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not only just butt honorable. As for the breadth of this whole country under debate, accounting alonge the shore and sea coast, itt seemes to amount to neere five hundred miles, within the compass of which circuitt are many spacious and navigable rivers, which generally att the mouth of them, where they disembogue themselves into the great ocean, affoard very commodious havens for shipps, wherein they who have made tryall, finde they anchor and ride safely, and pass upe higher into the country with great advantage to the inhabitants on either side. The principall of them to the northward are that att Pemmaquid, and another called Shipscot river, above a mile over att the entrance, within twelve miles of which to the southward lyeth Kennibecke, neere a league over att the mouth, navigable about 60 miles up into the country, or more; within whose channell are severall ilands, capeable to entertaine a great number of inhabitants. Within a few miles of the aforesayd river lyes Casco Bay, a spacious haven about 9 leagues over att the entrance, and running up neere 20 miles within its capes. Itt is filled with a large number of islands, some of which are considerable, where sea faring men have taken up their habitations. Att neere 20 miles distance to the south, the river of Saco finds its passage into the salt sea, att the mouth of which is a notable haven, called Winter Harbor, that gives encorragement to a number of inhabitants to take theire abode there, sufficient to make a plantation; this river is of a consid. erable breadth many miles higher into the country. The next river of noat on that side of the coast, about 30 miles from the former, is that called Piscataqua, which has beene frequented ever since the country was first planted, by such as came this way for trafficke with the inhabitants, natives and others, that have seated themselves in several plantations about the uppermost branches thereof. The channell is very swift and spacious, fit for vessells of great burden for the space of neere 20 miles, where itt divides ittselfe into many considerable bayes and small branches, whose streames are: in theire passage obstructed with falls of broken rockes,

that putt a stop to such as at the entrance might, by the helpe of its streams, be in hopes of aspiring higher into the inland parts of the country. Merrimacke is another gallant river, seventy miles neere hand to the southward, the entrance into which, though a mile over in breadth, is barred with shoales of sand, having two passages that lead thereinto, att either end of a sandy island, that lyeth over against the mouth of the sayde river. Near the mouth of that, are two other lesser ones, about which are seated two considerable townes, the one called Newberry, the other Ipswich, either of which have fayre channells, wherein vessells of fivety or sixty tuns may passup safely to the doores of the enhabitants, whose habit. tations are pitched neere the banks on either side. Mer. rimacke is a very stately river neere the mouth of itt, and runnes neere a hundred miles up into the country, and would be of great advantage to many small townes seated on severall lesser streames that loose themselves in itt's greater channell, were itt not for severall falls that obstruct the quiet passage of the streames before itt hath run 20 miles within the land; which disadvantage attends most of the great rivers of New England, throughout the whole country: on the banks of whose streames are many veynes of very rich and fertile land, that would receive abundance more inhabitants, who might live as well as in most places of the world, were itt not for the intolerable burden of transportation of theire goods by land, for want of navigable channells in those rivers. Charles river is the next to be taken notice of, issuing its waters into the bottome of the Massachusetts Bay, and affords as gallant an harbor neer the mouth of it, as any river of that bigness in all christendom, and runnes up twenty or thirty miles into the country, yet not navi. gable above foure or five, which makes it lesse serviceable to the inhabitants seated up higher upon the bankes thereof. More to the southward of Cape Cod are very many commodious harbors and havens for ships ; And two very great rivers that carry a considerable breadth and deep channels above an hundred miles up into the country. But by reason of great falls, where the watter forceth its passage over great and steep rocks that lye crosse over the whole stream, they are made impassable any higher for any sort of vessells, which is the great disadvantage of those that dwell in the upper, or more inland parts of the country. As touching the said rivers, the one is called Connecticutt, running north and south, and distant neer an hundred miles from the most easterly poynt of Cape Cod; first discovered by the Dutch, called by them the Fresh river. About fifty or sixty miles from the entrance of which, are seated the townes of Middleton, Wethersfield, Hartford, and Windsor, and Springfield about 25 miles above them; and between thirty and forty miles, above them, are seated Hadly, Northampton, and Hatfeild ; above which were Deerefeild and Northfeild or Squakhet, which for sometime were ruined by the Indians, but since planted again. All which are accomodated with intervale land of an ex. cellent soyle, and otherwise very desireable, were itt not for the distance of a markett, and difficulty of transportation. The other is called Hudson's river, running on the same poynt with the former, soe as a west lyne from Boston att the mouth of Charles river, falls directly thereupon, neere Fort Albany, (lately while the Dutch had the possession, called Fort of Aurania,) neere which are very great falls, where the channell has a precipice downe neere fivety foote in' a right descent; butt how much higher that great river comes from within the continent, is as yett unknowne. Att or neere the mouth, it is above a league over, and carries his breadth with sutable proportion thereunto, about a hundred and fivety miles; and it is a very stately river upon all accompts, butt for the inconveniency of surdry falls much inter. rupting the passage of the streame, beyond the sayd place of Fort Albany. From the mouth of this, called Hudson's river, to the mouth of the former, called Connecticutt, runneth a great channell between the mayn land and that called Long Island, in length making about a hundred miles ; in some parts thereof carrying a considerable breadth withall. Other rivers there are besides the aforementioned, not inconsiderable : As that

called Pequod river, in the bottome of Narraganset Bay,
where it empties ittselfe into the mayn ocean, making a
very goodly haven, neere unto which is seated the towne
called New London ; in nothing but the name imitating
the glory of the mother citty, and famous mart of Eu.
rope, if not of the world, unless in the advantage of the
stately harbor, and vicinity of the ocean. Twelve miles
from which, upon the bankes of the same river, is seated
another towne, called Norwich. Butt the streame of
this watter being issued in so small and short a course,
itt is not mentioned as one of the great rivers of the
country; the breadth, a little above the first towne, not
being in any degree proportionable to that itt is below.

CHAP. IV.
Of the temperature of the ayre and nature of the climate.

The climate of New England lyes in the middle, be. tweene the frigid and torrid zones, the extrems on either hand; and therefore may bee suposed to bee in the most desirable place of a temparate ayre, for the advantage both of wholesome and delightfull living, falling into the same latitude with Italy and France : some provinces in both which countrys in former times being taken for the most desirable in the whole universe ; yet by reason of some occult and secret accident, is this country knowne by longe experience to partake a little too much of the two extrems of heat and cold, proper to the two opposite regions on either hand, in those seasons of the yeare when those qualities rise to be most prevayling. Both the sea coast and the continent are indifferently mixt of mountainous champaigne lands, the aire thereby becoming more salubrious by far, than the next adjoyning proy. ince of Virginia to the south, which consisteth generally both of a lower and richer soyle; it being found by expericnce that the vapours drawne out of the earth in the levels and moister parts thereof by the directer beames of the sun, and not purified by the ventilating of the aire, as is usually seen in the higher and more hilly countrys, it useth to make the places more unwholsom and obnox

S

ous to diseases, which the more hilly countreys are freed from. The greatest inconvenience of the country in respect of the temperature of the aire, either in sum'mer or winter, is judged to arise from the inequality thereof, which yet is more discerned in Virginia, a countrey more land lockt and that lyes not so open to the sea, the reason of which is hard to bee rendred. The heat in the summer and cold in the winter seldome are observed to continue in the same degree, but are very subject to suddoine alterations, from whence many epidemicall distempers are knowne to proceed oft times. Those hotter countreys, scituate in the torrid zone between the two tropicks, by the ancient philosophers, upon a mistake of ignorance or want of experience, determined to be not habitable, were they not continually fan. ned by those they call the trade windes, that continually follow the sun, the fierye and sulphurious vapors exhaled by the sun beames so directly falling upon the earth, would els suffocate the inhabitants : for want of which ventilation here, sometimes the summer seasons are found more unwholesome and difficult to beare; though generally the temperature of the aire is, since the planting of the country by the English nation, found more moderate by experience, and much more suitable for the constitution of the inhabitants; however the complaint of the people that dwell therein is for the most part more, for being annoyed with the heat of the summer then cold of the winter-against the extremity whereof wayes may be found for men to secure themselves more easily then from the extremity of the heat, especially in such who are not as yet well naturallized and inured to the climate. The frost heare useth to visit the inhabitants so early in the winter, and ordinarily tarrys so long before it takes its leave in the spring, that the difficultye of subsistance is much increased thereby : for it commonly begins to take possession of the earth about the middle of November, forbidding the husbandman to meddie therewith any more, till the middle or end of March, not being willing till that time to resign up its possession or the hold it hath taken for nere two foot be

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