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H I a.
CHAP. III. I. When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty.
2. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted.
3. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.
4. When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, ‘ The visitor is not turning round any more.’
CRAP. IV. I. When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him.
court. At the royal court they were divided §
into three classes,-‘highest,' ‘middle,’ and
I‘ s, new sense. 3. DEMEASOUR or Coarucrus AT rnr: orncur. RECEPTION or A vrsrron. r. The visitor is supposed to be the ruler of another State. On the
occasion of two princes meeting there wast
much ceremony. The visitor having arrived, he remained outside the front gate, and the, host inside his reception room, which was inthe ancestral temple. Messages passed between them by means of a number of officers called
, on the side of the visitor, and , on the
side of the host, who formed a zigzag line of communication from the one to the other, and passed their questions and answers along, till an understanding about the visit was thus
meaning which I have given in the translation. 2. This shows Confucius’s manner when engaged in the transmission of the messages between the prince and his visitor. The prince's nuncio, in immediate communication with
himself, was the J: g, the next was the
Confucius must have been the ch‘ring pin, bowing to the right as he transmitted a message to the shang pin, who was an officer of the higher grade, and to the left as he communicated one from him to the sluio pin. 3. The host having come out to receive his visitor, proceeded in with him, it is said, followed by all their internuncios in a line, and to his manner in this movement this paragraph is generally referred. But the duty of seeing the guest off, the subject of next paragraph, belonged to the shang pin. and could not be performed by Confucius as merely a ch‘dng pin. Hence arises a difficulty. Either it is true that Confucius was at one time raised to the rank of the highest dignitaries of the State, or he was temporarily employed, from his knowledge of ceremonies, after the first act in the reception of visitors, to discharge the duties of one. Assuming this, the
% is to be explained of some of his movements in the reception room. How could he
, and below were one or more
‘hurry forward when walking in file with the
See the *6 % n, , II. xxiii. 4. 1‘ \ TE 6;, ‘would return the commission,’i. e. he had seen the guest off, according to his duty, and reported it. The ways of China, it appears, were much the same anciently as now. A guest turns round and bows repeatedly in leaving, and the host cannot return to his place, till these salutations are ended.
4. Dannarovn or Cosrucrus IN THE coua'r AT AN AUDIENCE. r. The royal court consisted of five divisions, each having its peculiar gate. That of a prince of a State consisted only of
other internuncios ?
gate—way; when he passed in or threshold.
out,'he did not tread upon the
3. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his counte~ nance appeared to change, and his le S to bend under him, and his words came as if he hardly had breat to utter them.‘
4. He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he
dared not breathe.
5. When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a.
When he had got to the bottom of the steps, he
advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.
CHAP. V. seemed to bend his body, as if he
I. When he was carrying the sceptre of his ruler, he
were not able to bear its weight.
He did not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making
a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to another. His countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the
2. In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore
a placid a pearance.
3. At is private audience, he looked highly pleased.
CHAP. VI. I. The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce colour, in the ornaments of his dress.
2. Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or red
3. In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.
4. Over lamb’s fur he wore a garment of black ; over fawn's fur one of white ; and over fox's fur one of yellow.
6. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as
7. When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the
8. When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of
9. His under—garment, except when it was required to be of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below. 10. He did not wear lamb’s fur or a black cap, on a visit of con
1 1. On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and
presented himself at court.
I. When fasting, he thought it necessary to have
his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth.
2. When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.
CHAP. VIII. I. He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his minced meat out quite small.
2. 'He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp
He did not eat
what was discoloured, or what was of a bad flavour, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.
3. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served without its proper sauce.
4. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it.
5. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the