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Here we give the table which expresses the facts :
Aram Primitive Chaldea, Lydia on S. Babylon Assyria. toward Assyria. the Halys Syria.
438 years. The Mission.
Hul. Geta, Selah,
Mas near 432 years. N. Arabia. Lebanon.
Togtan, father of 239 years.
Nabor to Ur.
Terab to Haran.
275 years from Ur. Or, 70+205, his age added to the year dated from his emigration, an accident which seems to have happened more than once. The 148 years of Nahor are from the date of the settlement on the Skirtus, near Ur and Haran. Terah begat three sons at the age of seventy. Sons born to previous generations were born at a natural period. The chronology of Ur began with Nahor, and these children were probably born in the 70th year of that chronology. Terah then moves from Ur to Haran, with Abram, aged 45, and Abram's wife and Lot his grandson in the 70th year of Ur. Five years after, at the age of 50, Abram moves on to Canaan, where Terah had intended to go. Now add to the 148 years from the Skirtus the seventy of Ur, and we have 218
years. Terah was thirteen at the time of his emigration, which, taken away, leaves 205. Therefore,
From Arphaxad to Nahor are 933 years.
70 to Abram in Canaan, 5 which brings the post-diluvian origines to 3885 or 4000 B. c. The chronology of Egypt is fixed as far back as 3,623 B. C., that of Babylon to 3,784
These last dates certainly represent a civilization it had taken thousands of years to form.
= 1008 years.
Having indicated in the outlines of the Egyptian dynasties, the date of the Exodus, we have traveled backward from it to the period of the original distribution of races, indicated in the first article, along the Scripture record. It is impossible to give in these articles, the demonstrations which have filled nearly 5000 octavo pages ; but we see nothing careless — nothing purely speculative in Bunsen's work. We now return to the Exodus, and work out the descending historic line.
After the death of Ramses II., the oppressor of the Nineteenth Dynasty, Egypt fell into decay. His reign had produced every symptom of revolt. The Shepherds made frequent inroads. To clear the country, Menepthah sent all the kindred “ lepers " into the quarries on the edge of Arabia. At last he allowed them, or the chances of civil disturbance allowed them, to gather in the old city of the Hebrews, Avaris or Ramses. There they prepared for an outbreak. A priest of Heliopolis there founded a religious brotherhood, in direct opposition to the religion of the country. Menepthah went out against them, but the courage of the cowardly fanatic failed at the last. He left his captains to follow through the sea, and Aed with the gods he ignorantly worshipped. He took with him to Ethiopia his son Sethos II., then five years old. For thirteen years the Shepherds desolated Egypt. Either this is the Egyptian account of the Exodus, or their records say nothing about it. In this account Moses is called Oarsiph“ beloved of Osiris," as if the gods of Egypt had once approved him. The Shepherds were his allies.
1. It was not until the Shepherds were driven back in the time of Tuthmosis III. that the Pharaohs would have dared to ill-treat the Hebrews. Sethos I. and Ramses II. were the oppressors, and afterward the religious fanaticism of Menepthah made the Jews desperate. It is quite clear that Moses could not have conferred with A-ion and armed his men at a time when Egypt ruled the Peninsula.
2. The Jews were certainly not in Palestine at any time previous to this, for the great Ramses conquered Palestine, and all its people and tribes, which the Jews afterwards drove out, are enumerated on the monuments of his conquests. The names of Hittites and Amorites we find, but not that of the children of Israel.
3. The “Solymites” or Shepherds were expelled by Sethos II., and when Josephus says that the Hebrews went out through Sinai, in the reign of Bocchoris, he does not speak of another sovereign, but merely gives the official or “ throne.name” of Menepthah. Ramses had been strong, Menepthah was weak.
The store-city the Hebrews had been compelled to build was called after their oppressor. In his records occurs the name Tanet-r, or Holy Land, by which the Pbænicians had designated their country from the beginning. In a papyrus roll of his reign, preserved at Leyden, the scribe Kanitsir writes to his chief: “Now I have heard the message which my Lord sent, saying : Give corn to the men and soldiers and Hebrews who are drawing the stone for the great fortress of the palace of Ramses, lover of Truth, delivered to the general Amennema. I have given them their corn every month according to the good instruction of my Lord.” The original of this paper is given in Bunsen's 5th volume. One of the objects in building these gigantic cities, whose separate structures are enumerated in the papyrus of Pinebsa now in the British Museum, is indicated by a treaty recorded on the walls of Thebes between Ramses II. and Chetasar, King of the Hittites : “ If the subjects of Ramses go over to Chetasar, that king is to compel them to return.”
At the time that Moses was born and educated, whatever may have been the condition of the government, the civilization and literature of the Egyptians had reached their highest point. How ancient royal libraries were, we have no means of telling. The earliest papyri represent scribes registering flocks and harvests. In the first recorded dynasty they had already “ Annals of the monarchy.” The Annals of the New Empire extend 1500 years farther back than any ancient records known. A fragment of Livy at Berlin, dated in the first century of our era, is the oldest manuscript out of Egypt. The book of the Dead at Turin goes back to the 13th century B. c. Songs, annals, almanacs and contracts were frequentiy packed into the vases in the tombs. Ramses, the oppressor, built a library at Thebes, 1350 years B. C., 30 years before the Exodus. Its ruins, as described by Diodorus, (I. 49) may still be traced, and at the entrance sat Thoth and Saf, the gods of Wisdom and History. Behind Wisdom, with significant transcendentalism, sat the god of Hearing; behind History, the god of Seeing! Many existing papyri were written in this Rameseion. Lepsius found at Thebes the tombs of the librarians. The office of Neb-nufre, “Superior over the books," was hereditary. This was not the first library, for long before, the gods of Wisdom and History had for titles the “ Master and Mistress of the Hall of Books.” “ They of all people stored up most for recollection,” said Herodotus, so a library of 400,000 volumes was easily collected in Alexandria, at a time when the private collection of Aristotle served for all Greece. There Thales learned to measure heights by shadows; there Archimedes perfected his water-screw, and Eudoxus built his observatory. Shall we ever know what modern civilization owes to Egypt? Thence came the numerals; thence, thinks Taylor, all modern weights and measures. We never suspect, when we fill our demijohn, that it is the very vessel Moses called a “ damagan."
It was in Egypt that Pythagoras first heard of immortality. The records show that the priests believed in one God. They held the name of God unpronounceable, and expressed him by the Hebrew formula, “ I am that I am:"_"nuk-pu-nuk.” It is a curious question, that no one seems able to answer, whether this formula is found in priestly records before the era when Moses himself might have given the impulse to such a faith.
4. In our former article we showed that the era of the Exodus can be precisely fixed by ascertaining the year in which the 15th of Epiphi corres. ponded to the April full moon. It is impossible that there should be any doubt extending over fifty or sixty years since the Sothiac cycle began in Menepthah's reign, a point as clearly fixed as our own leap-year.
JEWISH CHRONOLOGY THEN HAS THREE PERIODS,
1. The period of Exodus, closing 18 years after the death of Moses. 2. The time of the Judges and the undivided kingdom. 3. The period of the kings of the divided kingdom.
Year of Exode.
1. 15th of Epiphi,
B. C. 1320 1319 1318
They journey from Kadesh to Akaba, with one month's rest at Hor. 'The middle of this year they arrive at the brook Zend, the south-eastern part of the Red Sea.
Eighteen years intervene before they pay tribute to Mesopotamnia ; three hundred before the building of the temple, 1014 B. C., a date astronomically and criticaliy determined. Moses went into Midian in the life of Ramesis II. He returned to find Menepthah on the throne. In the 19th year after the death of Joshua, the Jews became tributary to the Assyrians. They remained so until the election of Saul. The first “ Shepherds” of the 15th dynasty were Arabs, whose names correspond to the Amalekite rule, which the Arabs say lasted 800 years in Egypt. The second were doubtless Southern Palestinians akin to Jethro. What created the mutiny at Kadesh Barnea when the Jews desired so earnestly to return to Egypt? Only five days away, on the direct route of the caravans, where they could hear of the dismay of the Egyptians, of the successful inroads that followed the Exodus, they desired to return and enrich themselves. This was the real difficulty Moses had to
He and Aaron threw themselves upon their faces to pray for aid, and finally led the Hebrews round the gulf of Akaba into the country east of Jordan. How great must have been the enthusiasm and faith that conquered !
The coincidences which determine these points are found in three separate lines of investigation, and cannot be accidental. Nor is there any satisfactory account to be given of the tributary condition of the Hebrews nineteen years after the death of Joshua, except the sudden rise of the Assyrian power. The enumeration in the 12th chapter of Joshua is a cotemporary document. This is proved by the account in the first chapter of their taking possession of Canaan, and the mention of Kirjath Sipher, or the “ City of Writing,” by its early name. The nations they had dispossessed now paid them tribute. The two and a half tribes beyond Jordan formed a living wall, yet when they became tributary to Mesopotamia, 1246 B. C., they remained so for 175 years. Nothing changed but the names of their rulers. Under David, they rose for the first time to the height of power, which had enabled them to take possession of Canaan in the beginning. No imperfection of their own government will explain this continued dependence. That was due to the rising power of Assyria. Semiramis was no myth, but a Phænician of the hated race they knew, the wife of the Assyrian satrap at Ascalon.
1. The Exodus can only have been possible between 1324 and 1320 B. C.
2. The undisturbed possession of the peninsula is only to be explained by the war in Egypt.
3. Moses determined the destiny of the Hebrews at Kadesh.
4. Canaan could not have been conquered seven years earlier than 1280 B. C., for Ramses was then raging through Palestine, nor seven years later, for Assyria then claimed it.
5. The original difficulties grow out of our possessing only a few shreds of the old story.
65 years. 8
From the Exodus to death of Joshua then was
of N. Canaan,
of Abimilech, son of Gideon,