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3. ‘ “ Death and life have their determined appointment; riches and honours depend upon Heaven.”

4. ‘Let the su erior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and et him be respectful to others and observant of propriety :—then all within the four seas will be his brothers. What

as the superior man to do with being distressed because he has no brothers ?'

CHAP. VI. Tsze-chan asked what constituted intelligence. The Master said, ‘He with W cm neither slander that gradually soaks into the mind, nor statements that startle like a wound in the flesh, are successful, may be called intelligent indeed. Yea, he with whom neither soaking slander, nor startling statements, are successful, may

be called far-seeing.’

men will love and respect him as a brother. This, no doubt, is the extent of the saying. I

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have found no satisfactory gloss on the phrase —‘ the four seas.’ It is found in the Shu-ching,

the Shih-ching, and the Li Chi. In the W %,

a sort of Lexicon, very ancient, which was once reckoned among the Ching, it is explained as a territorial designation, the name of the dwelling-place of all the barbarous tribes. But the great Yii is represented as having made the four seas as four ditches, to which be drained the waters inundating ‘the Middle Kingdom.’ Plainly, the ancient conception was of their own country as the great habitable tract, north, south, east, and west of which were four seas or oceans, between whose shores and their own borders the intervening space was not very great, and occupied by wild hordes of inferior

races. See the [lg % II. xxiv.

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things lofty and distant, and therefore Confucius brings him back to things near at hand, which it was more necessary for him to attend

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ter said, ‘ The requisites of government are that there be sufficiency of food, sufficiency of military equipment, and the confidence of the

people in their ruler.’

2. Tsze-kung said, ‘If it cannot be helped, and one of these must

be dispensed with, which of the

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‘ The military equipment,’ said the Master. 3. Tsze-kung again asked, ‘If it cannot be helped, and one of the remaining two must be dispensed with, which of them should be

foregone ? ’

The Master answered, ‘ Part with the food. From of

old, death has been the lot of all men ; but if the people have no faith in their rulers, there is no standing for the State.’

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1. Chi Tsze-ch'ang said, ‘ In a superior man it is the substantial qualities which are wanted ;—why should we for ornamental accomplishments ?’

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2. Tsze-kung said, ‘Alas! Your words, sir, show you to be a superior man, but four horses cannot overtake the tongue.

3. ‘Ornament is as substance;

The

substance is as ornament.

hide of a tiger or leopard stripped of its hair, is like the hide of a

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I. The duke Ai inquired of Y0. Z0, saying, ‘ The

year is one of scarcity, and the returns for expenditure are not sum

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paragraph would be—‘Alas! sir, for the way in which you speak of the superior man ! ' And this is the most natural construction. 3. The modern commentators seem hypercritical in condemning Tsze-kung’s language here. He shows the desirableness of the ornamental accomplishments, but does not necessarily put them on the same level with the substantial qualities.

9. Lxerrr rm'nos THE ansr WAY TO sscmu: rm: eovnnnunu'r rnou pussmussnsa-r ron wear or rvsns. 1. Duke Ai, II. xx. Yfi 20, I. ii. a. By the statutes of the Chain dynasty, the ground was divided into allotments cultivated in common by the families located upon them, and the produce was divided equally, nine

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If the people are in want, their prince

tenths being given to the farmers,and one-tenth being reserved as a contribution to the State.

This was called the law of w, which term = 5a, ‘pervading,’ ‘general,’ with reference, ap

parently, to the system of common labour. 3. A former duke of Li), Hsiian (3.0. 609-591), had imposed an additional tax of another tenth from each family’s portion. 4. The meaning of this paragraph is given in the translation. Literally rendered, it is,-—‘The people having plenty,theprince—with whom not plenty? The people not having plenty, with whom can the prince have plenty?’ Yu Zo wished to impress on the duke that a sympathy and common condition should unite him and his people. If he lightened his taxation to the regular tithe, then they would cultivate their allotments with so much vigour, that his receipts would be abundant. They would be able, moreover, to help their kind ruler in any emergency.

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CHAP. X. I. Tsze-chang having askedjhow virtue was to be exalted, and delusions to be discovered, the Master said, ‘Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles, and be moving continually to what is right ;—this is the way to exalt one’s virtue.

2. ‘ You love a man and wish him to live ; you hate him and wish him to die. Having wished him to live, you also wish him to die. This is a case of delusion.

3. ‘ “ It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come to make a difference.” ’

CHAP. XI. 1. The duke Ching, of Ch‘i, asked Confucius about government.

2. Confucius replied, ‘ There is government, when the prince is prince, and the minister is minister; when the father is father, and the son is son.’

3. ‘ Good!’ said the duke ; ‘if, indeed; the prince be not prince, the minister not minister, the father not father, and the son not son, although I have my revenue, can I enjoy it ?’

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CHAP. XII. I. The Master s half a word settle litigations!’

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2. Tsze-lfi never slept over a. promise. CHAP. XIII. The Master said, ‘ In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary, however, is to cause the people

to have no litigations.’

OHAP. XIV. Tsze-chang asked about government. The Master

said, ‘ The art of governing is to ke out weariness, and to practise the

CHAP. XV. The Master said, ‘

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ep its aflaz'rs before the mind withm with undeviating consistency.’ By extensively studyin all learnthe restraint of the miss of proerr from what is right.’

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