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minute points which it embraces, and to raise it to its greatest height and brilliancy, so as to pursue the course of the Mean. He cherishes his old knowledge, and is continually acquiring new. He exerts an honest, generous earnestness, in the esteem and practice of all propriety.

7. Thus, when occupying a high situation he is not proud, and in a low situation he is not insubordinate. When the kingdom is well-governed, he is sure by his words to rise; and when it is illgoverned, he is sure by his silence to command forbearance to himself. Is not this what we find in the Book of Poetry,—‘ Intelligent is he and prudent, and so preserves his person?’

CHAP. XXVIII. I. The Master said,‘ Let a man who isi norant be fond of usin his own judgment ; let a man without rank e fond of assuming a directing ower to himself; let a man who is living in the present age go bac ' to the ways of antiquity ;——on the persons of all who act thus calamities will be sure to come.’

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2. To no one but the Son of Heaven does it belong to order ceremonies, to fix the measures, and to determine the written characters.

3. Now, over the kingdom, carriages have all wheels of the same size ; all writing is with the same characters ; and for conduct there are the same rules.

4. One may occupy the throne, but if he have not the proper virtue, he may not dare to make ceremonies or music. One may have the virtue, but if he do not occupy the throne, he may not presume to make ceremonies or music.

5. The Master said, ‘I may describe the ceremonies of the Hsia dynasty, but Chi cannot sufficiently attest my words. I have learned the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, and in Sung they still continue.

I have learned the ceremonies of Chau, which are now used, and I follow Chau.’

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“'11 1. He who attains to the sovereignty of the

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kingdom, having those three important things, shall be able to effect that there shall be few errors under his government.

2. However excellent map of former times, they cannot

have been the regulations of those e attested. Not being attested, they

cannot command credence, and not being credited, the people would not follow them. However excellent might be the regulations made by one in an inferior situation, he is not in a position to be honoured. Unhonoured, he cannot command credence, and not being credited,

the people would not follow his rules. 3. Therefore the institutions of the Ruler are rooted in his own character and conduct, and sufficient attestation of them is given by

the masses of the those of the three

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ings, and finds them without mista c.

He examines them by com rison with

He sets

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them up before heaven and earth, and finds nothing in them con

trary to their mode of operation.

before spiritual beings, and no doubts about them arise.

He presents himself with them
He is pre-

pared to wait for the rise of a sage a hundred ages after, and has

no mis 'vings.

t5 .. beings, Without any doubts arlsm Heaven.

is presenting himself with his institutions before spiritual

about them, shows that he knows

His being prepared, Without any misgivings, to wait for

the rise of a sage a. bun red ages after, shows that he knows men. 5. Such being the case, the movements of such a ruler, illustrat

ing his institutions, constitute an example to the world for ages. His acts are for ages a law to the kingdom. His words are for ages a lesson to the kingdom. Those who are far from him, look longingly for him; and those who are near him, are never wearied with him.

6. It is said in the Book of P0etry,—‘ Not disliked there, not

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tired of here, from day to day and night to night, will they perpetuate their praise.’ Never has there been a ruler, who did not realise this description, that obtained an early renown throughout the kingdom.

CHAP. XXX. 1. Chung-ni handed down the doctrines of YAo and Shun, as if they had been his ancestors, and elegantly displayed the regulations of Wan and Wfi, taking them as his model. Above, he harmonized with the times of heaven, and below, he was conformed to the water and land.

2. He may be compared to heaven and earth in their supporting and containing, their overshadowing and curtaining, all things. He may be compared to the four seasons in their alternating progress,

and to the sun and moon in their successive shining. 3. All things are nourished together without their injuring one

another.

pursued without any collision among them.

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The courses of the seasons, and of the sun and moon, are

The smaller energies

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