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E R Z % j FE lElE %, ‘A Cyclopaedia of Surnames, or

Biographical Dictionary, of the Famous Men and Virtuous Women of the Successive Dynasties.’ This is a very notable work of its class; published in 1793, by E g E, and extending through I 57 chapters or Books. i @i 5%, %i, ‘ General Examination of Records and Scholars.’ This astonishing Work, which cost its author, Ma Twan-lin (,% % E2), twenty years' labour, was first published in I321. Rémusat says—‘ This excellent Work is a library in itself, and if Chinese literature possessed no other, the language would be worth learning for the sake of reading this alone.’ It does indeed display all but incredible research into every subject connected with the Government, History, Literature, Religion, 810., of the empire of China. The author’s researches are digested in 348 Books. I have had occasion to consult principally those on the Literary Monuments, embraced in seventy-six Books, from the I 74th to the 249th.

Q': g g E i 1%, ‘ An Examination of the Commentaries on

the Classics,’ by Chfi I-tsun. The author was a member of the Han— lin college, and the work was first published with an imperial preface by the Ch'ien-lung emperor. It is an exhaustive work on the literature of the Classics, in 300 chapters or Books.

{a if 1% fig 1%, ‘A Continuation of the General Examination of Records and Scholars.’ This Work, which is in 254 Books, and nearly as extensive as the former, was the production of Wang Ch‘i (EE iii), who dates his preface in 1586, the fourteenth year of Wan-Ii, the style of the reign of the fourteenth emperor of the Ming dynasty. Wang Ch‘i brings down the Work of his predecessor to his own times. He also frequently goes over the same ground, and puts things in a clearer light. I have found this to be the case in the chapters on the classical and other Books.

I. + E E1, ‘ The Twenty-four Histories.’ These are the imperially-authorized records of the empire, commencing with the ‘Historical Records,’ the work of Sze-m5. Ch‘ien, and ending with the History of the Ming dynasty, which appeared in 1742, the result of the joint labours of 14 5 officers and scholars of the present dynasty. The extent of the collection may be understood from this, that my copy, bound in English fashion, makes sixty-three volumes, each one larger than this. No nation has a history so thoroughly digested ; and on the whole it is trustworthy. In pre

paring this volume, my necessities have. been confined mostly to the Works of Sze-ma Ch‘ien, and his successor, Pan Ku ), the Historian of the first Han dynasty. . E fl’; {% EB i, ‘The Annals of the Nation.’ Published by imperial authority in 1803, the eighth year of Ch‘iA—ch‘ing. This Work is invaluable to a student, being, indeed, a collection of chronological tables, where every year, from the rise of the Chau dynasty, B. o. 1121, has a distinct column to itself, in which, in different compartments, the most important events are noted. Beyond that date, it ascends to nearly the commencement of the cycles in the sixty-first year of Hwang-ti, giving—not every year, but the years of which anything has been mentioned in history. From Hwang-ti also, it ascends through the dateless ages up to P‘an-kfi, the first of mortal sovereigns.

E H“; 55 ii i, ‘The Boundaries of the Nation in the successive Dynasties.’ This Work by the same author, and published in 1817, does for the boundaries of the empire the same service which the preceding renders to its chronology.

E i i, ‘The Topography of the Nation in the successive Dynasties.’ Another Work by the same author, and of the same date as the preceding.

The Dictionaries chiefly consulted have been :—

The well-known Shwo Wan (55,1; 1" fig i), by Hsii Shan, styled Shfi-chung 11:55? 751 published in A. D. 100; with the supplement by Hsii Ch'ieh of the southern T‘ang dynasty. The characters are arranged in the Shwo Wan under 540 keys or radicals, as they are unfortunately-termed.

The Lift Shfl Kfl iii), by Tai T’ung, styled Chung-ta (fl “1?, i4}? of our thirteenth century. The characters are arranged in it, somewhat after the fashion of the R Ya (p. 2), under six general divisions, which again are subdivided, according to the affinity of subjects, into various categories.

The Tsze Hui E), which appeared in the Wan-li reign of the Ming dynasty (1573—1619). The 540 radicals of the Shwo Wan were reduced in this to 214, at which number they have since continued.

The K'ang-hsi Tsze Tien i it), or K‘ang-hsi Dictionary, prepared by order of the great K'ang-hsi emperor in 1716. This is the most common and complete of all_Chinese dictionaries for common use.

The I Wan Pi Lan 1 fi 52), ‘ A Complete Exhibition of all the Authorized Characters,’ published in I 787; ‘ furnishing,’ says Dr. Williams, ‘ good definitions of all the common characters, whose ancient forms are explained.’

The Pei Wan Yun Ffi “I § Ri-j'), generally known among foreigners as ‘The K‘ang-hsi Thesaurus.’ It was undertaken by an imperial order, and published in I 71 I, being probably, as Wylie says, ‘the most extensive work of a lexicographical character ever produced.’ It does for the phraseology of Chinese literature all, and more than all, that the K'ang-hsi dictionary does for the individual characters. The arrangement of the characters is according to their tones and final sounds. My copy of it, with a supplement published about ten years later, is in forty-five large volumes, with much more letter-press in it than the edition of the Dynastic Histories mentioned on p. I 3 3. ’

The Ching Tsi Tswan Kn, ping Pa Wei ($35 as g at 1:? m :5), ‘A Digest of the Meanings in the Classical and other Books, with Supplement,’ by, or rather under the superintendence of, Yuan Y'uan (p. I 32). This has often been found useful, It is arranged according to the tones and rhymes like the characters in the Thesaurus.

SECTION II.

TRANSLATIONS AND OTHER WORKS.

CONFuoms SINARUM PHILOSOPHUS ; sive Scientia Sinensis Latine Exposita. Studio et opera Prosperi Intorcetta, Christiani Herdritch, Francisci Rougemont, Philippi Couplet, Patrum Societatis J ESUJussu Ludovici Magni. Parisiis, 1837.

THE WORKS 0F CONFUCIus; containing the Original Text, with a Translation. Vol. I. By J. Marshman. Serampore, 1809. This is only a fragment of ‘ The Works of Confucius.’

THE FOUR BooKs; Translated into English, by Rev. David Collie, of the London Missionary Society. Malacca, I828.

L’INVARIABLE MILIEU ; Ouvrage Moral de Tseu-sse, en Chinois et en Mandchou, avec une Version littérale Latine, une Traduction Francoise, &c. &0. Par M. Abel-Rémusat. A Paris, 1817.

LE TA H10, 00 LA GRANDE ETUDE; Traduit en Francois, avec une Version Latine, &0. Par G. Pauthier. Paris, 1837.

Y-KING ; Antiquissimus Sinarum Liber, quem ex Latina Interpretatione P. Regis, aliorumque ex Soc. JEsU PP. edidit Julius Mohl. Stuttgartiæ et Tubingæ, 1839. MÉMoIREs concernant L'Histoire, Les Sciences, Les Arts, Les Mœurs, Les Usages, &c., des Chinois. Par les Missionaires de Pêkin. A Paris, 1776-1814. HISToIRE GÉNÉRALE DE LA CHINE; ou Annales de cet Empire. Traduites du Tong-Kien-Kang-Mou. Par le feu Père JosephAnnie-Marie de Moyriac de Mailla, Jesuite François, Missionaire à Pekin. A Paris, 1776-1785. NoTITIA LINGUE SINICE. Auctore P. Prémare. Malaccæ, cura Academiæ Anglo-Sinensis, 1831. THE CHINESE REPosIToRY. Canton, China, 2o vols., 1832-1851. DICTIoNNAIRE DEs NoMs, Anciens et Modernes, des Villes et Arrondissements de Premier, Deuxième, et Troisième ordre, compris dans L'Empire Chinois, &c. Par Édouard Biot, Membre du Conseil de la Société Asiatique. Paris, 1842. THE CHINESE. By John Francis Davis, Esq, F.R.S, &c. In two volumes. London, 1836. CHINA : its State and Prospects. By W. H. Medhurst, D. D, of the London Missionary Society. London, 1838 L'UNIvERs : Histoire et Déscription des tous les Peuples. Chine. Par M. G. Pauthier. Paris, 1838. HIsToRY oF CHINA, from the earliest Records to the Treaty with Great Britain in 1842. By Thomas Thornton, Esq, Member of the Royal Asiatic Society. In two volumes. London, 1844. THE MIDDLE KINGDoM : A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, &c, of the Chinese Empire. By S. Wells Williams, LL.D. In two volumes. New York and London, 1848. The Second Edition, Revised, 1883. THE RELIGIoUs CoNDITIoN oF THE CHINESE. By Rev. Joseph Edkins, B.A., of the London Missionary Society. London, 1859. CHRIST AND oTHER MAsTERs. By Charles Hardwick, M.A., Christian Advocate in the University of Cambridge. Part III. Religions of China, America, and Oceanica. Cambridge, 1858 INTRoDUcTIoN To THE STUDY oF CHINESE CHARACTERs. By J. Edkins, D. D. London, 1876. THE STRUCTURE oF CHINESE CHARACTERs, under 3oo Primary Forms. By John Chalmers, M. A., LL.D. Aberdeen, 1882.

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CHAPTER I.

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1. The Master said, ‘Is it not pleasant to learn

with a constant perseverance and application ? 2. ‘Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant

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3. ‘ Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men may take no note of him?’

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Dialogues ;' that is, the discourses or discussions of Confucius with his disciples and others on various topics, and his replies to their inquiries. Many chapters, however, and one whole book, are the sayings, not of the sage himself, but of some of his disciples. The characters may also be rendered ‘Digested Conversations,’ and this appears to be the more ancient signification attached to them, the account being that, after the death of Confucius, his disciples collected together and compared the memoranda of his conversations which they had severally preserved, digesting them into the twenty books which compose the work. Hence the title—

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_ I have styled the work ‘Confucian Ana

Es,’ as being more descriptive of its character than any other name I could think of.

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of this book are occupied, it is said, with the fundamental subjects which ought to engage the attention of the learner, and the great matters

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