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so waited the approach of the Master, who said to him, ‘ In youth, not humble as befits a junior ; in manhood, doing nothing worthy of

being handed down; and living

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on to old age :—this is to be a

With this he hit him on the shank with his staff.

CHAP. XLVII. I. A youth of the village of Ch‘iieh was employed lg; Confucius to carry the messages between him and his visitors. ome one asked about him, saying, ‘I suppose he has made great

progress.’

2. The Master said, ‘ I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man ; I observe that he walks shoulder to

shoulder with his elders. He is progress in learning. He wishes

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not one who is seeking to make quickly to become a man.’

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CHAPTER I. tactics.

sels, but I have not earned military matters.’

his departure the next day.

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I. The duke Ling of Wei asked Confucius about

Confucius re lied, ‘I have heard all about sacrificial ves

On this, he took

2. When he was in Chan, their provisions were exhausted, and his followers became so ill that they were unable to rise. 3. Tsze-lfi, with evident dissatisfaction, said, ‘Has the superior

man likewise to endure in this way?’

The Master said, ‘The

superior man may indeed have to endure want, but the mean man,

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E 2 g, VIII. iv. 3. The E was a dish, 18 inches long and 8 inches broad, on a stand 85 inches high, upon which the flesh of victims was laid, but the meaning is sacrificial vessels generally, =the business of ceremonies. It is said of Confucius, in the ‘ Historical Records,’ that when a boy, he was fond of playing at m and He wished by his reply and departure, to teach the duke that the rules of propriety, and not war, were essential to the government of a State. a. From \Vei, Confucius proceeded to Chen, and there met with the distress here mentioned. It is probably the same which is referred to in XI. ii. I, though there is some chronological difficulty about the subject. (See the note by Chi Hsi

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having governed efficiently without exertion?

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‘May not Shun be instanced as What did he do?

He did nothing but gravely and reverently occupy his regal seat.’

CHAP. V.

I. Tsze-chang asked how a man should con not him

self, so as to be everywhere appreciated. 2. The Master said, ‘Let his words be sincere and truthful, and his actions honourable and careful ;—such conduct may be practised

among the rude tribes of the South or the North.

2. How Conmcms armzn AT THE KNOWLEDGE or AN ALL-PERVADING UNITY. This chapter is to be compared with IV. xv ; only, says Chu Hsi, ‘that is spoken with reference to practice, and this with reference to knowledge.’ But the design of Confucius was probably the same in them both; and I understand the first paragraph here as meaning—‘Ts‘ze, do you think that I am aiming, by the exercise of memory, to acquire a varied and extensive knowledge ‘2’ ' Then the 3rd paragraph is equivalent to :—‘ I am not doing this. My aim is to know myself,-—the mind which embraces all knowledge, and regulates all practice.’ This is

the View of the chapter given in the H :— a—essssesaem chapter teaches that what is valuable in learn

ing is the knowledge of that which is important. ' 8. FEW REALLY KNOW vmrus. This is under

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If his words be

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not sincere truthful, and his

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actions not honourable and careful,

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will he, with such conduct, be appreciated, even in his neighbour

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3. ‘ When he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were, fronting him. When he is in a carriage, let him see them attached

to the yoke. 4. Tsze-chang wrote these con

Then may he subsequently carry them into practice.’

nsels on the end of his sash.

GHAP. VI. I. The Master said, ‘ Truly straightforward was the historiographer Yii. When good government prevailed in his State,

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with, not to speak to him is to err in reference to the man.

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The Master said, ‘When a man may be spoken

When

a man may not be spoken with, to speak to him is to err in reference

to our words. their words.’

The wise err neither in regard to their man nor to

CHAP. VIII. The Master said, ‘ The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of injuring

their virtue. virtue complete.’

They will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their

CHAP. 1X. Tsze-kung asked about the practice of virtue. The Master said, ‘ The mechanic, who wishes to do his work well, must

first sharpen his tools.

When you are living in any State, take

service with the most worthy among its great oflicers, and make friends of the most virtuous among its scholars.’ CHAP. X. I. Yen Yilan asked how the government of a country

should be administered.

2. The Master said, ‘ Follow the seasons of Hsia.

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