History of Europe: From the Fall of Napoleon, in 1815, to the Accession of Louis Napoleon in 1852, כרך 7

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Real explanation of his conduct
10
His views on the Currency
12
Explanation thus afforded of his political career
13
His character in private life
14
Formation of the new Ministry
15
Immense difficulties of the country in foreign affairs
17
Still darker prospect in internal affairs
19
Statistical details proving the distress
20
Immense difficulties in finance and from the inadequate national arma ments
22
Great distress in the manufacturing districts
24
Still more serious riots in Scotland
25
Measures of repression adopted
26
Their effects and results of the strike
27
Skilful use made of these circumstances
28
Opposite arguments adduced by the AntiCornLaw League and real causes of the distress
29
Short session of 1841
30
Opening of the Parliament of 1842
31
2833 Sir R Peels plan 3237
32
The Ministerial plan
38
The bill passes both Houses and various amendments are thrown out
42
Reception of the measure in the country
43
Financial difficulties of Sir R Peel ib 4348 Sir R Peels speech on introducing his financial measures 4448
44
Reception of the plan by the Opposition and the country 49 5053
49
5054 Argument against the incometax
50
The bill passes and its reception by the country 54
54
Reflections on the Tariff and reasons for it 57 It might have been easily obviated by an extension of the Currency 56
56
The incometax was justifiable ib 59 But this made the tax on perishable incomes more unjust
58
Reasons of this injustice being committed 61 Peels heroic conduct on the Afghanistan disaster 59
59
Lord Mahons Copyright Bill
61
Reflections on this Act 64 Extension of the dangers of literature 62
62
The Temperance Movement in Ireland
64
Commencement of the Repeal agitation
67
Monster meetings
68
Character of these meetings and language used at them
69
Measures of Government and Arms Bill
70
The Clontarf meeting is stopped and OConnell arrested
71
Trial and conviction of OConnell
72
Reversal of the sentence 72
74
His subsequent career and death
75
Fine harvest of 1842 and gradual improvement in the country in 1843
77
General improvement in the country
78
Parliamentary measures of 1843 Lord Ashleys Bills for Infant Labour
79
Sir James Grahams unsuccessful Factory and Education Bill
80
New Factory Bill and Lord Ashleys Tenhours amendment
82
Reflections on this subject
83
Termination of the troubles and bill removing their cause
86
The Chartist and AntiCornLaw movements 86 Differences with America 87
87
Question of the right of search
90
The question is settled by Lord Aberdeen
91
Its origin
93
Proceedings regarding the dispute
94
Reflections on it
96
Its history
97
Conclusion of a treaty
99
Its terms
100
Reflections on these Treaties ib 97 Origin of the Otaheite dispute with France
101
The French take possession of Otaheite
102
Affair of Mr Pritchard which complicates the case
103
The matter is adjusted
105
Spanish marriages
106
Reduction of the 33 per cents 104 Favourable financial statement of 1844
107
Reduction of taxes
108
Reduction of Sugar Duties
109
Bank Charter Act
110
108111 Sir R Peels argument in support of his Bill 111113
111
112113 Argument against the Bill 114116
114
The Bill passes both Houses
116
Similar bills for Scotland and Ireland
117
Reflections on this debate
118
What was not foreseen
119
Visit of the King of the French to England
120
Visit of the Emperor Nicholas
121
Political objects of the visit
122
CHAPTER XLII
124
The Railway Mania
126
Effects of the mania on society
127
Effects on the public mind
128
Its immediate benefits to some classes
129
Great effect of these speculations in the country
130
Division in the landed interest occasioned by the railway mania
132
Good effects of the railway mania on the labouring classes
133
Effects of the railway system on commerce and manufactures
134
Beneficial effect of the railway system on the working classes
136
Bill passes reducing railway deposits to a half
137
Its vast effect in stimulating these undertakings
138
Sir R Peels favourable financial statement
139
Continuance of the Incometax and repeal of more indirect taxes
140
1617 Mr Barings objection to it 142143
142
The bill is carried by a large majority
144
Reflections on this measure ib 20 Causes of this great change
145
Increase in Irish agrarian crime
146
Grant to secular colleges
147
Enlarged grant to Maynooth College
149
Reflections on this measure and its failure
150
History of the subject
151
Causes of the law being evaded
152
Proof afforded by experience of the good effected by the bill
159
Charge against Sir James Graham of opening letters ib 32 The Alien Act
160
Progress of the AntiCornLaw League
161
Division on Mr Miles motion
162
Further divisions on the Corn Laws and close of the session
163
The change had become unavoidable from the Monetary and Freetrade systems
164
Advantages and dangers of the potato as the food of man
165
First appearance of the potato rot
167
Increased efforts of the AntiCornLaw League
168
General alarm and symptoms of change
169
4143 Lord John Russells Letter 170172
170
Approach to a repeal of the Corn Laws and resignation of Sir R Peel
172
Failure of Lord John Russell to form a government and restoration of Sir R Peels Cabinet
173
Announcement of the repeal of the Corn Laws in the Times
175
4855 Sir R Peels argument in favour of Free Trade 176183
176
Reception of the measure in the country
184
5758 Mr Disraelis caustic remarks 185186
185
5964 Arguments against the bill 187191
187
Result of the debate
192
Duke of Wellingtons speech on the bill
193
Cause of this inconsistency
194
The Budget for 1846
195
Determination of the Protectionists to drive Sir R Peel from power
196
Increased agrarian outrages in Ireland tb 71 Coalition of parties against the Government
198
7376 Argument in support of the bill 200202
200
7780 Answer of the Coalition against the bill 204206
204
The bill is thrown out by a majority of 73
207
Mr Disraelis account of the scene
208
Sir R Peel resolves to resign
209
8485 Sir R Peels concluding address 210211
210
Reflections on his freetrade measures
212
Was a return to the Corn Laws after the famine was over practicable ib 88 The danger of scarcity had passed away before the bill was brought forwa...
213
Durable reasons for the repeal of the Corn Laws
215
Real freetrade was not introduced but protection taken from agriculture
216
Strange conduct of the Irish members on the Corn Law question
218
The Duke of Wellingtons characteristic conduct
220
This will not apply to Sir R Peel
221
What were the alleviating circumstances of his case
223
CHAPTER XLIII
225
Both the Whigs and the Tories were destroyed by their own leaders
226
Causes which led to these changes
227
Formation of the new Cabinet
228
58 Government plan for the sugarduties 229232
229
915 Argument of the Protectionists on the other side 233239
233
Sir R Peels singular conduct and passing of the bill
239
Result of this measure to the West Indies
240
Effect on the slave trade
242
Explanation of this given by foreign writers
243
Real explanation of it
244
Proof of the colonies having been disfranchised by the Reform Bill
245
Discussion on flogging in the army
246
Motion on the subject and Wellingtons order
247
Reflections on this subject
249
Difference in the composition of the British and foreign armies
250
Necessity of corporal punishment in the field
251
Lord Palmerstons Cabinet minute on the defences of the country
252
Wellingtons measure for enrolling the pensioners
255
Arms bill for Ireland
256
WOL WII
257
Sir R Peels measures for the relief of the Irish suffering and those of Lord J Russell
258
Commencement of the Irish famine
259
Deplorable and alarming state of the country
261
Government plans on the subject
262
Enormous extent of the distress
264
Woeful scenes in the country
265
Her Majestys speech on opening Parliament
266
Ministerial plan for the Irish relief
267
Description of the calamity by Lord Brougham
268
Ministerial plan for the relief of Ireland
269
Amended Poor and Temporary Relief Act 10 and 11 Victoria c 7
270
Immense relief afforded under this Act in Ireland
272
Ratio of indigent persons relieved
273
Great mortality of this period
274
Immense pecuniary efforts made in Great Britain
275
Vast extent of the emigration from Ireland
276
Still greater emigration to foreign parts
277
Effects of this exodus on the Irish population
279
Which arose mainly from freetrade measures
280
Voluntary relief in Ireland and causes of its small amount
282
Reflections on the Irish famine
283
Potato famine in Scotland at this period
284
Means taken in Scotland to combat it
285
Lord George Bentincks project for Irish railways
286
5458 His railway scheme 287290
287
It is opposed by Ministers
291
Division on the subject and reflections on it
294
Character of Lord George Bentinck
295
His family and early history
296
His mental qualities
297
What gave him this rapid ascendancy
298
The Budget of 1847
299
Its details
300
Causes which led to the approach of a monetary crisis
301
Great effect of the Irish famine
303
Progress of the panic
304
Difference between this and former crises
305
7982 Answer of the Government and Sir R Peel 309312
309
Nothing followed on this debate
313
Reflections on it b 85 Debate on the Navigation Laws
315
44
316
8990 Answer of Sir R Peel Sir James Graham and Mr Cobden 318319
318
The bill passes both Houses
320
Reflections on this measure b 93 Vast difference in the mortality of manufacturing towns and the country
322
45
323
Introduction of a system of limited service
324
Which passes into law
325
Public education
326
New Coercion Bill for Ireland
328
Prorogation and dissolution of Parliament
330
Commercial embarrassments
331
Increased monetary pressure in August
332
Commercial bankruptcies
333
Suspension of the Bank Charter Act
334
Reflections on this change
336
Great and immediate effect of this letter
337
Meeting of Parliament and Queens Speech
339
106108 Sir R Peels statement on the Bank Charter Act 340342
340
109111 Answer of Lord G Bentinck and Mr Thomas Baring 343344
343
Result of the debate
345
Reflections on this debate
346
Great distress in the country from the monetary crisis
348
Details of the railway and mercantile losses
349
Rise in cotton from the crash of 1839 in America
350
Wast variations in the price of provisions
351
Pernicious effect of the French Revolution of 1848
352
Extreme severity of the pressure on the middle classes
355
Magnitude and perfection of the railway system in Britain
357
Fall in the exports and revenue
358
Great increase of paupers and criminals
359
Increase of crime emigration and decline of population
360
Extreme suffering in Glasgow and the manufacturing districts
362
Outbreak in Glasgow in March 1848
363
Further riots and their suppression
364
Good effects of this success
366
Commencement of the Chartist insurrection
367
Preparations of the Chartists
368
Vigorous preparations in the Government
369
Defeat of the Chartists
372
Detection of the frauds in the Chartist petition
373
Immense sensation this produced on the Continent
374
Renewed agitation by the Chartists and its suppression and their trials
375
Preparations for a rebellion in Ireland
376
Total defeat of the rebellion
378
Trial of OBrien and revealing of the designs of the conspirators
379
Immense effects of the monetary crisis of 1847
382
Lesson which it taught the British people
383
The monetary crisis was owing to Free Trade and a Fettered Currency ib 144 Dangers of Free Trade and a Fettered Currency
384
Which keeps the nation constantly on the verge of a monetary crisis
386
Argument on the other side as to the export of gold
388
Danger of gold passing merely through the richer States
390
Erroneous argument of the bullionists on this subject
391
The monetary crisis of 1847 was owing to Free Trade and the monetary laws
392
Sir Robert Peels object in the Act of 1844
394
Free Trade was forced upon Sir R Peel
405
Effects of this system on national progress and independence
406
Protection must continue to be the policy of young and growing states
407
Which is the result on their part of necessity
408
The effects of Free Trade must be judged of before 1852
409
CHAPTER XLIV
413
Great material prosperity of the period
414
Universal thirst for gain
416
Accumulating feelings of discontent in the working classes 4 17
418
Increasing discontent of the working classes
419
Trifling subjects in debate in the Chamber and serious objects of Thiers
420
Objects of general thought and interest at the same time
421
The Chamber of Peers afforded no remedy for these evils
423
Extreme danger of this state of things
424
Great mistake committed in the national education ib 13 Its irreligious character led it to run into Socialism
425
Blindness of the Government and the higher classes to the Socialist dangers
426
Corruption and influence became the great engine of Government
427
The Liberals exert all their efforts to discredit the Government
428
Louis Blancs picture of France at this period
429
Spread of Socialist principles and their origin
430
Which was aided by the want of an adequate currency
431
Which led to a general demand for Parliamentary Reform ib 21 Strong feeling excited in regard to the subservience of France to England
432
Different object on which the attention of Government was set
433
Position and movements of the Catholic clergy
434
2427 Speech of M Arago on Parliamentary Reform 435437
435
2829 Answer of M Thiers
438
Reflections on this debate
439
Great succession of Reform Banquets
440
Banquet at Chatillon
441
Growing importance of the question of wages
442
Commencement of combination and riot in Paris
444
Serious riots in September
445
Vigorous measures of Government to suppress the insurgents
446
Causes which produced this outbreak among the working classes
447
Temporary causes which also concurred ib 41 Effect of the general monetary crisis
448
Total failure of the attempt to make private railway lines in France
449
The Government undertake the lines ib 44 Disastrous state of the finances in consequence
450
Speech of M Humann on the finances
451
Untoward commencement of the Ministry of M Guizot
452
Efforts of England for suppression of the slave trade
453
Treaties of 1831 and 1833 with France regarding the slave trade
454
Treaty of December 20 1841 between France and the Allied Powers
455
Its provisions
456
Ambiguity in regard to the authorship of the letters
462
Expedient of a new valuation
468
Prosecution and acquittal of LedruRollin
474
Reflections on this debate and its result
484
Result of the debate and reflections on it
494
Lamartine as a statesman
500
Corruption of the Ministerial majority in the Chamber
506
CHAPTER XLV
511
Page 1 Description of Algeria and its three separate regions 5ll 2 Description of the Sahara
512
Influence thence arising to the rulers of the Tel
513
Extreme varieties of the climate
514
The Kabyles ib 6 Statistics of the colony
516
Exports and imports
517
Great importance of Algiers as a school for war
518
Qualities called out in the officers and soldiers ib 1112 Character of Changarnier
520
1314 Cavaignac 521522
521
Canrobert
523
Marshal Bugeaud
524
General de Lamoricière
526
Marshal St Arnaud
527
Marshal Pelissier
528
The Zouaves
529
State of Algiers in 1840
530
First operations of the campaign and capture of Medeah
531
Expedition against Milianah
533
Bloody combat on the Col de Mouzaia
534
Campaign of 1841
535
Successful campaign of 1841 b 28 Submission of various tribes in the south and west
537
Final defeat and flight of AbdelKader
538
His reappearance
539
Capture of the harem of AbdelKader
540
Commencement of difficulties with Marocco
541
Which lead to a rupture ib 34 Attack on the French by the troops of Marocco Combat on the Mouillah
542
Conference between General Bedeau and the Marocco chief
543
The conference ends in hostilities
544
Commencement of hostilities with Marocco by sea and land
545
Bombardment of Tangiers and Mogador
546
Critical position of the French and their resolution to fight
547
Dispositions for the battle
548
Battle of Isly
549
Glorious victory of the French
550
Peace with Marocco
551
Campaign against the Kabyles and fresh efforts of AbdelKader
552
Capitulation of AbdelKader and its violation by the French
553
General submission and pacification of Algeria
554
General view of Algeria as finally acquired by the French
555
Diminutive scale still of its industrial resources ib 49 Parallel of the British empire in India and the French in Algeria
557
CHAPTER XLVI
559
French excitement on the affair of Otaheite
560
Pacific views of Louis Philippe and M Guizot
561
Violence of the public journals
563
Affair of the University and retirement of M Willemain
564
Argument of M Thiers against the Jesuits 565566
565
Answer of M Guizot and M Le Martin du Nord
566
Decision of the Chamber on the subject
567
Negotiations with the Court of Rome on the subject and ordonnance against the Jesuits
568
Effect of these measures
569
Treaty regarding the right of search for slaves
570
State of Poland since the termination of the war 57 1
572
State of things in Gallicia
573
Disputes about the Corvées
574
Spread of Socialism in Gallicia
575
Injurious influence of the Jews
576
And disbanded soldiers
577
Commencement of the insurrection of the nobles
578
Commencement of the insurrection 579
579
Horrors of the insurrection
580
Disturbances at Cracow and its abandonment by the Austrians
581
Recapture of Cracow
583
Reflections on the annexation of Cracow
584
Great sensation produced by these events in Europe ib 27 Justification of the annexation which this conduct of the Cracow insurgents afforded
585
Embarrassment of M Guizot and Lord Palmerston on the Polish question
586
Renewed attempt to assassinate Louis Philippe
587
Escape of Louis Napoleon from the Château of Ham
588
Mode in which he effected his escape
590
Slight attention which this event excited Marriage of the Duke de Bordeaux
591
Last election under Louis Philippe
592
The Spanish Marriages History of the question
594
Danger to England from the French and Spanish alliance
595
Effects of this change on the interests of England
597
Queen Christinas proposal of a double marriage to Louis Philippe
598
Further conferences on the subject ib 41 Conferences at the Château dEu and at Windsor on the subject
600
The QueenRegent offers the hand of her daughter the Queen to Prince Leopold of SaxeCoburg
602
Intrigue for the simultaneous marriage of the Queen and Infanta which is disapproved by Louis Philippe
603
Lord Palmerstons letter of 19th July to Sir H Bulwer
605
Terror of M Guizot and Louis Philippe of the Coburg proposal
607
The two marriages are contracted on the same day
608
Coldness in consequence of the British and French Governments
609
Disastrous effects of this coldness
610
Its effects on the future of France and England
611
Who was to blame in these marriages
612
Lord Palmerstons was an imprudent slip Guizots a breach of faith
613
Effects of this disunion of France and England on Poland
614
Diplomatic differences of France and England on the Treaty of Utrecht
615
Cordiality of France and England before the affair of the Spanish marriages
617
Affairs of Greece and disaccord of France and England regarding it
618
Which is at first supported and then disowned by Russia
619
Commencement of a coldness which approaches to a rupture
620
Increased division between France and England regarding Greece
621
Differences regarding Portugal and La Plata
622
Affairs at Madrid and alienation of the King and Queen
623
Affairs of Italy Death of the Pope and accession of Pius IX
624
Election and character of Pius IX
625
State of Italian opinion at this time
626
Character of Pius IX
627
General amnesty and transports with which it was received
628
First acts of the Pope
629
Difficulties which beset the Papal Government tö 68 Which are increased by the general concourse of Liberals to Rome
630
Adoption of the same policy in the Grandduchy of Tuscany
631
Movements in Sardinia and Piedmont
632
Papal declaration against Liberalism
633
Revolutionary movement in Rome ib 73 Measures of the Austrian and French cabinets
634
Conduct of the French Government
635
Effects in Piedmont
636
Prince Metternichs views at this crisis ib 77 M Guizots policy as to Italy at this period
637
Policy of the English Government at the same time
639
Great reforms introduced into Piedmont
641
Revolution at Lucca and its annexation to Tuscany
642
Enthusiasm excited at Rome by Lord Mintos arrival
643
Rossis warning remarks to the Pope and the Radicals
644
Riot in Rome e
645
Revolt in Sicily
646
Publication of a constitution at Naples
647
Great sensation produced by this change in Italy
648
Convulsions in Sicily
649
Credulity of Lord Palmerston to the Liberal Italian agents
650
Affairs of Switzerland and progress of democracy in it
651
Progress of democratic influences in it
653
Rapid growth of Radicalism in the Swiss cities
654
Origin of the religious disputes
655
Invasion of the Free Bands under Ochsenbein
656
Which leads to the Sunderbund
657
Proceedings of the great Council against the Sunderbund
658
Preparations for civil war
659
Policy of France and Austria at this crisis ib 98 Policy of Lord Palmerston to support the Radicals
660
Divergence of Lord Palmerstons policy on the question
662
Disastrous effect of this divergence
663
Lord Palmerston delays to join in the French and Austrian intervention
664
Easy success of the Radicals tb 104 The tardy mediation of the five powers is declined
668
Alarm which these measures of England awakened on the Continent ib 106 Formation of a league against Great Britain
669
Weakness of Great Britain at sea and land at this period
670
Reflections on the extraordinary disproportion of the danger and means of resistance
671
Cause of the opposite foreign policy of France and England at this period ib 110 The completeness of revolution in one country and its incompletene...
672
CHAPTER XLVII
673
23 Prince de Joinvilles letter to the Duke de Nemours 674675
674
Views of the King on the subject
676
Deficiency of the crops in 1845 and 1846
677
Failure of the potato crop in 1846 and monetary crisis
678
Financial state of 1847 and great loans contracted for by the Government
679
Enlarged issue of banknotes
680
General corruption in the Government departments
682
Events which brought it to light
683
Revelation of further scandal
684
Result of the trial and conviction of the accused
685
Murder of the Duchess of Praslin
686
Details of the catastrophe and its termination
687
Use made of these abuses by the Revolutionists
689
Cry for Parliamentary Reform
690
Discontent of the National Guard
691
Coalition of parties against the Government and measures agreed on
692
Commencement of the banquet agitation
694
Duvergier dHaurannes speech
695
de Lamartines speech at Maçon
696
Efforts of the Liberals to keep back the Socialists
697
de Lamartines ulterior views
698
Decline of the banquet agitation in the end of the year
699
Meeting of the Chambers and Kings Speech
700
Speech of M Thiers
702
2930 Speech of M de Tocqueville 703704
703
Speech of M Billault
704
Speech of M de Lamartine
705
Duchâtels answer 706710
706
Discussion on the Address
711
Divisions on the Address ib 41 The Opposition resolve on a banquet
712
Great agitation in Paris on the announcement
714
Preparations for the banquet
715
Programme of the proposed procession
716
Difficulties on both sides regarding a procession ib 47 Debate and decision of the Liberal chiefs against the procession
718
Articles in the National and Réforme on the subject
719
Strength of the Republicans at this period
720
Forces of the Government and its measures
721
Aspect of the people
722
Insidious policy of the National Guard
723
The National Guard in effect join the insurgents
724
Consternation in the Tuileries
726
Resignation of M Guizot ib 56 Announcement of this to the Chambers and its reception in Paris
728
Catastrophe in front of M Guizots house
729
Parade of the dead bodies through Paris
730
Thiers is sent for
731
Excessive agitation in Paris during the night
732
Marshal Bugeauds success
733
Thiers and Odillion Barrot succumb and withdraw the troops
734
Ruinous consequences of this concession
735
Abandonment of the Palais Royal
736
Last hours of the monarchy
737
The King is forced to abdicate
738
Proceedings of the generals at this time and flight of the King
740
Escape of the Royal Family
741
Heroic conduct of the Duchess of Orléans
742
Opinion in the Chamber of Deputies 7 43
744
Entrance of the Duchess of Orléans into the Chambers ib 73 She is refused a hearing and obliged by the mob to retire
746
Nomination of the Provisional Government
747
Nomination of another Provisional Government and proclamation of a Republic
748
Lamartines portrait of the Revolutionists
749
Escape of the Duchess of Orléans and the Royal Family
750
Causes which brought about the Revolution
752

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