תמונות בעמוד

Mencius, III. Pt. II. vii. 3, those of Ana. XVII. i, but without any notice of quotation.

In the Writings of Hsiin Ch'ing, Book I. page 2, we find something like the words of Ana. XV. xxx; and on p. 6, part of XIV. xxv. But in these instances there is no mark of quotation.

In the Writings of Chwang, I have noted only one passage where the words of the Analects are reproduced. Ana. XVIII. v is found, but with large additions, and no reference of quotation, in his treatise on ‘ Man in the World, associated with other Men 1.’ In all those Works, as well as in those of Lieh and M0, the references to Confucius and his disciples, and to many circumstances of his life, are numerous 2. The quotations of sayings of his not found in the Analects are likewise many, especially in the Doctrine of the Mean, in Mencius, and in the Works of Chwang. Those in the latter are mostly burlesques, but those by the orthodox writers have more or less of classical authority. Some of them may be found in the Chia Yii 3, or ‘ Narratives of the School,’ and in parts of the Li Chi, while others are only known to us by their occurrence in these Writings. Altogether, they do not supply the evidence, for which I am in quest, of the existence of the Analects as a distinct Work, bearing the name of the Lun Yii, prior to the Ch'in dynasty. They leave the presumption, however, in favour of those conclusions, which arises from the facts stated in the first section, undisturbed. They confirm it rather. They show that there was abundance of materials at hand to the scholars of Han, to compile a much larger Work with the same title, if they had felt it their duty to do the business of compilation, and not that of editing.



I. It would be a vast and unprofitable labour to attempt to give a list of the Commentaries which have been published on this Work. My object is merely to point out how zealously the business of interpretation was undertaken, as soon as the text had been

1 A raj ’ In Mo's chapter against the Literati, he mentions some of the characteristics of Confucius in the very words of the Tenth Book of the Analects. “a a


recovered by the scholars of the Han dynasty, and with what industry it has been persevered in down to the present time.

2. Mention has been made, in Section I. 6, of the Lun of prince Chang, published in the half century before our era. Pao Hsien 1, a distinguished scholar and officer, of the reign of Kwang-wfi 2, the first emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty, A.D. 25-57, and another scholar of the surname Ghana, less known but of the same time, published Works, containing arrangements of this in chapters and sentences, with explanatory notes. The critical work of K'ung An-kwo 0n the old Lun Yii has been referred to. That was lost in consequence of suspicions under which An-kwo fell towards the close of the reign of the emperor Wii, but in the time of the emperor Shun, A.D. 1 26—144, another scholar, Ma Yung‘, undertook the exposition of the characters in the old Lun, giving at the same time his views of the general meaning. The labours of Chang Hsiian in the second century have been mentioned. Not long after his death, there ensued a period of anarchy, when the empire was divided into three governments, well known from the celebrated historical romance, called ‘ The Three Kingdoms.’ The strongest of them, the House of Wei, patronized literature, and three of its high ofiicers and scholars, Ch'an Ch'un, Wang S0, and Chan Shang-lieh“, in the first half, and probably the second quarter, of the third century, all gave to the world their notes on the Analects.

Very shortly after, five of the great ministers of the Government of Wei, Sun Yung, Chang Ch'u‘ng, Tsao Hsi, Hsiin Kai, and H0 Yen ', united in the production of one great Work, entitled, ‘A Collection of Explanations of the Lun Yii7.' It embodied the labours of all the writers which have been mentioned, and, having been frequently reprinted by succeeding dynasties, it still remains. The preface of the five compilers, in the form of a memorial to the emperor, so called, of the House of Wei, is published with it, and has been of much assistance to me in writing these sections. Ho

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w, I possess a copy of this work, printed about the middle of our fourteenth century.

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Yen was the leader among them, and the work is commonly quoted as if it were the production of him alone.

3. From Ho Yen downwards, there has hardly been a dynasty which has not contributed its labourers to the illustration of the Analects. In the Liang, which occupied the throne a good part of the sixth century, there appeared the ‘Comments of Hwang K'an 1,’ who to the seven authorities cited by Ho Yen added other thirteen, being scholars who had deserved well of the Classic during the intermediate time. Passing over other dynasties, we come to

the Sung, A.D. 960—1279. An edition of the Classics was published ’ by imperial authority, about the beginning of the eleventh century, with the title of ‘ The Correct Meaning.’ The principal scholar engaged in the undertaking was Hsing P'ing 2. The portion of it on the Analects 3 is commonly reprinted in ‘ The Thirteen Classics,’ after Ho Yen’s explanations. But the names of the Sung dynasty are all thrown into the shade by that of CM! Hsi, than whom China has not produced a greater scholar. He composed, or his disciples compiled, in the twelfth century, three Works on the Analectsz—the first called ‘Collected Meanings‘;’ the second, ‘ Collected Comments 5 ; ’ and the third, ‘Queries 6.’ Nothing could exceed the grace and clearness of his style, and the influence which he has exerted on the literature of China has been almost despotic.

The scholars of the present dynasty, however, seem inclined to question the correctness of his views and interpretations of the Classics, and the chief place among them is due to Mao Ch'i-ling", known by the local name of Hsi-hoa. His writings, under the name of ‘The collected Works of Hsi-ho 9,’ have been published in eighty volumes, containing between three and four hundred books or sections. He has nine treatises on the Four Books, or parts of them, and deserves to take rank with Chang Hsiian and Chfl Hsi at the head of Chinese scholars, though he is a vehement opponent of the latter. Most of his writings are to be found also in the great Work called ‘A Collection of Works on the Classics, under the Imperial dynasty of Ch'i11g1°,’ which contains I400 sections, and is a noble contribution by the scholars of the present dynasty to the illustration of its ancient literature.

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In ‘ The Collection of Supplementary Observations on the Four Books 1,’ the second chapter contains a general view of commentaries on the Analects, and from it I extract the following list of various readings of the text found in the comments of Chang Hsiian, and referred to in the first section of this chapter.

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These various readings are exceedingly few, and in themselves insignificant. The student who wishes to pursue this subject at length, is provided with the means in the Work of Ti Chiao-shau 2, expressly devoted to it. It forms sections 449—473 of the Works on the Classics, mentioned at the close of the preceding section. A still more comprehensive work of the same kind is, ‘The Examination of the Text of the Classics and of Commentaries on them,’ published under the superintendence of Yuan Yuan, forming chapters 818 to 1054 of the same Collection. Chapters 1016 to 1030 are occupied with the Lun Yii; see the reference to Yuan Yuan farther on, on p. I 32.

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1. It has already been mentioned that ‘The Great Learning’ forms one of the Books of the Li Chi, or ‘Record of Rites,’ the formation of the text of which will be treated of in its proper place. I will only say here, that the Records of Rites had suffered much more, after the death of Confucius, than the other ancient Classics which were supposed to have been collected and digested by him. They were in a more dilapidated condition at the time of the revival of the ancient literature under the Han dynasty, and were then published in three collections, only one of which—the Record of Rites—retains its place among the five Ching.

The Record of Rites consists, according to the ordinary arrangement, of forty—nine Chapters or Books. Lifl Hsiang (see ch. I. sect. II. 2) took the lead in its formation, and was followed by the two famous scholars, Tai Teh 1, and his relative, Tai Shang 2. The first of these reduced upwards of 200 chapters, collected by Hsiang, to eighty-nine, and Shang reduced these again to forty-six. The three other Books were added in the second century of our era, the Great Learning being one of them, by Ma. Yung, mentioned in the last chapter, section III. 2. Since his time, the Work has not received any further additions.

2. In his note appended to What he calls the chapter of ‘Classical Text,’ Chu Hsi says that the tablets of the ‘ old copies' of the rest of the Great Learning were considerably out of order. By those old copies, he intends the Work of Chang Hsiian, who published his commentary on the Classic, soon after it was completed by the additions of M23. Yung ; and it is possible that the tablets were in confusion, and had not been arranged with sufficient care; but such a thing does not appear to have been suspected until the

' E {Ev 2 E %, Shang was a second cousin of Teh.

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