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not be obedient to his parents. There is a way to the attainment Of sincerity in one’s self ;——if a man do not understand what is good, he will not attain sincerity in himself.

18. ‘ Sincerity is the way of Heaven. The attainment of sincerity is the way of men. He who possesses sincerity, is he who, without an effort, hits what is right, and apprehends, without the exercise of thought ;—he is the sage who naturally and easily

embodies the right way.

He who attains to sincerity, is he who /

chooses what is good, and firmly holds it fast.

19. ‘TO this attainment there

are requisite the extensive study

Of what is good, accurate inquiry about it, careful reflection on it,

the clear discrimination of it, and

the earnest practice of it.

20. ‘The superior man, while there is anything he has not studied, or while in what he has studied there is anything he can

not understand, will not intermit

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his labour. While there is any

quiesce in this, but for the opposition OfA z
'3 , on which MAO says :—lH: CF

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2 1’5“ E 14 h E % {1171i 5?—

;—‘ this is like the cultivation of the path in the Doctrine of the Mean, considered to be THE PATH, having its completion from man.’ But this takes the second and third utterances in the Work as independent sentiments, which they are not. I do not see my way to rest in any but the old interpretation, extravagant as it is.—At this point, the chapter in the i 3%; ceases to be the same with that before us, and diverges to another subject. 19. The different processes which lead to the attain

ment of sincerity. The gloss in the fi fisays

that ‘the five all refer to the what is good in the last chapter, the five universal duties,

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thing he has not inquired about, or anything in what he has inquired about which he does not know, he will not intermit his labour. While there is anything which he has not reflected on, or anything in what he has reflected on which he does not apprehend, he will not intermit his labour. While there is anything which he has not discriminated, or his discrimination is not clear, he will not intermit his labour. If there be anything which he has not mctised, or his practice fails in earnestness, he will not intermit his labour. If another man succeed by one efl'ort, he will use a hundred efforts.

If another man succeed by ten eiiorts, he will use a thousand. 21. ‘Let a man roceed in this way, and, though dull, he will surely become intel igent; though weak, he will surely become

stron .'

CHAP. XXI. When we have intelligence resulting from sincerity, this condition is to be ascribed to nature ; when we have sincerity

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the next three are devoted to the one subject of filial piety, and the 20th, to the general subject of government. Some things are said worthy of being remembered, and others which require a careful sifting ; but, on the whole, we do not find ourselves advanced in an under standing of the argument of the Work.

21. THE nscrvaoou. common or smosam AND INTELLIGENCE With this chapter commences the fourth part of the Work, which, as Chu observes in his concluding note, is an expansion of the 18th paragraph of the preceding chapter. It is, in a great measure, a glorification of the sage, finally resting in the person of Confucius ; but the high character of the sage, it is maintained, is not unattainable by others. He realizes the ideal of humanity, but by his example and lessons, the same ideal is brought within the reach of many, perhaps of all. The ideal of humanity,—the perfect character belonging to the sage, which ranks him

on a level with Heaven,—is indicated by a,

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resulting from intelligence, this condition is to be ascribed to instruc

tion.

But given the sincerity, and there shall be the intelligence ;

given the intelligence, and there shall be the sincerity. The above is the twmtyfirst chapter. Tsze-sze takes up in it, and discounts: from, the

subjects of ‘the way of Heavm' and ‘
The twelve chapters that follow are all from Tsze-aze, repeating and

chapter. illustrating the meaning of this one.

CHAP. XXII.

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the way of men,’ mentioned in the preceding

It is only he who is possessed of the most com

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1% 1H; t \ plete sincerity that can exist under heaven, who can give its full development to his nature. Able to give its full development to his own nature, he can do the same to the nature of other men. Able to give its full development to the nature of other men, he can give their full develo ment to the natures of animals and things. Able to give their fulfdevelopment to the natures of creatures and things, he can assist the transforming and nourishin powers of Heaven and Earth. Able to assist the transforming and nourishing powers of Heaven and Earth, he may with Heaven and Earth form a ternion.

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processes and in what way, the character tells us nothing about. The ‘giving full development to his nature, 'however, may be understood, with Milo, as= ‘pursuing ms PATH in accordance with his nature, so that what Heaven has conferred on him is displayed without shortcoming or let.’ The ‘giving its development to the nature of other men’ indicates the Sage's helping them, by his example and lessons, to perfect themselves. ‘ His exhaustingthe nature of things,’ i. e. of all other beings, animate and inanimate, is, according to Chu, ‘knowing them completely, and dealing with them correctly,’ ‘so,’ add the paraphrasts, ‘that he secures their prosperous increase and development according to their nature.’ Here, however, a Buddhist idea appears in Chu’s commentary. He says :— ‘The nature of other men and things (=animale) is the same with my nature,’ which, it is observed in Mao’s Work, is the same with the Buddhist sentiment, that ‘a dog has the nature of Buddha,’ and with that of the philosopher Kao, that ‘a dog's nature is the same

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as a man’s.’ Mao himself illustrates the ‘ exhausting the nature of things,’ by reference to the Sliu-ching, IV. iii. 2, where we are told that under the first sovereigns of the Hsia dynasty, ‘the mountains and rivers all enjoyed tranquillityI and the birds and beasts, the fishes and tortoises, all realized the happiness of their nature.’ It is thus that the sage ‘assists Heaven and Earth.’ K'ang-ch'ang, indeed, explains this by saying :—‘ The sage, receiving Heaven's appointment to the throne, extends everywhere 5 happy tranquillity.’ Evidently there is a reference in the language to the mystical para

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Earth ’ take the place here of the single term-
‘ Heaven,’ in chap. xx. par. 18. On this Ying-
ta observes :—‘It is said above, sincerity is the
way of Heaven, and here mention is made also of
Earth. The reason is, that the reference above,
was to the principle of sincerity in its spiritual
and mysterious origin. and thence the expres-
sion simple,—The way of Heaven ,- but here we
have the transformation and nourishing seen
in the production of things, and hence Earth
is associated with Heaven.’ This is not very
intelligible, but it is to bring out the idea of a
tenu'on, that the great, supreme, ruling Power

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CHAP. XXIII. Next to the above is he who cultivates to the

utmost the shoots of goodness in him. From those he can attain to the possession of sincerity. This sincerity becomes apparent. From being apparent, it becomes manifest. From being manifest, it becomes brilliant. Brilliant, it affects others. Afi'ecting others, they are changed by it. Changed by it, they are transformed. It is only he who is possessed of the most complete sincerity that can exist under heaven, who can transform.

CHAP. XXIV. It is characteristic of the most entire sincerity to be able to foreknow. When a nation or family is about to flourish, there are sure to be happy omens; and when it is about to perish, there are sure to be unlucky omens. Such events are seen in the milfoil and tortoise, and afiect the movements of the four

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phrase, E, will be, in the connexion, unintelligible. One writer uses this comVOL. I. E

When calamity or happiness is about to come, the good

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