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+ 5 fl fit fit, ‘The Thirteen Ching, with Commentary and Explanations.’ This is the great repertory of ancient lore upon the Classics. On the Analects, it contains the ‘ Collection of Explanations of the Lun Yu,’ by Ho Yen and others (see p. 19), and ‘The Correct Meaning,’ or Paraphrase of Hsing Ping (see p. 20). On the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean, it contains the comments and glosses of Chang Hsiian, and of K'ung Ying-ta

(In, g of the Tang dynasty. is? $1] at at lm % fi 21:, ‘A new edition of the Four Books,

Punctuated and Annotated, for Reading.’ This work was published in the seventh year of Tao-kwang (1827) by a Kao Lin It is the finest edition of the Four Books which I have seen, in point of typographical execution. It is indeed a volume for reading. It contains the ordinary ‘ Collected Comments’ of Chu Hsi on the Analects, and his ‘ Chapters and Sentences’ of the Great Learning and Doctrine of the Mean. The editor's own notes are at the top and bottom of the page, in rubric.

[IQ % 5‘: ¥ 2k 5 E g, ‘ The Proper Meaning of the Four Books as determined by Chfi Hsi, Compared with, and Illustrated from, other Commentators.’ This is a most voluminous work, published in the tenth year of Ch'ien-lung, A.D. 1745, by Wang Puch‘ing Q? i), a member of the Han-lin College. On the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean, the ‘ Queries’ addressed to Chtl Hsi and his replies are given in the same text as the standard commentary.

[q % fig 51—: i 5%, ‘ The Four Books, Text and Commentary, with Proofs and Illustrations.’ The copy of this Work which I have was edited by a Wang T‘ing-chi fl in the third year of Chia-ch'ing, A. D. 1798. It may be called a commentary on the commentary. The research in all matters of Geography, History, Biography, Natural History, &c., is immense.

IE % % % E g, ‘A Collection of the most important Comments of Scholars on the Four Books.’ By Li P‘ei-lin ifli published in the fifty-seventh K‘ang-hsi year, A. D. 1 718. This \Vork is about as voluminous as the E g, but on a different plan. Every chapter is preceded by a critical discussion of its general meaning, and the logical connexion of its several paragraphs. This is followed by the text, and Chfl Hsi’s standard commentary. We have then a paraphrase, full and generally perspicuous. Next, there is a selection of approved comments, from a great variety of authors ; and finally, the reader finds a number of critical remarks and ingenious views, difl'ering often from the common interpretation, which are submitted for his examination. ‘

E % a 53k Efi 3T, ‘A Supplemental Commentary, and Literary Discussions, on the Four Books.’ By Chang Chan-t‘ao [al. T‘i

an] m [it] [(01.1% a member of the Han-lin college, in the early part, apparently, of the reign of Ch‘ien-lung. The work is on a peculiar plan. The reader is supposed to be acquainted with Chfi Hsi's commentary, which is not given; but the author generally supports his views, and defends them against the criticisms of some of the early scholars of this dynasty. His own exercitations are of the nature of essays more than of commentary. It is a book for the student who is somewhat advanced, rather than for the learner. I have often perused it with interest and advantage.

m % $2 1% %, ‘The Four Books, according to the Commentary, with Paraphrase.’ Published in the eighth year of Yung Chang, A. D. 1730, by Wang Ffl [al. K'eh-ffi] {é [al. #6 Every page is divided into two parts. Below, we have the text and Chfi Hsi’s commentary. Above, we have an analysis of every chapter, followed by a paraphrase of the several paragraphs. To the paraphrase of each paragraph are subjoined critical notes, digested from a great variety of scholars, but without the mention of their names. A list of 116 is given who are thus laid under contribution. In addition, there are maps and illustrative figures at the commencement; and to each Book there are prefixed biographical notices, explanations of peculiar allusions, &c.

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Complete Digest of Supplements to the Commentary, and additional Suggestions. A new edition, with Additions.’ By Tu Ting-chi fig", Published A. D. 1779. The original of this Work was by Tang Lin 1*), a scholar of the Ming dynasty. It is perhaps the best of all editions of the Four Books for a learner. Each page is divided into three parts. Below, is the text divided into sentences and members of sentences, which are followed by short glosses. The text is followed by the usual commentary, and that by a paraphrase, to which are subjoined the Supplements and Suggestions. The middle division contains a critical analysis of the chapters and paragraphs; and above, there are the necessary biographical and other notes.

[P] % HE 1% %, ‘The Four Books, with the Relish of the Radical Meaning.’ This is a new Work, published in 18 52. It is the production of Chin Ch‘ang, styled Chi‘i'l-t'an 7%, i 51* an officer and scholar, who, returning, apparently to Canton province, from the North in 1836, occupied his retirement with reviewing his literary studies of former years, and employed his sons to transcribe his notes. The writer is fully up in all the commentaries on the Classics, and pays particular attention to the labours of the scholars of the present dynasty. To the Analects, for instance, there is prefixed Chiang Yung’s History of Confucius, with criticisms on it by the author himself. Each chapter is preceded by a critical analysis. Then follows the text with the standard commentary, carefully divided into sentences, often with glosses, original and selected, between them. To the commentary there succeeds a paraphrase, which is not copied by the author from those of his predecessors. After the paraphrase we have Explanations The book is beautifully printed, and in small type, so that it is really a multum in parvo, with considerable freshness.

E % W % i w, ‘ A Paraphrase for Daily Lessons, Explaining the Meaning of the Four Books.’ This work was produced in 1677, by a department of the members of the Han-lin college, in obedience to an imperial rescript. The paraphrase is full, perspicuous, and elegant.

_ taliélilhtfrql; %$Kf§iati;§§; mg EB i 35E; % H {a a a These works form together a superb edition of the Five Ching, published by imperial authority in the K'ang-hsi and Yung-chang reigns. They contain the standard views various opinions (5%); critical decisions of the editors prolegomena; plates or cuts ; and other apparatus for the student.

5E Eli m ff; Q; é %, ‘The Collected Writings of Mao Hsiho.’ See prolegomena, p. 20. The voluminousness of his Writings is understated there. Of i, or Writings on the Classics, there are 236 sections, while his 1" i, or other literary compositions, amount to 257 sections. His treatises on the Great Learning and the Doctrine of the Mean have been especially helpful to me. He is a great opponent of Chfl Hsi, and would be a much more effective one, if he possessed the same graces of style as that ‘prince of literature.’

w % 3% % a, ‘A Collection of Supplemental Observations on the Four Books.’ The preface of the author, Ts‘ao Chih-shang (TE 2 ft), is dated in 1795, the last year of the reign of Ch‘ienlung. The work contains what we may call prolegomena on each of the Four Books, and then excursus on the most difficult and disputed passages. The tone is moderate, and the learning displayed extensive and solid. The views of Chfi Hsi are frequently well defended from the assaults of Mao Hsi-ho. I have found the Work very instructive. ,

fl} 5%, ‘ On the Tenth Book of the Analects, with Plates.’ This Work was published by the author, Chiang Yung it), in the twenty-first Ch‘ien-lung year, A. D. 1761, when he was seventy-six years old. It is devoted to the illustration of the above portion of the Analects, and is divided into ten sections, the first of which consists of woodcuts and tables. The second contains the Life of Confucius, of which I have largely availed myself in the preceding chapter. The whole is a remarkable specimen of the minute care with which Chinese scholars have illustrated the Classical Books.

IE %%¥fill; [Ill %%¥ttl1t€; [15%fifilllffi; [3%1‘? :HE E We may call these volumes—‘ The Topography of the Four Books ; with three Supplements.’ The Author’s name is Yen Zo-ch‘ii 5*5'1 The first volume was published in 1698, and the second in 1700. I have not been able to find the dates of publication of the other two, in which there is more biographical and general matter than topographical. The author apologizes for

the inappropriateness of their titles by saying that he could not help calling them Supplements to the Topography, which was his ‘ first love.’

5'5 fi fi, ‘ Explanations of the Classics, under the Imperial Ts'ing Dynasty.’ See above, p. 20. The Work, however, was not published, as I have there supposed, by imperial authority, but under the superintendence, and at the expense (aided by other officers), of Yiian Yuan 75), Governor-general of Kwang-tung and Kwang-hsi, in the ninth year of the last reign, 1829. The publication of so extensive a Work shows a public spirit and zeal for literature among the high oflicers'of China, which should keep foreigners from thinking meanly of them.

XL ¥ Z? a, ‘ Sayings of the Confucian Family.’ F amily is to be taken in the sense of Sect or School. In Lift Hsin’s Catalogue, in the subdivision devoted to the Lun Yii, we find the entry :—‘Sayings of the Confucian Family, twenty-seven Books,’ with a note by Yen Sze-kfi of the Tang dynasty,—‘ Not the existing Work called the Family Sayings.’ The original Work was among the treasures found in the wall of Confucius’s old house, and was deciphered and edited by K'ung An-kwo. The present Work is by Wang Sfi of the Wei dynasty, grounded professedly on the older one, the blocks of which had suffered great dilapidation during the intervening centuries. It is allowed also, that, since Stl’s time, the WVork has suffered more than any of the acknowledged Classics. Yet it is a very valuable fragment of antiquity, and it would be worth while to incorporate it with the Analects. My copy is the edition of Li Yung 1'5), published in 1780. I have generally called the Work ‘ Narratives of the School.’

g E 91% 3%, ‘Sacrificial Canon of the Sage’s Temples, with Plates.’ This Work, published in 1826, by K0. Yuan, styled Hsiang-chau Yjfi, 1? #5 fl), is a very painstaking account of all the Names sacrificed to in the temples of Confucius, the dates of their attaining to that honour, &c. There are appended to it Memoirs of Confucius and Mencius, which are not of so much value.

%, ‘The Complete Works of the Ten T sze.’ See

Morrison’s Dictionary, under the character I have only had occasion, in connexion with this Work, to refer to the writings of

Chwang—tsze and Lieh-tsze My copy is an edition of 1804.

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