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shall certainly be foreknown by him, and the evil also. Therefore the individual possessed of the most complete sincerity is like a spirit.

CHAP. XXV.

I. Sincerity is that whereby self-completion is

effected, and its way is that by which man must direct himself.

2. Sincerity is the end and beginning of things; without sincerity there would be nothing. On this account, the superior man regards the attainment of sincerity as the most excellent thing.

3. The possessor of sincerity does not merely accomplish the self-completion of himself. With this quality he completes other

men and things also.

The completing himself shows his perfect

of ‘ prodigies of plants, and of strangely dressed 1 commentators of the Sung school say that a

boys singing ballads,’ and the latter of ‘prodigious animals.’ The subject of the verbs E:

and a is the events, not the omens. For the

milfoil and tortoise, see the Yi-ching, App. III. ii. 73. They are there called Mfspiritual things.’ Divination by the milfoil was called fl ; that by the tortoise was called Ix . They were used from the highest antiquity. See the Shh-ching. 11. ii. 18; v. iv. 20-30. [m 5%, ‘four limbs,’ are by K'ang-ch'ang interpreted of the feet of the tortoise, each foot being

peculiarly appropriate to divination in a particular season. Chii Hsi interprets them of the

four limbs of the human body. tn must

be left as indefinite in the translation as it is in the text.—The whole chapter is eminently absurd, and gives a character of ridiculousness to all the magniloquent teaching about ‘ entire sincerity.’ The foreknowledge attributed to the Sage,-—the mate of Heaven,—is onlya guessing by means of augury, sorcery, and other follies.

25. How rnon smonam corms snLr-coxrnarlos, as» me COIPLEI‘XON or o'n-rnns AND or rinses. I have had difficulty in translating this chapter, because it is difficult to understand it. We wish that we had the writer before us to question him ; but if we had, it is not likely that he would be able to afl'ord us much satisfaction. Persuaded that what he denominates sincerity is a figment, we may not wonder at the extravagance of its predicates. I. All the

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path which is in accordance with the nature.’ They are probably correct, but the dificulty

comes when we go on with this view of _—= to the next paragraph. a. I translate the expansion of this in the B :—‘All that fill up the space between heaven and earth are things They end and they begin again ; they begin and proceed to an end; every change

being accomplished by sincerity, and every phenomenon having sincerity unceasingly in

it. So far as the mind of man 2A?)

is concerned, if there be not sincerity, then every movement of it is vain and false. How can an unreal mind accomplish real things? Although it may do something, that is simply equivalent to nothing. Therefore the superior man searches out the source of sincerity, and examines the evil of insincerity, chooses what is good, and firmly holds it test, so seeking to arrive at the place of truth and reality.’ MAo's explanation is :—‘Now, since the reason why the sincerity of spiritual beings is so incapable of being repressed, and why they foreknow, is because they enter into things, and there is nothing without them :—shall there be anything which is without the entirely sincere man, who is as a spirit?’ I have given these specimens of commentary, that the reader may, if he can, by means of them, gather some

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virtue. The completing other men and things shows his knowledge. Both these are virtues belonging to the nature, and this is the way by which a union is effects of the external and internal. Therefore, whenever he—the entirely sincere man—employs them,—that is, these oirtues,—thcir action will be right.

CHAP. XXVI. 1. Hence to entire sincerity there belongs ceaselessness. .

2. Not ceasing, it continues long. Continuing long, it evidences itself.

3. Evidencin g itself, it reaches far. Reaching far, it becomes large and substantial. Large and substantial, it becomes high and brilliant.

4. Large and substantial ;—this is how it contains all things. High and brilliant ;——this is how it overspreads all things. Reaching far and continuing long ;—this is how it perfects all things.

5. So large and substantial, the individual possessing it is the co~equal of Earth. So high and brilliant, it makes him the co-equal of Heaven. So far-reaching and long-continuing, it makes him infinite.

apprehensible meaning from the text. 3. Ii 26. A PARALLEL nrrwrziiri THE Saar: POSSFSSED

have translated hi 4% by_‘complete 0", or ENTIRE SINCERITY, AND HEAVEN AND Ennm,

_ _ lsnowiso ran nn: sun: comm BELONG 10 men and things 0180/ With a reference to “)6 run. The that six paragraphs show the way account of the achievements of sincerity, in of the sage; the next three Show the way of

-- , A Heaven and Earth ' and the last brings the two

Chap' mm' on it l3 fil‘ 6] ways together, in their essential nature, in a z E fl! the E % paraphrases ;_¢N°w passage from the Shih-ching. The doctrine of the chapterisliable to the criticismswhich have

been made on the 22nd chapter. And, moreover, there is in it a sad confusion of the visible

both this perfect virtue and knowledge are
virtues certainly and originally belonging to

our nature, to be referred for their bestowment heavens and earth with the immaterial power to Heaven ;—what distinction is there in them

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6- Such being its nature, without any display, it becomes mani

fested; without any movement, it

produces changes; and without

any effort, it accomplishes its ends.

7. The way of Heaven and Earth may be completely declared in one sentence—They are without any doubleness, and so they produce things in a manner that is unfathomable.

8. The way of Heaven and Earth is large and substantial, high and brilliant, far-reaching and long-enduring.

9. The heaven now before us is only this bright shining spot; but when viewed in its inexhaustible extent, the sun, moon, stars, and constellations of the zodiac, are suspended in it, and all things

1 ;

are overspread by it.

The earth before us is but a handful of so

but when regarded in its breadth and thickness, it sustains

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mountains like the Hwa and the Y0, without feeling their wei ht, and contains the rivers and seas, without their leaking away. he mountain now before us appears only a stone; but when contemplated in all the vastness of its size, we see how the grass and trees are produced on it, and birds and beasts dwell on it, and precious things which men treasure up are found on it. The water now before us a pears but a ladleful; yet extending our view to its unfathomab e depths, the largest tortoises, iguanas, iguanodons, dragons, fishes, and turtles, are produced in them, articles of value and sources of wealth abound in them.

10. It is said in the Book of Poetry, ‘ The ordinances of Heaven, how profound are they and unceasing !’ The meaning is, that it is thus that Heaven is Heaven. And again, ‘How illustrious was it, the singleness of the virtue of king Wan!’ indicating that it was thus that king Wan was what he was. Singleness likewise is unceasing.

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celebrated in China, the western one of which is called fl (lower 3rd tone) . Here, however, we are to understand by each term a

particular mountain. See the and [IF

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,‘g is overplus, meaning a g Ep-compare the Shfi-ching, I. 3. In that passage, as well as here, many take as meaning the planets, but we need not depart from the meaning of ‘ stars’ generally. E is applied variously, but used

along with the other terms, it denotes the conjunctions of the sun and moon, which divide the circumference of the heavens into twelve

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1. How great

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CHAP. XXVI I.

EOE If E

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is the path proper to the Sage !

2. Like overflowing water, it sends forth and nourishes all things, and rises up to the height of heaven.

3. All-complete is its greatness! It embraces the three hundred rules of ceremony, and the three thousand rules of demeanour.

4. It waits for the proper man,

and then it is trodden.

5. Hence it is said, ‘ Only by perfect virtue can the perfect path,

in all its courses, be made a fact.’ 6. Therefore, the superior man

honours his virtuous nature, and

maintains constant inquiry and study, seekin to carry it out to its breadth and greatness, so as to omit none of t e more exquisite and

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