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are not yet settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong, and the physical powers are full of vigour, he guards against quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are decayed, he guards against covetousness.’

CHAP. VIII. I. Confucius said, ‘ There are three things of which the superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the words of sages.

2. ‘The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages.’

CHAP. IX. Confucius said, ‘ Those who are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those who earn, and so, readily, get possession of knowledge, are the next.

and the sinews and bones have not reached their

So, the commentators ; but the W suggests at vigour, and indulgence in lust will injure the

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once a more general and a lower view of the phrase.

9. Form cumin or mm m Rsmrron 'ro KNOWLEDGE. On the Ist clause, see on VII. xix, where Confucius disclaims for himself being ranked in the first of the classes here mentioned. The modern commentators say, that men are difl‘erenced here by the difierence of

their (if, E or fig, on which see Morrison’s Dictionary, part II, vol. i, character H. , in the dictionary, and by commontators, old and new, is explained by 7; ~‘ , ‘ not thoroughly understanding.’ It is not to be joined with a? as if the meaning were—‘ they

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Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, are another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid and yet do not learn ;—they are the lowest of the people.’

CHAP. X. Confucius said, ‘The superior man has nine things which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly. In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be benign. In regard to his demeanour, he is anxious that it should be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is anxious that it should he reverently careful. In regard to what he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is angry, he thinks of the difliculties (his anger may involve him When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness.’

CHAP. XI. I. Confucius said, ‘Contemplating good, and pursuing it, as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil, and shrinking from it, as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water :——I have seen such men, as I have heard such words.

2. ‘Living in retirement to study their aims, and practising

learn with painful efl'ort,’ although such effort will be required in the case of the .

10. Nncs summers or 'rnovon'r To me summon mas t—VABIOUS ms’rancrs or run war In wmcn m: anoumrss lumen. The conciseness of the text contrasts here with the verbosity of the translation, and yet the many words of the latter seem necessary.

11. THE cosrnnrommss or Conrucrus courn nscmzw EVIL, Aim ronnow arms 0001), nor so

on: or THE mom-:s'r CAPACITY rum APPEARED AMONG THEM. 1. The two first clauses here and in the next paragraph also, are quotations of old sayings, current in Confucius's time. ‘ Such men ’ were several of the sage's own disciples. 2. ER ;H: 5‘5, ‘seeking for their aims ;' i. e. meditating on them, studying them, fixing them, to be prepared to carry them out, as in the next clause. Such men among the ancients were the great ministers i Yin and T‘si-kung.

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ng of Oh'i had a thousand teams,

each of four horses, but on the day of his death, the people did not

praise him for a single virtue.

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the foot of the Shau-yang mountain, and the people, down to the

present time, praise them.

2. ‘ Is not that saying illustrated by this?’

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asked Po-yii, saying, ‘Have you

heard any lessons from your father different from what we have all

hear ? 2. Poassed bell earned the Odes?"

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He was standing alone once, when I 0w the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, “ Have you On my replying “Not yet," he added, “If

you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with." 3. ‘ Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when I passed by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, “ Have you learned the rules of Propriety? ” On my replying “ Not yet,” he added, “ If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your character

I retired and studied the Odes.

Such might the disciple Yen Hui have been, but an early death snatched him away before he could have an opportunity of showing what was in him.

12. WEALTH wrruou-r VIRTUE AND vm-rur: \viriiour WEALTH ;—THEIR DIFFERENT APPRECIATIONS. This chapter is plainly a fragment. As it stands, it would appear to come from the compilers and not from Confucius. Then the and paragraph implies a reference to something which has been lost. Under XII. x, I have referred to the proposal to transfer to this place the last paragraph of that chapter which might be explained, so as to harmonize with the sen

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cannot be established." I then

Propriety.

retired, and learned the rules of

4. ‘I have heard only these two things from him.’ 5. Chan K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, ‘I asked one

thing, and I have got three things.

I have heard about the Odes.

I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards his son.’

CHAP. XIV. The wife of the

prince of a State is called by him

Ffi-ZAN. She calls herself Hsnio T‘UNG. The people of the State call

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CHAPI‘ER I. would not go to see him. Confucius, who, having chosen a

went to pay his respects for the

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ople of other States, they call her

The people of other States also call'her CHUN

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. YANG HO.

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I. Yang Ho wished to see Confucius, but Confucius
On this, he sent a present of a pig to

time when Ho was not at home, He met him, however, on the

, let me speak with you.’ He then

asked, ‘Can he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his

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