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and black-haired people ; and may he not also be pronounced dangerous to the State ?’

15. It is only the truly virtuous man who can send away such a man and banish him, driving him out among the barbarous tribes around, determined not to dwell along with him in the Middle Kingdom. This is in accordance with the saying, ‘It is only the truly virtuous man who can love or who can hate others.’

I6. To see men of worth and not be able to raise them to office ; to raise them to office, but not to do so quickly :—this is disrespectful. To see bad men and not be able to remove them; to remove them, but not to do so to a distance :—this is weakness.

17. To love those whom men hate, and to hate those whom men love ;--this is to outrage the natural feeling of men. Calamities cannot fail to come down on him who does so.

18. Thus we see that the sovereign has a great course to pursue. He must show entire self-devotion and sincerity to attain it, and by pride and extravagance he will fail of it.

‘ The declaration of the duke of Ch'in ' is the last reciprocity, expounded in the second paragraph.

book in the Shu-ching. It was made by one of _ . .

the dukes of Ch'in to his officers, after he had L0 Chung fan contends that It 18 $4 R %’ sustained a great disaster, in consequence of ‘the lover of the people.’ The paragraph is neglecting the advice of his most faithful closely connected with the preceding. In

minister. Between the text here, and that . refers to me had minister which we find in the Shfi, there are some dif- H m z, 2 ’

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19. There is a great course also for the production of wealth. Let the producers be many and the consumers few. Let there be activity in the production, and economy in the expenditure. Then the wealth will always be sufficient.

20. The virtuous ruler, by means of his wealth, makes himself more distinguished. The vicious ruler accumulates wealth, at the expense of his life.

21. Never has there been a case of the sovereign lovin benevo— lence, and the people not loving righteousness. Never has t ere been a case where the people have loved righteousness, and the afi'airs of the sovereign have not been carried to completion. And never has there been a case where the wealth in such a State, collected in the treasuries and arsenals, did not continue in the sovereign’s possession.

22. The officer Mang Hsien said, ‘He who keeps horses and a carriage does not look after fowls and pigs. The family which

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and interprets it as= ‘ fate,’ but he is obliged to supply a good deal himself, to make any sense of the passage. See his argument, in 100.

graph speaks generally of the primal cause of gaining and losing, and shows how the principle of the measuring-square must have its root in the rider's mind. So,

in the B The great course is explained

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keeps its stores of ice does not rear cattle or sheep. So, the house which possesses a hundred chariots should not keep a minister to look out for imposts that he may lay them on the people. Than to have such a minister, it were better for that house to have one who should rob it of its revenues.’ This is in accordance with the say

ing :—‘ In a State, pecuniary gain is not to be considered to be prdsvhteousness.’

perity, but its prosperity will be found in ri,3

23. When he who presides over a State or a family makes his revenues his chief business, he must be under the influence of some small, mean man. He may consider this man to be 00d ; but when such a person is employed in the administration of a tate or family, calamities from Heaven, and injuries from men, will befal it together, and, though a good man may take his place, he will not be able to

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benerence, and righteousness" % and i Confucius. His sayings, quoted here, were preare here qualities of the same nature. They served by traditiOn» 01' recorded in some work are not contrasted as in Analects, XIII. xxvi. which is now lost 321 (read okra) %> 7 lg. This is understood by K'ang-ch'ang as re- B ' quiring the promotion of agriculture, and that is included, but does not exhaust the meaning. four horses He was then s“ d t .th_ The consumers are the salaried oflicers of the ' . ppose o w

government. The sentiment of the whole is draw from petty ways 0f gettmg wealth The

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remedy the evil. This illustrates again the saying, ‘ In a State, gain is not to be considered prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness.’

The above tenth chapter of cormrwntary explains the government of the State, and the making the kingdom peaceful and ham.

There are thus, in all, ten chapters of commentary, the first four of which discuss, in a general manner, the scope of the principal topic of the Work ; while the other six go particularly into an exhibition of the work required in its subordinate branches. The fifth chapter contains the important subject of comprehending true excellence, and the sixth, what is the fmmdation of the attainment of true sincerity. Those two chapters demand the especial attention of the learner. Let not the reader despise them because of their simplicity.

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My master, the philosopher Ch'dng, says:—‘Being without inclination to either side is

called CHUNG; admitting of no change is called YUNG.

the correct course to be pursued by

fixed principle regulating all under heaven.

By CHUNG is denoted all under heat-en ; by YUNG is denoted the This work contains the law of

the mind, which was handed down from one to anothcr, in the Confiwian school, till Tsze-sze, fearing lest in the course of time errors should arise about it,

committed it to writing, and delivered it to Mencius.

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one principle; it next spreads this out, and embraces all things; finally, it rein/ms and gathers them all up under the one Unroll it, and it fills

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