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OF WOOD.

XII. In these instances, the cround is the principal consideration: but previous to any enquiry into the creater effects of wood when it is itself an object, an examination of the characteristic difforencos of trees and shrubs is neces' ary. I do not mean botanical distinctions; I riean apparent, not essential varieties; and those Lust be obvisvu and considerable, to merit recard in the disposition of the objects thoy distinguish.

Trees and shrubs are of different shapes, creons, and ciwoths.

The varieties in their shapes ray be reduced to the followinc heads.

Some thick with branches and foliace have almost an appearance of solidity, as the beech and the elm, the lilac and seringa. Others thin of boughs and of loaves soen licht and airy, as the ash and the arbele, the comion arbor vitae, and the tumarisk.

There is a mean betwixt the two extreries, very distinguishable fron both, as in the bladder-nut, and the ashen-leaved maple,

They may acain be divided into those whose branches becin from the { round, and those which shoot up in a stem before their branches begin.* Trees which have some, not mich clear stem, as several of the firs, belong to the former class; but a very short stena will rank a shiub, such as the althaea, in the latter.

f those whose branches becin from the ground, some rise in a nical ficure, as the larch, the cedar of Lebanon, and the holly. Some sewll out in the middle of their crowth, and dininish at both ends, as the meymouth pine, the mountain ash, and the lilac: and some are irreculur and buishy from the top to the botton, as the evercreen oak, the Virginian cedar, and . Cuelder rose.

There is a (rect difference between one whose base is very larce, and anot or whose base is very small, in proportion to its heicht: the cedur of Lebanon, and the cypress, are instances of such a diffe. ence; yet in voth the branches becin from the cround.

The heals of those which shoot up into a stor before their branches becin, sone times are slender cones, as of any firs: sonetiries are broad cones, as of the horse-chestnut; sometimes thoy are round, as or tho stone pine, and most sorts of fruit treos; and somti. 08 irregular, as of the elni. 01 this last kind thoro are many considerable varieties.

me cranches of 3010 Crow horizontally, as of the oak. In ot'ers they tend upwards, as in the la..ond, and in soveral sorts of broom, and of willows. In others they fall, us in the line, and the acacia; and in some of these last thoy incline obliquely, as in many of the firs; in sone they hanc directly down, as in the weepinc willou.

These are the nostobvious crout distinctions in the shapes of trees and shrubs. he differences botw on shades of I'en c:.nnot bo so considerable; but those also will be found well dosorvinc of attention. *Perhaps thoir ure fow, if any, which do not put forth brunches fron the bottombut in gome. the lovom broncho from various circumstances.

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