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BELT', n. s. Sax. belt, Lat. baltheus. A. exceed a mile in width, so that the entrance from girdle; a cincture in which a sword or some the Cattegat is completely commanded. In weapon, is commonly hung.

other parts of the strait the water expands in Full many ladies often had assay'd,

width to an extent of eight or ten miles. The About their middles that fair belt to knit. route from Jutland to Copenhagen, by way of

Spenser. Fredericia, though circuitous, is preferred on He cannot buckle his distemper'd cause

account of the regularity and security of the conWithin the belt of rula.

Shakspeare. veyance. The shores of the Little Belt are selAjax slew himself with the sword given him by dom steep or rugged, but contain several sandHector, and Hector was dragged about the walls of banks; and the current from the Baltic to the Troy by the belt given him by Ajax.


Cattegat is of considerable strength. The depth Then snatch'd the shining belt, with gold inlaid; varies from four fathoms to twenty-seven. The The belt Eurytion's artful hands had made. Dryden. passage of both Belts is attended with consider

Belt, BALTHEUS, a kind of military girdle, able risk for large vessels, which on that account commonly of leather, wherewith the sword or

generally pass through the Sound; the Great other weapons are sustained. Belts are known Belt, however, was much frequented by British among the ancient and middle-age writers by ships during the stoppage of the Sound, from divers names, as (wyn, Swva, zona, cingulum, 1807 to 1814, in consequence of our hostilities reminiculum, rinca or ringa, and baldrellus. The with Denmark. belt was an essential piece of the ancient armour; The Lesser lies to the west of the Great Belt, insomuch that we sometimes find it used to de- between the island of Funen and the coast of note the whole armour. In later ages, the belt Jutland. It is not three miles in average breadth, was given to a person when he was raised to and very crooked. knighthood; whence it has also been used as a BELTAN, or Beltein, a superstitious cusbadge or mark of the knightly order.

tom of the Highlands of Scotland. It is,' says Belt, a disease in sheep, is cured by cutting Mr. Pennant, in his Tour, “a kind of rural sacritheir tails off, and laying the sore bare; then fice performed by the herdsmen of every village casting mould on it, and applying tar and goose- on the first of May. They cut a square trench grease.

in the ground, leaving a turf in the middle: on Belt, Beltis, in ecclesiastical writers of the that they make a fire of wood, on which they middle age, signifies a string of beads.

dress a large caudle of eggs, butter, oatmeal, and Belt, in surgery, signifies a handage; thus milk; and bring, besides the ingredients of the quicksilver belts are used for the itch; belts for caudle, plenty of beer and whisky; for each of keeping the belly tight, and discharging the the company must contribute something. The water in the operation of tapping, &c.

rites begin with spilling some of the caudle on Belts, FasciÆ, in astronomy, two zones or the ground, by way of libation : on that, every girdles surrounding the body of the planet Jupi- one takes a cake of oatmeal, upon which are ter. See ASTRONOMY.

raised nine square knobs, each dedicated to some BELT, THE GREAT AND LITTLE, two straits of particular being, the supposed preserver of their Denmark, connecting the Baltic with the Catte- Hocks and herds, or to some particular animal, gat. The former runs between the island of the real destroyer of them : each person then Zealand and that of Funen, at the entrance of the turns his face to the fire, breaks off a knob, and Baltic. In 1658 it was so completely frozen flinging it over his shoulder, says, This I give to over, that Charles Gustavus, king of Sweden, thee, preserve thou my horses ; this to thee, premarched across it with a design to take Copen- serve thou my sheep; and so on.

After that hagen. It varies in depth from five to twenty they use the same ceremony to the noxious anifathoms, and its greatest width is about twenty mals: This I give to thee, O fox! spare thou my miles. The neighbouring shores afford several lambs: this to thee, O hooded crow! this to thee, good and convenient harbours. The chief dan- O eagle!. When the ceremony is over, they dine ger in the navigation arises from the sand banks, on the caudle; and after the feast is finished, and the number of small islands. The passage- what is left is hid by two persons deputed for boats cross in summer from Nyborg in Funen to that purpose; but on the next Sunday they reCorsoer in Zealand, a distance of fifteen miles, assemble and finish the reliques of the first enterin the course of three or four hours. In the tainment.' Dr. James Robertson, minister of middle of the passage is the small island of Callander, gives a very different, and seemingly Sprogoe. Vessels passing this strait pay a toll more credible account of this festival, in Sir John at Nyborg, where a guard ship is stationed. At Sinclair's Stat. Acc. Vol. xi. 620. Upon the Fredericia, where the tolls are levied, it does not first day of May,' says the Dr., 'which is called Vol. IV.- PART



Beltan, or Baltein day, all the boys in a town- Beliz, or Belzo, a town of Poland, and caship or hamlet, meet in the moors. They cut a pital of the province, seated on the contines of table in the green sod, of a round figure, by cast- Upper Volhynia, among marshes, thirty-five ing a trench in the ground, of such circumference miles north of Lemberg. as to hold the whole company. After dressing BELVEDERE, a town of European Turkey, the caudle as above-mentioned—They knead a on the west coast of the Morea, and standing on cake of oatmeal, which is toasted at the embers the site of the ancient Elis. It is poorly built, against a stone. After the custard is eaten up, but receives the name of Belvedere from its fine they divide the cake into so many portions, as

situation. It is the capital of a province which similar as possible to one another in size and comprises the Messenia and Elis of the ancients, shape, as there are persons in the company. and is one of the most beautiful and fertile in They daub one of these portions all over with Greece. The town is thirty-six miles south of charcoal, until it be perfectly black.. They put Patras, and sixty-five west of Corinth. Longall the bits of the cake into a bonnet. Every 21° 30' E., lat. 37° 59' N. one, blindfold, draws out a portion. He who BELVEDERE, in the Italian architecture, &c. holds the bonnet, is entitled to the last bit. denotes either a pavilion on the top of a buildWhoever draws the black bit, is the devoted ing, or an artificial eminence in a garden; the person who is to be sacrificed to Baal, whose word literally signifying a fine prospect. favor they mean to implore, in rendering the BELVIDERE, in botany. See CHENOPOyear productive of the sustenance of man and beast. There is little doubt of those inhuman BELVIS, a small town of Spain, in Estremasacrifices having been once offered in this coun- dura, with a castle, seated between two mountains. try, as well as in the east, although they now BELUGA, in zoology, a name of the delphipass from the act of sacrificing, and only compel nus albicano; this fish occasionally containing a the devoted person to leap three times through morbid concretion called the beluga stone. Its the flames; with which the ceremonies of this figure is globular or oval; it is of a yellowish festival are closed.' The Dr. in a note traces white color, smooth polished surface, and bethe origin of this and other superstitions from tween the size of a pigeon's and goose's egg. our ancient Druidism.‘Bal-tein signifies the It is ponderous, and requires a strong blow to fire of Baal. Baal, or Ball, is the only word in break it. When scraped and sprinkled on hot Gaelic for a globe. This festival was probably iron it emits a faint urinous smell

, and calcines in honor of the sun, whose return, in his appa- into a light insipid grayish earth. The Asiatics rent annual course, they celebrated, on account of the Volga give it in doses of from ten grains of his having such a visible influence, by his to a dram, in calculous disorders; and they begenial warmth, on the productions of the earth. lieve also that it facilitates childbirth. That the Caledonians paid a superstitious respect BELULCUM, a chirurgical instrument for to the sun, as was the practice ainong many other extracting darts, arrows, &c. from wounds. nations, is evident, not only by the sacrifice at BELUNUM, in ancient geography, a town Baltein, but upon many other occasions. When of Rhætia, above Feltria, in the territory of the a Highlander goes to bathe, or to drink waters Veneti; now called Belluno. out of a consecrated fountain, he must always BELUR, a general name given to the Alpine approach by going round the place, from east to region which divides the southern part of ancient west on the south side, in imitation of the appa- Scythia, or Great Bucharia, from Little Bucharia. rent diurnal motion of the sun. When the dead It lies in about the 37th degree of north latitude, are laid in the earth, the grave is approached by and the 71st of east longitude. going round in the same manner. The bride is BELUR Tagh, a range of mountains in central conducted to her future spouse, in the presence Asia, which runs nearly north and 'south, about of the minister, and the glass goes round a com- the 71st degree of east longitude. The term, in pany, in the course of the sun. This is called, the Mongul language, implies the dark or in Gaelic, going round the right, or the lucky cloudy mountains. They belong to a part of way. The opposite course is the wrong, or the the ancient Imaus, and are perpetually covered unlucky way,

with snow. BELTESHAZZAR, the name given to the BELUS, in ancient geography, a small river prophet Daniel, by Nebuchadnezzar's chief of Galilee, at the distance of two stadia from eunuch.

Ptolemais, running from the foot of Mount CarBELTURBET, a market town of Ireland, in mel out of the lake Cendevia. Near this place, the county of Cavan, situated on the river Erne, according to Josephus, was a round hollow or eight miles from Cavan, and sixty from Dublin. valley, where was a kind of sand fit for making Before the union, it sent two members to the glass; which, though exported in great quantiIrish parliament. All articles offered for sale in ties, was found to be inexhaustible. °Strabo says, the market pay toll in kind. They principally the whole of the coast from Tyre to Ptolemais consist of oatmeal, potatoes, and yarn. Brewing has a sand fit for making glass; but that the and distilling are also carried on here. It ap- sand of the rivulet Belus and its neighbourhood pears to have been once a military station; there is a better sort; and here, according to Pliny, being some ancient fortifications still visible. the making of glass was first discovered.

BELTZ, or Berzo, a province of Red Russia Bell's. See BEL. in Poland, bounded by Leopold on the south, by BELUSSA, a market town of Hungary, in Chelm on the north, Little Poland on the east, the county of Trentschin, near which are warm and I olhynia on the west.

sulphur springs.


BELWETHER, n, s. From bell and wether the Greeks, the length of which was equivalent A sheep which leads the flock with a bell on his to one cubit and two-thirds, or to ten palms. neck.

Whence also the term ßruarišelv, bematizein, to The fox will serve my sheep to gather,

measure a road. And drive to follow after their belwether.

Bema, in ecclesiastical.writers, denotes 1. The

Spenser. altar and sanctuary in the ancient churches. In To offer to get your living by the copulation of this sense it means the third or innermost part of cattle; to be a bawd to a belwether. Shakspeare. the church, answering to our chancel. 2. The

The flock of sheep and beluether thinking to break bishop's chair or throne, in the sanctuary, was into another's pasture, and being to pass over another called bema from the steps by which it was asbridge, jostled till both fell into the ditch, Howel. cended. 3. The reader's desk. This in the

Greek church was called Brua yposwv, in the LaBELZONI (John Baptist), a modern traveller, tin church ambo. celebrated for his discoveries in Egyptian anti

BEMA was particularly used by the Manichees quities. He was, according to his own preface for their altar, which was in a different place to hisTravels, born at Padua, of a Roman family, from that of the Catholics. Bema was also a and his original destination was to a monastic denomination given by this sect to the anniverlife. The disturbed state of his country, however, in consequence of the French invasion in with them was a solemn feast and day of rejoicing.

sary of the day on which Manes was killed, which 1800, induced him to seek an asylum in Eng- One of the chief ceremonies of the feast consisted land, whither he repaired in 1803. Here he married, and continued to reside nine years. with great magnificence.

in setting out and adorning their bema or altar Being considerably inore than six feet high, ro

BE MAD. Be and mad. See Mad. bust and well proportioned, he at one time exhi

BEʻMARTYR. Be and martyr. See MARTYR. bited feats of strength at Astley's amphitheatre;

BE'MASK. Be and mask. See Mask. but subsequently devoted himself to the grand

BE'MAUL. Be and maul. See MAUL. object of exploring the north-eastern shores of

BE'MAZE. Be and maze. See Maze. Africa. Taking Mrs. Belzoni with him he left

BEMBER, a chain of mountains in Asia, England in 1815, and passed by Portugal and which divide India from Tartary. Spain to Malta and Egypt, where he was much

BEMBO (Flavio), a native of Amalfi, in encouraged and assisted in his researches by Mr; Naples, the inventor of that most useful instruSalt, the British consul. He returned to England ment in navigation, the mariner's compass, flouin 1820, to lay the results before the public, and rished about the beginning of the fourteenth published a Narrative of the Operations and re

century. cent Discoveries within the Pyramids, Temples,

BEMBO (Peter), a noble Venetian, secretary to Tombs, and Excavations, in Egypt and Nubia; Leo X. and afterwards cardinal, was one of the and of a Journey to the coast of the Red Sea, best writers of the sixteenth century. He was a in search of the ancient Berenice; and another good poet, both in Italian and Latin; but he is to the Oasis of Jupiter Ammon, 4to;, together justly censured for the looseness and immodesty with forty-four illustrative plates in folio. In of some of his poems. 1821 Mr. Belzoni exhibited, at the Egyptian History of Venice; Letters; and a book in praise

He published also A Hall in Piccadilly, a model of the tomb which of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino. He died he had explored near Thebes ; fac-similies of the in 1547, aged seventy-two. paintings on the walls of one or two of the se

BEMETE. Be and mete, See Mete. pulchral apartments, with other Egyptian curi

BEMETRE, in ornithology, a name by which osities. This exhibition attracted much public the Portuguese in the Brasils call a greenish black attention, and probably proved very profitable; bird of the starling kind, common there, and more but in Paris the following season it did not meet with equal success. Our traveller afterwards generally known by its Brasilian name, pitan

guaguacu. undertook an expedition of discovery to the cen

BEMILUCIUS, in mythology, a surname of tral parts of Africa, and reached the mouth of

Jupiter, represented young and beardless. Benin river on the coast of Guinea, in the autumn

BEMINGLE. Be and mingle. See MINGLE. of 1823. On the night of the 24th of November

BEMIRE. Be and mire. See More. he set off for Gato with a gentleman of some

BEMIST. Be and mist. See Mist. influence with the king of Benin. But having

BEMOAN, reached Benin he was seized with a disease which


Be and moan. See Moan. speedily terminated in death, and was interred at

BEMOCK. Be and mock. See Mock. Gato; the following monumental inscription

BEMOIL. Be and moil. See More being placed over his grave:

BEMONSTER. Be and monster. See Mon-
Here lie the remains of

BEMOURN. Bi or be and mourn. Goths. Who was attacked with dysentery at Benin,

mawrun ; Ang.-Sax. murnan, to mourn, to grieve (On his way to Houssa and Timbuctoo,)

for, to lament. On the 26th of November, and died at this

BEMUFFLED. Be and muffle; muffle the place,

diminutive of muff. See MUFF. December 3, 1823.

BEMUSE. Be and muse. See Muse.

Ben, in botany, the oily acorn, or ben-nut; BEMA, Brua, denotes a step or pace. The a whitish nut, tup size of a small filbert and of a bema made a kind of itinerary measure among roundish triangular shape, including a kernel of




the same figure, covered with a white skin. It mon's interest, in opposition to Adonijah, he was is the fruit of the hyperanthera moringa, a native appointed general instead of Joab. He appears of the East Indies. These nuts, on expression, also to have been appointed public executiones, yield one-fourth of their weight of a yellow insi- an office, it would seem, not held dishonorable pid oil, which does not grow rancid with long in those days; we find him ordered to put to keeping. It is impregnated with the odor of death Joab and Adonijah. His personal prowess, roses, jessamine, and other flowers, by stratifying in killing the lion, the Egyptian, and the two them with cotton dipped in the oil, and repeating Moabitish champions, is recorded in 2 Sam. the process with fresh flowers, until the oil xxiii. 20. becomes sufficiently odorous; after which, it is BENARES. See BANARES. squeezed out from the cotton in a press. In this BENAVENTO, or BENAVENTE, a town of manner the celebrated huile antique de la rose, Spain, in Leon, with the title of duchy. It is or otto of roses, is prepared.

seated on the river Ezla, forty miles south of BEN-ABOURD, or BENAVOURD, the Table hill, Leon, and has a strong castle; but though it cona mountain of Scotland, between the shires of tains nine parishes, an abbey, two convents, Aberdeen and Inverness. It is about three three hospitals, and other public establishments, miles long, and nearly flat at the top, presenting the population does not exceed 3000. The a huge barren mass of rock, rising to the height churches are old, but well built, and the palace of 3940 feet above the level of the sea. A few of the dukes is a noble and very ancient structopazes and beryls are sometimes found there. ture. Not far from the town is a famous monas

Ben LEDI, a mountain in the county of Perth, tery of Hieronymites. It is twenty miles north in Scotland, rising 3009 feet above the level of of Zamora. the sea; on the summit is a small lake.

BENAVIDIO (Marc), a lawyer, born at PaBen-LOMOND, a mountain in the county of dua in 1489, and died in 1582. His principal Stirling, in Scotland. It rises conically from works are, 1. Dialogus de Concilio, 410. Venet. Lochlomond, above the level of which it towers 1541. 2. Epitome Illustrium Jurisconsultorum, 3240 feet, and above that of the sea 3262. It is 8vo. Patav. 1553; printed afterwards in Fichard's chiefly composed of granite and masses of quartz. Lives of Lawyers, Patav. 1665; and in HoffIt is entirely the property of the duke of Mon. man's edition of Pancirollus, 4to. Leips. 1721. trose.

3, Illustrium Jurisconsultorum Imagines, fol. Ben MACDUIE, a mountain on the western Rom. 1566; Venet. 1657. 4. Observationes confines of the county of Aberdeen, in Scotland, Legales, 8vo. Venet. 1745. 5. Polymathiæ Libri the second highest in Britain : It is 4300 feet in Duodecim. Venet. 1558. &c. height.

BENBECULA, Beau-vealla, Gael., a small Ben Nevis, a mountain in the county of Dum- island on the west coast of Scotland, belonging barton, in Scotland, rising 4370 feet above the to the parish of South Uist, from which it is sepalevel of the sea. It is the highest in Britain. It rated by a narrow channel, nearly dry at low is chiefly composed of porphyry and red granite, water. "It is a low island, about nine miles in and it contains a vein of lead ore richly impreg- length, and nearly the same in breadth. The ntaed with silver.

soil is sandy, and unproductive. Grear quantiBENA, or Bene, a town of Piedmont, in the ties of sea-weed are thrown annually upon the district of Mondovi, on the road fronı Finale to coast, from which the inhabitants make kelp. Turin, from which it is about twenty-eight miles There are the remains of a large Danish tower distant. It is a fortified place, defended by a upon it, said to contain the ashes of the daughter castle; and contains nearly 5000 inhabitants. of a Danish chief. It is situated between the It was taken by the French in April, 1796. islands of North and South Uist. Long.8° 10'W.,

BENACO, a department of the late Italian lat. 57° 26' N. republic, so named from the Benacus, compre- BENBOW (John), an English admiral, born hending part of the ci-devant Venetian territory about 1650. He was brought up to the sea, in of Verona, and the whole of the late territory of the merchant service, and in 1680 commanded Salo, on the lake of Garda. It is now a part of a ship in the Mediterranean trade, with which the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom. It was eighty he beat off a Sallee rover. His gallantry being Italian miles long and fifteen broad, and being reported to Charles II. of Spain, he invited the partly level, partly mountainous, exhibits one of captain to court, and gave him a letter of rethe most charming spots in Italy. It abounds in commendation to king James, from whom he corn, wine, oil, silk, fruits, lemons, oranges, iron, received a commission in the navy. He was lead, copper, marble, granite, &c. It contains afterwards sent to the West Indies by king Wilforty-two parishes, 150 villages, one large, and liam, where he relieved the British colonies ; several small towns; and sent nine deputies to and when he returned home he was greatly the two councils of the republic. Its population honored, though the house of commons severely in October, 1797, was 150,895. Desenzano was censured those who had sent out the squadron. the capital.

He was despatched a second time to that quarter; BENÆ LAPIs, in the natural history of the and, not long after his arrival, fell in with the ancients, the name given by the earliest writers French admiral, Du Casse, near St. Martha, on to that fossil body, afterwards called thracius the Spanish coast. A skirmishing action comlapis.

menced, and continued three or four days; but BENAIAH, U9, i. e. the Lord's building, on the last, the other ships having fallen a-stern, the son of Jehoidah, one of David's heroes, and left the admiral alone engaged with the French. captain of his guards. Having adhered to Solo- In this situation, though a chain-shot had shat



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