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strument of good both in church and commonwealth ; and a great support of another plantation in Plymouth colony called Scituate. The other, Mr. George Morton, continued but a while, yet was found always an unfeigned wellwisher, and according to his sphere and condition, a faithful promoter of the publick good, labouring always to still and silence the murmurings and complaints of some discontented spirits, by occasion of the difficulties of those new beginnings. But he fell asleep in the Lord, within a year after his first arrival, in June 1624, when it pleased the Lord to put a period to the days of his pilgrimage here. Towards the end of July aforesaid, came in also the other vessel, which the former had lost at sea, in which, as well as in the former, came over sundry considerable persons, who sought the welfare of the plantation. Among the rest, special notice was taken of Mr. John Jenny, a leading man, and of a publick spirit, that improved the interest both of his person and estate, to promote the concernments of the colony ; in which service he continued faithful unto the day of his death, which happened in the year 1644, leaving this testimony behind, that he walked with God, and served his generation. As for the rest of the passengers, when they came and saw in what a low condition they found their friends, they were diversly affected, according to their different humours : some relenting with pity toward their friends, while others were surprised with grief, foreseeing their own sufferings in the glass of their neighbours' sorrowful condition. In short, it fared with them in general as sometime it did with those that were rebuilding the temple at Jerusalem after the captivity, when some wept things were no better, while others rejoiced they were like to go so well. Yet was the glory of that temple, whose foundation was then laid, foretold by the prophet to be greater than that of the former temple, although it was a long time afore that prophecy came to be fulfilled, in the full extent thereof: “who hath despised the day of small things?” so in a sense it happened with this colony of Plymouth, which was the foundation of the flourishing and prosperity that in following years was seen in the other colonies.

CHAP. XV. The council established at Plymouth in the county of Devon,

fır the ordering the affairs of New England, and their proceedings with reference thereto.

LETTERS patent were, as is intimated before, granted by his majesty in the year 1606, for the limitation of Virginia, which did extend from the 34 to the 44 degree of north latitude, distinguished into two colonies, a first and a second, (which last, called New England, was first christened by Prince Charles, and was appropriated to the cities of Bristol, Exon, and town of Plymouth in the west parts of England.) The adventurers had liberty to take their choice for plantations, any where between the degrees of 38 and 44, provided one hundred miles distance was left between the two colonies aforesaid, Those that first adventured thither, whatever were the misfortunes, calamities, and hindrances, they met withal in their first enterprises of planting, were not so discouraged, as whoily to lay aside the design, finding at last much encouragement to go on therewith, by the prudent endeavours of Mr. Rocraft, Capt. Darmer, and others em. ployed by Sir Ferdinando Gorges, yet held it most convenient to strengthen themselves by a new grant from his royal majesty; and were the rather induced thereunto because they found those of Virginia had by two several patents settled their bounds, and excluded all from intermeddling with them, that were not free of their company, and had wholly altered the form of their government, from the first grounds laid for the managing the affairs of both colonies, leaving those of New England as desperates, and their business as abandoned. These con. siderations, together with the necessity of settling their own affairs and limits, distinct from theirs, made them at last rather to petition his majesty for the renewing their grant, because, whatsoever hopes they had of obtaining their desires, the rumour thereof was soon spread abroad; and the commodities of the place, both fish and trade, began to be sa looked into, that they met with

many interruptions, before they could effect their purpose. Many desired, that all that coast might be made free, both to those of Virginia, as well as themselves. Others intended to bring the business into the Parliament, which about that time was to assemble, hoping to prove the same to be a monopoly, and much tending to hinder the common good. Upon these motions the adventurers were much questioned about it, before way could be made for a new patent. But both parties be. ing heard by the Lords of the Council, and by the Parliament also, as Sir Ferdinando Gorges writes, in the des. cription of New England published in his name, Anno 1658, the business was by them so ordered, that they were directed to proceed, and to have their grant agreeable to the liberty of the Virginia company, the form of their government only excepted. All parties not being satisfied herewith, it was heard another time before it was concluded : yea, after it had passed the scals, it was stopped upon new suggestions to the king, and by his majesty returned to the council to be settled; by whom the former order was confirmed, the differences cleared, and they ordered to have their patent at last delivered to them, bearing date at Westminster, Nov. 3, 1620, as is recited in the beginning of that afterwards granted to the company of the Massachusetts. The substance of the said grand charter is set down in the thirty-first chapter of this history following. But those honourable persons to whom the said patent was made, having laid their foundation upon the royal grant, of so great and sovereign a prince, imagined it could never fail, and so cast their designs in the mould of a principality, or royal state, intending to build their edifice proportionable to their platform, after the mode of the realm, from whence the country had its first denomination. For they proposed to commit the management of their whole affairs to a general government, assisted by so many of the patentees as should be there resident upon the place, together with the officers of state, as Treasurer, Admiral, Master of the Ordnance, Marshal, with other persons of judgment and experience, as by the President and Council then established, for the better governing those affairs, should be thought fit: resolving also, (because all men are wont most willingly to submit to those ordinances, constitutions, and orders, themselves have had an hand in the framing of,) the general laws whereby the state should have been governed, should be first framed, and agreed upon by the General Assembly of the states of those parts, both spiritual and temporal.

In prosecution of this purpose and intendment the council of Plymouth aforesaid, or some that acted their power, did in the year 1623, send over to New England some of the forementioned general officers; for about the end of June 1623 arrived in New England Capt. Francis West, who was sent with a commission from the said council, to be Admiral of all the country, to restrain interlopers, and such as came either to fish or trade upon the coast, without license from them. In the end of August following, * arrived there Capt. Robert Gorges, sonot Sir Ferdinando, sent from the council, as lieutenant. general over all New England, for preventing and reforming all such evils and abuses as had been complained of, to be committed by the fishermen and others, who not only without order and leave frequented those coasts, but when they were there, brought a reproach upon the nation, by their lewdness and wickedness among the savages, abusing their women openly, and teaching their people drunkeness, with other beastly demeanours : for the regulation of all which matters was the said general governour sent over, not without intent also to begin some new piantation, in some part of the Massa. chusetts Bay, for which end the said Capt. Gorges had a patent assigned hiin, for a place called Massachusiack, on the northeast side of the said bay, containing thirty miles in length, and ten in breadth up into the main land. Capt. West aforesaid and Christopher Lovet, Esq. (who came over about the same time with intent to begin another plantation somewhere else, but without success,) with the governour of Plymouth colony for that time being, was appointed to be his council, yet grant. ing him authority to choose such other as he should

• Middle of September. P. I. 141.

think fit. Divers of his friends, it seems, promising to send suitable supplies after him, but they withdrew when they understood how Sir Ferdinando was like to speed in the Parliament, where Sir Edward Cooke, the speaker at that time, (a great patron of the liberties of the people, and as great an enemy to all projectors,) endeavoured to have the whole design of the council of Plymouth condemned as a monopoly, and a breach of the liberties of the subject. The gentlemen on whom Capt. Gorges had his dependence for supplies, upon this occasion withholding their assistance, they who were personally en. gaged in the design were thereby made uncapable of do. ing any thing to purpose, and so the whole business came to nothing. For after some troublesome agitations between Capt. Gorges and Mr. Weston, who was by him called to account for the ill managing his plantation at Weymouth, and for abusing his license from Sir Ferdinando for carrying over ordnance, (which matter was composed betwist them by the wisdom of the governour of Plymouth,) the general governour, Capt. Robert Gorges, soon returned home, scarce having saluted the country in his government, nor continued much longer in it than Tully's vigilant consul, that had not lei. sure during his whole consulship, so much as once to take his sleep. For finding the place to answer neither his quality nor condition, nor the hopes he had conceive ed thereof, he had but small encouragement for longer abode in such a remote and desert land, not like in a long time to be inhabited. By this experiment of Capt. Robert Gorges, it appears how great a difference there is between the theoretical and practical part of an enterprise. The Utopian fancy of any projector, may easily in imagination frame a flourishing plantation, in such a country as was New England; but to the actual accomplishing thereof there is required a good number of resolved people, qualified with industry, experience, prudence, and estate, to carry on such a design to perfection, much of which were wanting in the present design.

It is said that one Mr. Morel came over with the said captain, who was to have had a superintendency over

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