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bosom, and leaves his country to confusion?’ Confucius replied,

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‘Can he be called wise, who is anxious to be engaged in

ublic employment, and yet is constantly losing the opportunity of Being so?’ Confucius again said,‘ N o.’ ‘ The days and months are passing away; the years do not wait for us.’ Confucius said,‘Right ;

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CHAP. II. The Master said, ‘ By nature, men are nearly alike; by Eractice, they get to be wide apart.’

HAP. III. The Master said,

‘There are only the wise of the

highest class, and the stupid of the lowest class, who cannot be

changed.’

Chi Hwan, a prisoner, and, in 501, he is driven out, on the failure of his projects, a fugitive into Ch‘i. At the time when the incidents in this chapter occurred, Yang Ho was anxious to get, or appear to get, the support of a man of Confucius’s reputation, and finding that the sage would not call on him, he adopted the expedient of sending him a pig, at a time when Confucius was not at home, the rules of ceremony requiring that when a great oflicer sent a present to a scholar, and the latter was not in his house on its arrival, he had to go to the oficer's house to acknowledge it. See the Li

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contended, is here not the moral constitution of man, absolutely considered, but his complex, actual nature, with its elements of the material, the animal, and the intellectual, by association with which, the perfectly good moral nature is continually being led astray. The moral nature is the same in all, and though the material organism and disposition do differ in difl'eront individuals, they are, at first, more nearly alike than they subsequently become. In the at % we read :—‘The nature is the constitution received by man at birth, and is then still. While it has not been acted on by external things, men are all like one another; they are r . After

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CHAP. IV. 1. The Master having come to Wfi-ch‘ang, heard there the sound of stringed instruments and singing. 2. Well pleased and smiling, he said, ‘Why use an ox-knife to

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3. Tsze-yu replied,‘Formerly, Master, I heard you say,—“ When the man of high station is well instructed, he loves men; when the man of low station is well instructed, he is easily ruled."

4. The Master said, ‘ My disciples, Yen’s words are right. What

I said was only in sport.’

GHAP. V.

I. Kung-shan Ffi-zao, when he was holding Pi, and

in an attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him, who was

rather inclined to go.

2. Tsze-lu was displeased, and said, ‘ Indeed you cannot go! Why must you think of going to see Kung-shan?’

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3. The Master said, ‘ Can it be without some reason that he has invited ME? If any one employ me, may I not make an eastern

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CHAP. VI. Tsze-chan asked

Confucius about perfect virtue.

Confucius said, ‘ To be ab e to practise five things everywhere under

heaven constitutes perfect virtue.’

He begged to ask what they

were, and was told, ‘Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnest

ness, and kindness. disrespect.

If you are grave, you will not be treated with If you are generous, you will win all.

If you are

sincere, people will repose trust in you. If you are earnest, you will

accomplish much. the services of others.’

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If you are kind, this will enable you to employ

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ing of the term not found in the dictionary. See XX. i. 9.

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CHAP. VII. 1. Pi Hsi inviting him to visit him, the Master was

inclined to go.

‘ 2. Tsze-lfl said, ‘ Master, formerly I have heard you say, “ When a man in his own person is guilty of doing evil, a superior man will

not associate with him." Pi Hsi of Chung-man ; if you go to him,

3. The Master said, ‘ Yes, I did use these words.

is in rebellion, holding possession
what shall be said?’
But is it not

said, that, if a thing be really hard, it may be ground without being

made thin? Is it not said, that,

if a thing be really white, it may

be steeped in a dark fluid without being made black? 4. ‘Am I a bitter gourd! How can I be hung up out of the way

of being eaten 7. ’

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CHAP. VIII. ' I. The Master said, ‘ Yu, have you heard the six words to which are attached six hecloudings?’ Ya replied, ‘I

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2. ‘ Sit down, and I will tell them to you. 3. ‘There is the love of being benevolent without the love of

learning ;—the beclouding here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning ;— the beclouding here leads to dissipation of mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learning ;—the beclouding here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. There is the love of straightforwardness without the love of learning ;—the becloudin here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the Tove of learning ;—the beclouding here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning ;—the beclouding

here leads to extravagant conduct.’

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Sect. I. iii. 4. 21: and Confucius tells him to re-"

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clouding, which may illustrate the manner in
which the whole paragraph is developed :—‘ In
all matters, there is a perfectly right and un-
= changeable principle, which men ought care-
fully to study, till they have thoroughly ex-
l amined and apprehended it. Then their actions
will be without error, and their virtue may
be perfected. For instance, loving is what rules
in benevalenee. It is certainly a beautiful vir-
tue, but if you only set yourself to love men,
and do not care to study to understand the
principle of benevolence, then your mind will
be beclouded by that loving, and you will be
following a man into a well to save him, so that
both he and you will perish. Will not this he
foolish simplicity ? '

3. I give here the paraphrase on the first virtue and its be

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