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empire of the Medes and Persians, and established his throne at Babylon, where he died in the prime of life. His kingdom was very great, but soon after his death it was divided between four of his generals : and thus four kingdoms stood up, but not in his power-for they were neither ruled over by his posterity, nor were they equal to his kingdom in strength.
It can hardly be necessary to trace the boundaries of Alexander's dominions, for the purpose of demonstrating to the reader, that they extended generally over those countries, which in later times formed the Greek Empire, and which afterwards were overrun by the Mahometan powers.
Mr. Faber and Mr. Clarke have discussed the subject fully. But it must not by any means be lost sight of, that Alexander's was a Greek kingdom, that he is called king of Grecia in the present vision, and that in Dan. xi. the realm of Grecia is again spoken of, as a power subsisting under that name in those times ; and thus a connection may be traced exemplifying the identity, which the present prophecy exhibits, between the first and the last Greek Empire, that is, between the Greek kingdom of Alexander, and the Greek kingdom which was formed in the fourth century by the division of the Roman Empire, into its Eastern and Western branches, and the prophecy
will be found to embrace the history of this Grecian Empire, as continued through the two periods. The vision thus proceeds :
V. 9. “And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great toward the South, and toward the East, and toward the pleasant land. And it waxed great even to the host of heaven; and it cast down some of the host and of the stars to the ground, and stamped upon them. Yea, he magnified himself even to the Prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down. And an host was given him against the daily sacrifice, by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground, and it practised, and prospered.”
The interpretation follows thus :—v. 23. “ And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, shall stand up. And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power, and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty, and the holy people. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand : and he shall magaify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy
many; he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes, but he shall be broken without hand."
In the time of the latter Greek kingdom, Mahometanism arose as a little horn, from small beginnings ; soon it waxed exceedingly great, and over-ran the fairest provinces of the world. Its rise was from within the Greek dominions, as a scourge upon the transgressors, in the beginning of the seventh century, when the Greek Church had filled up the measure of her iniquities, by following the idolatrous abominations of her Roman sister. Rapine, cruelty, and dissimulation have everywhere marked the steps of Mahometanism, whether under the immediate followers of Mahomet, or under the Ottomans in later times ; and the dark enigmas of the Koran have never failed to give pretence for perfidy, and for breach of faith with unbelievers, whenever it might suit their purpose. Religious enthusiasm imparted to them a strength not their own, and they derived a further strength from their crafty policy of incorporating into their armies, the youth of those countries which they subdued : and as they laid waste the kingdoms around them, the sabres of the Moslems continually aequired a keener edge, through the lie of their prophet, and the sensual paradise, promised to those who died in battle.
Their conquests have been chiedy
towards the South, over Arabia, and the Eastern part of Africa, towards the East, over Persia, and Hindoostan, and towards the North, over Syria, and Asia Minor, and part of Europe. Judea also, the pleasant land, as it is specially termed in Scripture, has not escaped their yoke. All these things, with their unexampled destruction of men, of cities, of edifices, and of every monument of art, and civilization, which is esteemed among the more enlightened nations, afford an accurate fulfilment of what was revealed, concerning the king of a fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, who should destroy wonderfully, and practise, and cause craft to prosper in his hand. It was also said that he should cast down to the ground, some of the host, and stars of heaven, even the mighty and the holy people, by which may be understood, professors and teachers of Christianity in different Christian countries which he conquered, where for the most part, the very name of Christianity has been destroyed, and Mahometanism established in its stead. His magnifying himself in bis heart, and against the Prince of the host, and taking away the daily sacrifice, may be referred to the titles assumed by Mahomet, and by the Sultans; to his consigning to slavery, or to death, all who would not confess to his creed ; and to his setting up his own name, above that of the Lord of life and glory. The titles
of “ God upon earth”-“Shadow of God”-and " Brother of the Sun and Moon," assumed by the little horn of the East, are not unlike those of his Papal brother in the West. The daily sacrifice which he hath taken away, is doubtless the Lamb of God, the blood of which, the Mahometan tramples under foot, counting it an unholy thing. If the literal temple of Jerusalem were intended under this expression, there would be found also a literal fulfilment, for upon the site of that Temple, a Turkish Mosque has been erected.
Two circumstances remain.--He shall stand up against the Prince of Princes, and shall be broken without hand. Already has he thus stood up, but perhaps in this particular he may not yet have completed the full measure of his iniquity : for when the scenes of the last days are developed, the followers of Mahomet will probably be found amongst those, who shall engage in personal contest with Messiah. The nature of this conflict remains still to be seen : but of the horn of Mahometanism it is revealed, that it shall be broken without hand--that is, without the intervention of any human instrument.
The time assigned for the duration of the vision comes lastly to be noticed, It is a point of the