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are like river currents; the greater energies are seen in mighty transformations. It is this which makes heaven and earth so great.

CHAP. XXXI. I. It is only he, possessed of all sagely qualities that can exist under heaven, who shows himself quick in apprehension, clear in discernment, of far-reaching intelligence, and allembracing knowledge, fitted to exercise rule ; magnanimous, generous, benign, and mild, fitted to exercise forbearance ; impulsive, energetic, firm, and enduring, fitted to maintain a firm hold; selfadjusted, grave, never swerving from the Mean, and correct, fitted to command reverence ; accomplished, distinctive, concentrative,

and searching, fitted to exercise discrimination. 2. All-embracing is he and vast, deep and active as a fountain, sending forth in their due season his virtues.

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3. All-embracing and vast, he is like heaven. Deep and active as a fountain, he is like the abyss. He is seen, and the people all reverence him; he speaks, and the people all believe him; he acts, and the people all are pleased with him.

4. Therefore his fame overspreads the Middle Kingdom, and extends to all barbarous tribes. Wherever ships and carriages reach; wherever the stren h of man penetrates; wherever the heavens overshadow and t e earth sustains; wherever the sun and moon shine; wherever frosts and dews fall :—all who have blood and breath unfeignedly honour and love him. Hence it is said,—‘ He is the equal of Heaven.’

CHAP. XXXII. I. It is only the individual possessed of the most entire sincerity that can exist under heaven, who can adjust

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_‘puts them forth,» the 2, ‘them; having Learning, x. 15, as representatives of all her

reference to the qualities described in par. 1. Elxzuil Pribes' w! read Chm! 4th tone: =gr 3. ‘ He is seen ;'—with reference, says the 3281: C

b , ' ..... . HE suroonm or osrncms concwnzn.

B , to ‘the robesand cap, theusibilities ‘The chapter; saya Chi Hsi’ ‘expands the of the ruler. ‘He speaks ;‘—with refereneeto clause in the last paragraph of chap. xxjx, his ‘instructions, declarations, orders.’ ‘He that the greater energies are seen in mighty may—With referencetohmlcemmom?’mus'9' transformations.’ I. and are propunishments, and acts of government. 4. This . _ _ _ _ paragraph is the glowing expression of grand cesses in the manipulation of silk, denoting the

. first separating of the threads and the subconceptlons' 525%, the general name for the sequent bringing of them together, according to

rude tribes south of the Middle Kingdom. their kinds. 32 1; z j: fir—‘the great is another name for the 1X, 01' rude tribes on invariabilities of the world ;' explained of the

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the great invariable relations of mankind, establish the great fundamental virtues of humanity, and know the transforming and nurturing operations of Heaven and Earth ;—shall this individual have any being or anything beyond himself on which he depends?

2. Call him man in his ideal, abyss, how deep is he! Call him

how earnest is he! Call him an Heaven, how vast is he!

3. Who can know him, but he who is indeed quick in apprehension, clear in discernment, of far-reaching intelligence, and all

embracing knowledge, possessing OHAP. XXXIII. I. It is sai

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all heavenly virtue?

d in the Book of Poetry, ‘ Over her

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properly two, and man is separate from Heaven only by his having this body. Of their seeing and hearing. their thinking andrevolving, their moving and acting, men all say—It isfrom at. Every one thus brings out his ser, and his smallness becomes known. But let the body be taken away, and all would be Heaven. How can the body be taken away ? Simply by subduing and removing that self-having of the ego. This is the taking it away. That being done, so wide and great as Heaven is, my mind is also so wide and great, and production and transformation cannot be separated from me. Hence it is said—How east is his Hearen.’ Into such wandering mazes of mysterious speculation are Chinese thinkers conducted by the text :-—only to be lost in them. As it is said, in par. 3, that only the sage can know the sage, we may be glad to leave him.

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embroidered robe she puts a dislike to the display of the e the wa of the superior man to

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1plain, single garment,’ intimating a egance of the former.

Just so, it is

refer the concealment of his virtue,

while 1t daily becomes more illustrious, and it is the way of the mean man to seek notoriety, while he daily goes more and more to

ruin.

It is characteristic of the superior man, appearing insipid, yet

never to produce satiety; while showing a simple negligence, yet to have his accomplishments recognised; while seemingly plain, yet to be discriminating. He knows how what is distant lies in what is near. He knows where the wind proceeds from. He knows how what is minute becomes manifested. Such an one, we may be sure, will enter into virtue.

2. It is said in the Book of Poetry, ‘ Although the fish sink and lie at the bottom, it is still quite clearly seen.’ Therefore the superior man examines his heart, that there may be nothing wrong

38. THE coxnsscrzusu'r Arm THE coxrnmon or A vm'ruoos covssn. The chapter is understood to contain a summary of the whole Work, and to have a special relation to the first chapter. There, a commencement is made with Heaven, as the origin of our nature, in which are grounded the laws of virtuous conduct. This ends with Heaven, and exhibits the progress of virtue, advancing step by step in man, till it is equal to that of High Heaven. There are eight citations from the Book of Poetry, but to make the passages suit his purpose, the author allegorises them,or alters their meaning, at his pleasure. Origen took no more license with the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments than Tsze-sze and even Confucius himself do with the Book of Poetry. 1. Thefirst requisite in the pursuit of virtue is, that the learner think of his own improvement, and do not act from a regard

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there, and that he may have no cause for dissatisfaction with himself. That wherein the superior man cannot be equalled is simply this,—his work which other men cannot see.

3. It is said in the Book of Poetry,‘ Looked at in your apartment, be there free from shame as being exposed to the i Therefore, the superior man, even when he is not

of heaven.’

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moving, has a feel-ing of reverence, and while he speaks not, he has

the feeling of truthfulness.

4. It is said in the Book of Poetry, ‘In silence is the ofi'ering presented, and the spirit approached to; there is not the slightest contention.’ Therefore the superior man does not use rewards, and

the people are stimulated to virtue.
the people are awed more than by hatchets and battle-axes.
5. It is said in the Book of Poetry, ‘What needs no

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He does not show anger, and

display is a is.

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is from the same stanza of it.

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