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the Hsia dynasty, but Chi cannot sufficiently attest my words. I could describe the ceremonies of the Yin dynasty, but Sung cannot sufiiciently attest my words. (They cannot do so) because of the insufficiency of their records and wise men. If those were sufficient, I could adduce them in support of my words.’

CHAP. X. The Master said, ‘At the great sacrifice, after the pouring out of the libation, I have no Wish to look on.’

CHAP. XI.
The Master said, ‘ I do not know.

9. THE DECAY or run nosumsrs or As'riqurrr. Of Hsia and Yin, see II. xxiii. In the small State of Chi (originally what is now the district of the same name in K'ai-fung department in Ho-nan, but in Confucius’s time a part of Shantung), the sacrifices to the emperors of the Hsia dynasty were maintained by their descendants. So with the Yin dynasty and Sung, a part

also of Human. But the , ‘literary monu

ments’ of those countries,and theirjgk (= % so in the Shil-ching,V. vii. 5, et (11.), ‘wise men,’ had become few. Had Confucius therefore delivered all his knowledge about the two dynasties, he would have exposed his truthfulness to suspicion. ~ ,in the sense of '55, ‘to witness,’ and, at the end, ‘to appeal to for evidence.’ The old commentators, however, interpret the whole differently—Already in the time of Confucius many of the records of antiquity had perished.

10. THE sAos’s DISSATISFAC'I'ION AT rm: WANT or PROPRIETY IN crassomss. is the name belonging to different sacrifices, but here indicates the j:%, ‘great sacrifice,’which could properly be celebrated only by the sovereign.

The individual sacrificed to in it was the remotest ancestor from whom the founder of the

Some one asked the meaning of the great sacrifice.

He who knew its meaning would

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find it as easy to govern the kingdom as to look on this ; ’—pointing

to his palm. CHAP. XII.

1. He sacrificed to the dead, as if they were present.

He sacrificed to the spirits, as if the spirits were present. 2. The Master said, ‘I consider my not being present at the»

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I. Wang-sun Chia asked, saying, ‘What is the

meaning of the saying, “ It is better to pay court to the furnace than

to the south-west corner Q. " ’

2. The Master said, ‘ Not so. He who ofl'ends against Heaven has

none to whom he can pray.’

12. Coxrccrus’s own smcsnrrv m sacmrrcme. r. here is historical and not to be translated in the imperative. We have to supply an objective to the first %, viz. i m, the dead, his forefathers, as contrasted with _ in the next clause, =all the ‘spirits' to which in his official capacity he would have to sacrifice. 2. Observe in the 4th tone, ‘ to be present at,’ ‘to take part in.’

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corner, was from the structure of ancient houses the cosiest nook, and the place of honour. 01m Hsi explains the proverb by reference to the customs of sacrifice. The furnace was comparatively a mean place, but when the spirit of the furnace was sacrificed to, then the rank of the two places was changed for the time, and the proverb quoted was in vogue. But there does not seem much force in this explanation. The door, or well, or any other of the five things in the regular sacrifices, might take the place of the furnace. The old explanation which makes no reference to sacrifice is simpler. A0 might be the more retired

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on high.’ Ascholar of great ability and research has written to me contending that we ought to find in this chapter a reference to fire-worship as having been by the time of Confucius introduced from Persia into China; but I have not found suflicient reference to such an introduction at so early a period. The ordinary explanation seems to me more satisfactory ;-simple and sufiicient. Ho Yen quotes the words of K‘ung An-kwo of our second century on the passage :-—‘ Chis held in his hands the government of the State. Wishing to makeConfueius pay court to him, he stirred him up in a gentle way by quoting to him a saying common among the people.’

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ing the two past dynasties. regulations! I follow Chau.’

CHAP. XV. The Master, when he entered the asked about everything. Some one said, ‘Who wil

son of the man of Tsau knows

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entered the grand temple and asks about everything.’ The Master heard the remark, and said, ‘ This is a rule of propriety.’

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1. Tsze-kung wished to do away with the offering

of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the first day of each

month.

2. The Master said, ‘ Ts'ze, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony.’ CHAP. XVIII. The Master said, ‘ The full observance of the rules of propriety in serving one’s prince is accounted by people to be

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CHAP. XIX. The duke Ting asked how a prince should employ

his ministers, and how ministers should serve their prince. Confucius replied, ‘ A prince should employ his ministers according to the rules of propriety; ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness.’

CHAP. XX. The Master said, ‘The Kwan Tsii is expressive of enjoyment without being licentious, and of grief without being

hurtfully excessive.’

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CHAP. XXI. 1. The duke Ai asked Tsai W0 about the altars of the s irits of the land. Tsai W0 replied, ‘ The Hsia sovereign planted tlie pine tree about them; the men of the Yin planted the cypress; and the men of the Chau planted the chestnut tree, meaning thereby

to cause the people to be in awe.’

2. When the Master heard it, he said, ‘Things that are done, it is needless to speak about; things that have had their course, it is needless to remonstrate about; things that are past, it is needless

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2. Some one said, ‘Was Kwan Chung arsimonious ?’

I. The Master said, ‘ Small indeed was the capacity

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was the reply, ‘had the San Kwei, and is officers performed no double duties; how can he be considered parsimonious 7. ’ 3. ‘ Then, did Kwan Chung know the rules of propriety? ’ The

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