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Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in

their thoughts.

Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge.

Such extension of know—

ledge lay in the investigation of things. 5. Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their

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‘1;% 4% means exhausting by examination

the principles of things and afl'airs. with the desire that their uttermost point may be reached.'—-We feel that this explanation cannot be correct, or that, if it be correct, the teaching of the Chinese sage is far beyond and above the condition and capacity of men. How can we suppose that, in order to secure sincerity of thought and our self-cultivation, there is necessarily the study of all the phenomena of physics and metaphysics, and of the events of history ? Moreover, Chu Hsi's view of the two last clauses is a consequence of the alterations which he adopts in the order of the text.

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thoughts bein sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectifie , their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their States were rightly governed. Their States being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy.

6. From the Son of Heaven down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the person the root of everything besides.

7. It cannot be, when the root is neglected, that what should spring from it will be well ordered. It never has been the case that what was of great importance has been slightly cared for, and, at the same time, that what was of slight importance has been greatly cared for.

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The preceding chapter of classical text is in the words of Confiecius, handed down by the philosopher Tsdng. The ten chapters of explanation which follow contain the

views of Tsdng, and were recorded by his disciples.

In the old copies of the

work, there appeared cmisiderable confusion in these, from the disarrangement of

the tablets.

But now, availing myself of the decisions of the philosopher Ch‘dng,

and having examined anew the classical text, I have arranged it in order, as

follows :—

COMMENTARY OF THE PHILOSOPHER TSANG.

CHAPTER I.

1. In the Announcement to K'ang, it is said, ‘ He

was able to make his virtue illustrious.’

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2. In the TM Chia, it is said, ‘ He contemplated and studied the

illustrious decrees of Heaven.’

3. In the Canon of the emperor (YAo), it is said, ‘ He was able to make illustrious his lofty virtue.’

4. These passages all show how

illustrious.

those sovereigns made themselves

The aboveji'rst chapter of commentary explains the illustration of illustrious virtue.

CHAP. II.

I. On the bathing-tub of Tang, the following words

were engraved :——‘ If you can one day renovate yourself, do so from

day to day.

Yea, let there be daily renovation.’

2. In the Announcement to K'ang, it is said, ‘To stir up the new

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3. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, ‘Although Chen was an ancient State, the ordinance which lighted on it was new.’ 4. Therefore, the superior man in everything uses his utmost

endeavours.

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The above second chapter of commentary explains the renovating of the

CHAP. III.

I. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, ‘The royal

domain of a thousand ii is where the people rest.’ 2. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, ‘ The twitterin yellow bird

rests on a corner of the mound.’
it knows where to rest.
equal to this bird 7.’

The Master said, ‘ hen it rests,

Is it possible that a man should not be

3. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, ‘Profound was king wan. With how bright and unceasing a feeling of reverence did he regard his resting-places 1’ As a sovereign, he rested in benevolence. As a minister, he rested in reverence. As a son, he rested in filial piety. As a father, he rested in kindness. In communication with his subjects, he rested in good faith.

4. In the Book of Poetry, it is said, ‘ Look at that winding-course

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