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8. 'Zan Yfi said, ‘ But at present, Chwan-yii is strong and near to Pi ; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a sorrow to

his descendants.’

9. Confucius said, ‘ Ch‘ifi, the superior man hates that declining to say—“ I want such and such a thing,” and framing explanations

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10. ‘ I have heard that rulers of States and chiefs of families are

not troubled lest their people should be few, but are troubled lest they should not keep their several places ; that they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in their several places. For when the people keep their severa places, there will he no poverty; when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people ; and when there

is such aeontented repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings. I I . ‘ So it is_——Therefore, if remoter people are not submissive, all

very active, in the Chi service. 4. It was the prerogative of the princes to sacrifice to the hills and rivers within their jurisdictions ;— here was the chief of Chwan-yfl, royally appointed (the ‘former king ’ is probably hi, the second sovereign of the Chen dynasty) to be the lord of the Hang mountain, that is. to preside over the sacrifices offered to it. This raised him high above any mere ministers or oflicers of Lu. The mountain Ming is in the present district of Pi, in the department of l-chau. It was called eastern, to distinguish it fromanother of the same name in Shen-hsi, which was the

western Ming. H E $3 a z FF,"

this is mentioned, to show that Chwan-yii was so situated as to give Lu no occasion for appre

hension. fi 2 E, ‘a minister of the

altars to the spirits of the land and grain.‘ To those spirits only, the prince had the preroga

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the influences of civil culture and virtue are to be cultivated to attract them to be so ; and when they have been so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil.

12. ‘Now, here are you, Yu and Cli'ifi, assisting your chief. Re~ meter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he cannot preserve it. '

1 3. ‘ And yet he is planning these hostile movements within the State—1 am afraid that the sorrow of the Chi-sunfamz'ly will not be on account of Chwan-yii, but will be found within the screen of their own court.’

back to the Shang dynasty, and others only place.’ From this point, Confucius speaks of the to the early times of the Chau-_ "There are generaldisorganimtion ofLuunderthemanageOther we‘ghty Utterances 0f hls m vogue! ment of the three families, and especially of

besides that in the text. 7. Chii Hsi ex- the Chi. By E Awe can hardly under

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# are to be understood of the Head of the Chi

_ ‘ _ _ _ family, as controlling the government of L0, not think that fi here is the liVing tortmse. and as being assisted by the two disdples’ so that the

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alone means

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GHAP. II. 1. Confucius said, ‘When good government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the Great officers of the princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in five enerations. When the subsidiary ministers of the Great qflice/rs holiid in their grasp the orders of the State, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their power in three generations.

2. ‘ When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the hands of the Great officers.

3. ‘ When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will be no discussions among the common people.’

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UHAP. III. ' Confucius said, ‘ The revenue qf the State has left the ducal House now for five generations. The government has been in the hands of the Great officers for four generations. On this account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced.’

CHAP. IV. Confucius said, "I‘here are three friendshi s which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendslhip with the upright; friendship with the sincere; and friendshi with the man of much observation :—these are advantageous. riendship with the man of specious airs; friendshi with the insinuatineg soft ; and friendship with the glib-tonguedpz—these are injurious.’

CHAP. V. Confucius said, ‘There are three things men find enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they find enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment in

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He is in the annals asduke Hsiian and

after-him came Ch‘ang, Hsiang, CHM, and Ting, in whose time this must have been spoken. These dukes were but shadows, pensionaries of their Great oflicers, so that it might be said the revenue had gone from them. Observe that here and in the preceding chapter “It is used for ‘ a reign.‘ ‘ The three Hwan ’ are the three families, as being all descended from duke Hwan ; see on 11. v.—Chu Hsi appears to have fallen into a mistake in enumerating the four heads of the Chi family who had administered the government of Lu as Wu, Tao, P‘ing, and Hwan, as Tso died before his father, and

would not be said therefore to have the government in his hands. The right enumeration is

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AND 11mm: nuvluous. Here we have with three pronunciations and in three different

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speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in having

many worthy friends :—these are advantageous. To find enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting :—these are 1nJur10us.’

CHAP. VI. Confucius said, ‘There are three errors to which they who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station are liable. The may speak when it does not come to them to speak ;— this is calle rashness. They may not speak when it comes to them to speak ;—this is called concealment. They may speak without look—

ing at the countenance of their superior ;—this is called blindness.’

GHAP. VII.

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Confucius said, ‘ There are three things which the

youth, when the physical powers

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