« הקודםהמשך »
Seth. | Hanokh, or Enos.
| Enos. | Hirad.
| Quaynan. | Mehuyael.
| Maha-la-el. | Metusael.
i Tered. | Hadah. | Lamech. | Zillah.
Hanokh. Tubal. Jubal. Tubal Cain. Nahama.
Metusael. Shepherd. Musician. Coppersmith.
In the oldest record God is called Jahveh Elohim. This is the story from Aramea. In the later, he is called Seth or Set, and man is called Enos. This is the tradition of Phænicia. The Aramean tradition does not come down to the time of the flood, or, rather, has no necessity to deal with it, since it does not follow the descendants of Lamech. The other includes it, and tells of the house of Noah. At Iconium, in Asia Minor, Hanokh the father of Lamech is said to have predicted the flood, but no one would listen. Of the three races, Ham or Cham=Chem means the dark; Sem the glowingfrom whom came Adam or Edom the red, whence Phænician, also the red. Japhet was the fair. Of purely mythical names, we have in the Bible accounts, Set, Enos, Adam, Havvah, the Life-Giving, and Abel, the Vanishing. Quain is the type of those who bear arms and cultivate the soil. Nod is Aight; Cain, Nad or the fugitive. Hanokh means “ taught of God.”
A life of 365 years, seems to indicate a mythical character. Hirad means “ citizen.” Ma-hu-ya-el, “struck of God.” Metusael, “ Man of God.” Lamech, the “ Robber.” Hadah, “ Beauty," and Zillah, a “ Shadow.” The man of God stands between Cain the Marauder and Ired, “ Builder of cities.”
I. The order of Gods, Semitic, Egyptian and Greek, are identical. II. They belong to primeval conceptions. III. The Biblical story is the only one free from great monstrosity.
IV. In that is the Ideal element of one G restored by Abram. The historic element consists of primitive Aramaic recollections.
V. The historic record does not at first refer to men, but to certain epochs or changes of residence, of which the record had descended, but was not understood.
RESTORATION OF REGISTER.
God as Jahovah Elohim,
God as Seth or Seti,
created Adam the Red,
Enos the Strong.
Humanity develops as
1. Cain, or Quayn, etc.
The key to this restoration was given us by the Mosaic author, when he put the two registers in juxtaposition.
Till the time of Joel, there was no tampering with this record. First came changes in the Samaritan, then the Septuagint, then Eusebius altered it to produce ecclesiastical conformity. Then came the two monks, Byzantines, Amianas and Panodorus, with schemes of reduction.
AN APPROXIMATION TO EPOCHS ON BUNSEN's Plan.
The rule of Seth, 912 years ; Adam, 930 years; Enos, 905 years. Of course these periods are set aside as mythical. Seth is a God, Adam and Enos, equally represent the first man.
Noah lived 600 years before the flood. This is the great cosmic period of the Patriarchs, the equation of the solar and lunar years. Josephus tells us of it. Fréret has unravelled it. Make the calculation, and we shall see that the previous epochs of the primeval world were supposed to have lasted eight cycles. Then Noah's life to the food was 600 years, or the gth cycle. Shem's
“ roth cycle. Of the 350 years, Noah is said to have lived after the food, fifty belong to the period before the flood, where the astronomical calculation is deficient to just that extent. We see, therefore, that all estimates of time, before the removal of the race to Arphaxad, were cyclical. We must now try to discover how the geographical dates which marked the descent from the mountains, changed into eras marked by the life or names of individuals. Years of Noah after the flood, half a cycle,
300 years. Years of Shem,
600 Cyclical time after the flood,
HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL PERIODS.
Residence in Arphaxad, In Selah, the Mission, “ Heber, the Crossing,
Peleg, the Partition, “ Rehu, the Pastoral,
Serug or Osroene, “ Nahor, colonies in Padan Aram, • Terah in Haran, Abram till 75 years old,
The distinctly historic period begins with Arrapakhitis. In round numbers, this dates back to 5,000 B. C. In Selah, the settlements were pushed forward. In Heber, they crossed the Tigris, and then all the advances are to the Southwest till Abraham crosses the Euphrates. Terah is perhaps a person merged in an epoch. He not only went to Haran, it will be seen, but his son Haran died before he went. Did he name the new land for the dead son? It is evident the record was made when the name had become fixed. After the cyclical period, we have another, evidently indefinable, before the Semites dispersed in the highlands of Asia. Now the history of Chamitic life in Egypt requires 4,000 years before the Aramaic emigration. During this primitive time, can we find any space for the story of Nimrod and Babel ? This is either a myth, or the oldest fragment of history in the world. Now, Nimrod, the Kossack (not Cushite, but Koshite,) could not have lived later than 4,000 B. C. The Kossians were an ancient Scythian tribe in the mountains, east of the Tigris. These people lived in the plains of Shinar, a far older race than the Semitic. It would seem as if the marauding life of Nimrod might have driven them across the Tigris, and started the emigration that followed. If we make the first historical starting point, Babylon, 3,784 B. C., we leave room for Nimrod. His was not a transient
influence ; it was as subversive and permanent as the fancied confounding of speech, which followed the destruction of his tower. It is to this day deeply impressed upon the Asiatic continent.
Philo of Byblus said, “ Babylon was not built by Semiramis, as Herodotus said, but by Babylon, son of Belas, 2,000 years before." Before the building of Babylon, there was a long line of forgotten Chaldean kings, and in their history that of Nimrod forms the first decisive break. He, the Kossack, invaded their territory and built in their fields a mighty watch tower. Their descendants overthrew his usurped dominion before the building of the city. The consequences of the mixing and scattering of races which ensued, were momentous, and tradition preserved them. The first compiler of the record knew nothing of the Koshite tribe, and misunderstood the reference.
Abraham did not hesitate to adopt or fall into the Phænician dialect, although he rejected the Phænician faith. If be preserved his native Aramaic, a mixed family of dependents could not be expected to do so. The old tongue of Tyre and Sidon is pure Hebrew. If he had turned with horror from the idolatry of Aram, that of Phænicia was far more corrupt ; but, in spite of him, and very naturally, many mythological references get mixed in the narrative of his descendants.
Evangelical Christians say that Jesus was crucified on Freya's day, or Friday, and see no impropriety in it. The mixed use of Elohim, Jehovah and Seth, in the narrative, shows that the old Hebrews fell into similar habits. The patriarchs were historical persons, but between Joseph and Moses, many symbols and stories of the Pre-Abramic period got interwoven with the popular Epos. The names of Esau and Israel were mythological, borrowed from Phænician story, perhaps indignantly applied in retort for claims set up for these false gods. Thus the name of Is-ra-El may have been the proud assertion that their chief was the true and only “ Wrestler with God.”
In the first pages of this article, we sketched the necessary Egyptian frame-work into which we might fit the Hebrew narrative. ceeded to fix the period of the Exodus, and worked backward and forward from it till we outlined the Hebrew story subsequent tu Abraham. Then we went back to the Pentateuch and dissected its registers, a work which would have been unintelligible in the beginning, and if undertaken without the light shed on it by the later story. The reader who would profit from what is set before him, must consent to work. Bunsen's pages will never serve to wile away an idle moment.
Having left the Hebrew branch of our great inquiry in a form likely to be interesting and useful to the Biblical student, we proceed to mention some matters purely critical, and to touch upon some others relating to the literature and mythologies of Phænicia and Egypt, and necessary to the stu
We then prodent who would enquire further. Since the Armenian version of Eusebius the authority of Berosus is undisputed. We may expect still to excavate from Phænicia some remains of the time of Abraham. The burial of Jacob at Hebron seems attested by the immense ruins there, and whatever shakes the basis of Ottoman power in the Holy Land, will make it possible to in. vestigate that site. While Bunsen was writing, the sarcophagus of Ashmuneser, king of Sidon, was discovered and carried to France. Why could not the walls of the Louvre charm away its secret ? Then, perhaps, it could have told us whether Homer was blind, whether Semiramis sent to Sidon for its famous glass mirrors, and who bought the Palais Royal jewelry manufactured there in the Trojan era! Bunsen does not doubt that Philo of Byblus had access to very important records, that the San-Con-Iath was not so much the work of one author as the earliest sacred book of Phænicia preserved like the Torah of the Jews. Long before the time of Hiram, they must have had permanent records, and that king introduced many changes into the sacred calendar. Access to such records explains why Philo tacked together two different cosmogonies, like the old writer in Genesis. And the fragments he preserves of the San-Con-Iath are a brilliant confirmation of the historical character of the Bible tradition.
As regards the origin of the Semitic name for God, (Sun, Fire) there is no doubt that IAO, the Phænician name, is the abbreviation of Iabe or Iehovah. Urim and Thummin, Phænician Light and Truth, beamed from the Hebrew priests' breast-plate. The Kerubim (cherubim) of the garden, were only revolving flames, the tradition of which kept the emigrants from turning back; perhaps because a volcanic agency preceded the overwhelming food. Seraphim, meant in the beginning running flames, from which it came to be applied to poisonous snakes. The old form of El gave the four eyes to the Kerubim, and the six wings to the Seraphim. Yet the recent title of an article, “ The God of Israel once the Sun god,” does not convey the truth.
The nations of central Asia were the worshippers of an invisible God, like the North American Indians, and it was to that original faith that Abraham returned when surrounding idolatries has corrupted the customs of his people. The oldest authentic name of God is Seth. SetTyphon corresponds to Saturn. The sacred Dog-Star, Sothis, bears the
In the Bible, Seth is the father of Enos or Man. Kevan is the name translated Chiun or Keeun (Amos v. 26), which was the idol worshipped in the wilderness. A few points of contact between the Biblical and the Phænician stories deserve attention. Hercules wrestled with “ Ty. phon “the meridian sun in the sand,” as Jacob wrestled with El-ohim. He was wounded, like Jacob, in the thigh, and, like him, called the Wrestler (Isra=Palaimon). Usov, his brother, was a hunter who wore shaggy skins, and, like the Hebrew Esau, went away from home to live.
The great pair of Gods were El-ium and Behuth. Adoni and Baalti, Lord and Mistress. The God El sacrifices Jadid his “only begotten” and “well-beloved son,"