff a new theme against Popery j and be published a tract, shewing how Kttle credit was due to either party: This was eagerly read by all forts of people, and greatly contributed to undermine Popery.
About the end of the year, he was leired with a dangerous distemper, and was waited opon by ari extraordinary depuration: The Begging Fryars, whom he had before so severely treated, sent four of their order, with four
of the most eminent citizens of 0»rford, to acquaint him, that, hearing he was at the point of death, they thought proper to put him in mind of the many injuries lie had done them.
A and to admonish him, for. his soiii's fake, to retract his calumnies, and make them such satisfaction sa was in his power. Wtclff, surpri/ed at thi* solemn message, raised himself in hi* bed, and with a stern countenance Cried out, I frail not die, bat live, fade
£ dare tie evil deeds of tie Fryers. The unexpected force ot his expression, Se the sternness of his manner, it is said, drove away the Fryars in confusion.
Soon after his recovery, he began his great work, the translation of the Bible into English-, and immediately published a tract, in which he shewed
Q the necessity of putting the word of God into the hands of the people; from which, he said, every Christian might gather knowledge enough to make him acceptable to God. As to comments, he declared he knew none equal to a good life 1 for, fays he, He that htfetb righteousness, bsstb the true under/aiding of' holy •writ.
"When his Bible was published, it was eagerty procured and read, ami gave much satisfaction to good men.
Some have contended, that Wtclif was not the fiiit translator of the Bible into English j but he was certainly the first that translated the whole torether, tho" others might have given
It does not however appear, that •Pir/i/Tanderstood Hebrevi; he collected what Latin Bibles he could, and having from these made one correct copy, he translated from that. He afterwards examined the best commentators, particularly mebotas Lyra, and
p from them inserted in his margin those passages in which the Latin diffeied from the Hebrew.
In his translation he is literally exact, but in his other works hit language is wonderfully elegant for the times in which he lived. Hit scrupulous adherence to the mere literal „ sense, sometimes betrayed him into ab>
Wurditv ; for he translates Shad nobis et tibi, Jesu fili Dei, thus: What to us, and to thee Jesus tie fin of God.
A great clamour was raised against this book by the clergy, and they brought a bill into parliament to sup
H press it, alledging that it would be the ruin of all religion. Their xeal, however, only made it more generally read, and in the height of their clamour Wit.
An Account of the Use of Dr John WicKff. \$i
>7"«ent still further, and attacked the At this answer, the Archbishop took doctrine of transubstantiation, a doc- new offence, and preferred a bill ia trine so extnvagantly absurd, that parliament to enable sheriffs to imprint miracle it pretends is scarce more son preachers of heresy. This bill wonderful than that rational creatures was thrown our, but the Archbishop ftouM believe or pretend to believe A obtained the King's licence by letter* it. It was never heard of till about patent for the lame purpose, the year 810, when it was broached It had been usual for the King to
by one Paschajt Radbert, a wild enthu- grant Letters Patent of the fame kind, Cast, and was received at once, un- upon special occasions, • but Richard aided by prejudice, and zealously pa- being unpopular, and there being trousers by the church, as well adapt- many disciples of Widiff among the: ed to impress mankind with an awful g people, a great clamour was railed on and superstitious horror. t this occasion, members of parliament
Widiff offered to defend his refuta- were instructed by their constituents, tion of this doctrine in the schools, and the king was petitioned to rebut the religious would not suffer any voke his license, and the king being such question to be debated. in want of money complied.
Widiff then printed and published The Archbishop, however, obtained
his refutation, upon which, Dr Barton, other Letters Patent directed to the then vice-chancellor of Oxford, called p university, and requiring her to expel the heads of the university together, all who held Widrfs opinions, or ia and they condemned Widff'% doctrine whose custody his books should be as heretical, and threatened him and found. With these letters, the unihis hearers with imprisonment, and versity after some struggle, was obligcxcommunication. ed to comply.
Widiff was greatly mortified at be- The university, however, wat, by
ing thus treated at Oxjord, which till _. this measure, thrown into the utmost now had been his sanctuary, and im- " confusion j all study was at an end,, mediately appealed to. the duke of and the animosity between the two Lancaster, from the vice-chancellor's parties ran so high, that they distinsentence, but his credit declining, and guiflied themselves by badges, and WieliffinA his followers having been could scarce be restrained from pubteprefented as the fo'mentors of Wat lick violence.
Tyler's sedition, the duke deserted It does not appear, whether Wid'ff
him, probably fearing his attachment E was or was not Drought to any acto him would render him still more count in consequence of these prounpopular j and when Widiff urged ceedings, but it is certain, that he him with religious motives, he ans- quirted the profession chair, and took wered coolly, that of those things the his final leave of the university, which, church was the best judge, and admo- till now, he seems to have visited niihed him to quit his novelties, and once a year.
submit quietly to his ordinary. Thus far the unwearied precaution
It happened unfortunately for Jfie- p of the Archbishop prevailed, the seeda Ijjs, that Courtney, the bishop of LonJm, however were scattered, though the his old persecutor now became aich- root was drawn, Widiff's opinions bishop of Canterbury in the room of were propagated with great success, Simon of Sudbury, whom Tyler's rab- and it you met two persons on the hie murdered during the insurrection. road, you might be sure one wa* a sotBy thit prelate Widff was cited to the lower of Widiff. moniftry oiCrty Fryart, but he refus- About this time, the contest he
ed to appear, alledging that he was G twen the two parties continuing, a exempt from episcopal jurisdiction at Bull came into England in favour of a member of the university, and the Urban, promising plenary indulgence university declaring that they would to all that would take up arms against fupoort their member in favour of his rival.
their privilege, the archbishop wat This vile prostitution of religion
satisfied. raised Widiff under all the infirmitk*
The court however met on the ap- of age, and he wrote against the Bull pointed day, and condemned some of H with great force, aud indeed with great WxlJff'% opinion* at erroneous, and acrimony.
some as heretical. This drew upon him the resent
This determination with the reasons ment of Urban, biit God thought sit
vat published, and Widiff answered it. to remove Widff out of his rtich.
Re I 5 6 Curiosities found at Pdtn peli.—Rfmtdy for the Stone.
Be wax struck with a palsy soon asset the spirited as to .have given up all hope*
publication of this piece, and though of cure, (for I had tried the soap, and
lie lived sometime, it was in a ltate many other remedies) till I was di
that set him below resentment; he rested, by the aforesaid gentleman, to
attended divine worship to the last, drink a glass oscold spring-water, (a
and died in his church at Lutternxiarlb, A bout a quarter of a pint) the moment
in the year 1384, being just 60 years I rose in the morning, and the same
old." the last thine before I went into bed
_ _ . at night. I followed this advice, and
Part of a Letterfrom a Gtntltman al astera little trial found myself better,
Naples, dated t?tb. 17, 1765. ancjf by a continuance, am so entirely
THE antiquities which have been freed Irom that disordfer, that I can
found at Pomptii are very nume- fide over the (tones Irom one end of
rousj and many of the paintings, sta- the town to the other, or use any ibrt
rues, and mosaics are capital. The " ofexeicise, without the least pain or
chambers which weie painted are pre.- obstruction.
served. None of them have'windows, Whit is become of the stone I so
and the light they received was by the long felt in my bladder I know not,
doors, which are of a very tall pro- but suppose it dissolved, and came a
portion. way, by the g/eat quantity of land
At Herculamum two galleries have voided at sundry times j lor it is cer
betn discovered, ornamented with tain I have mine theie now. As I am
paintings. A curule chair was found C often troubled with the gout, 1 ab
in each gallery, one of them gilt. stain from drinking, the water while
At A'versa, 20,000 pieces of gold that is upon me, after which I find a coin, each'of the value of fix Carlins return of the gravel; but, upon drink[half a crown] have been dug up. All ing the water again, am presently reef them are Saracenicat; and they weie lieved; wherefore am determined to 'claimed by the Fiscal, on behalf of the continue the use of it during my life. King. D April x±, 1765. Yours, &c. R.B.
At Brundifi, a hundred Rotoli [weight P. S. All stale liquor* I believe very
about 3 j ounces Enr>HJb] of Roman fil- prejudicial; the beer I drink is seldom
ver denarii, were lately discovered. older than fix weeks. These denarii begun with Septimus Se
<verus, and went down to Philip, the Mr Urban,
son. The King had 750s the Rotoli. TN a treatise on parish rates, lately
At Pesto,many small curious Etrus- £ A published; after enquiring, by
can vases have been dug up. The last whom the said rates should be made;
autumn several Englijb ladies went thi- who are to be taxed, and for what.—
ther to view the antiquities of that It is proposed to consider in the next'
place; and afterwards the Princess place, botu and in what Tomb-, aud
Irancamilla, with other company. Mr what the rule of taxation.
Bruce,' a Scots gentleman, has caused And in this point it is observed,
the three BoJUicbe remaining there to p that the statute of the 43d of Elizabeth
be designed; and Signor Ricciardelli, is <\we silent.
who was not long ago in England and Perhaps the reason no mention is
Ireland, has designed and painted as made of the rule of taxation in :lut
much of that city, its walls, towers, statute of Elizabeth, might be because buildings, as could be represented in it was done before, in the 23d of lien.
one picture. Vlllth, Cb. 5. Seel. 3. where it is e
naited, that persons are to be taxed as
Mr Urban, G ter the quantity of their lands, by'the
BEING a constant reader of your number of Acres and Perches, as ter the
Magazine, am desirous, through rale of every persons P01 for. or Profit.
your channel, to offer to the public Whether this was the foundation
(for the benefit of all those who are of the practice, which has been in
afflicted with tint dreadful disease the ' lifetime out of mind, of taxing by
stone and gravel) the following reme- an equal valuation per acre: or fore,
dy, which was communicated to me according to the nature and quality,of
by a gentlenrun of America. H t'le '*'"' > an<' whether it does not
My cale was so bid I was scarce able confirm, and ought not to eftablilh
. lo walk across uiy room; and when I , .that ancient practice, is recon.iixnd
"tumed in my bed, could find ti.e stone .fd to the seiious consideration of jll
roll round my bladder, wliich caused patties conetrntd. A 3.
exquisite pain: I was so much dis- time