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reached the village of Suroua, situated in a lovely little valley, where we saw wheat as fine as any in England. Above the village, the valley is a level meadow about three quarters of a mile long by half a mile in breadth, surrounded on all sides by thick woods of walnut, chesnut, apricot, peach, and cherry, with acacia, mimosa, cypress, cedar, and every variety of pine : amongst which were white and red roses, jessamine, a white flowering thorn like may, and a beautiful large iris, besides wall-flowers, forget-me-not, strawberries and poleantus, with flowers of all shades of red, brown, and yellow. There were three waterfalls at the head of the valley ; the lowest and least pouring down in one unbroken stream over the rock, which is naturally hollowed into a deep recess, forming a very pretty, cool, and musical bower.

On the 24th of June we reached the top of the Pass at the head of the Suroan Valley, called Chaol Ghaut, 10,170 feet high, where we halted for the night. Snow was lying in a sheltered ravine on the northern slope of the mountain, which is part of the lofty range forming the shed-water between the Sutluj and Beeas rivers. Several of the peaks in this range are 18,000 feet in height, and are covered with perpetual snow. From this we descended over a clayey soil, made dangerously slippery by incessant rain, to the village of Bédath, at the junction of the two torrents which form the Teerthun river, along whose banks we proceeded for three days to Larjee, where it joins the Syneja river, and where about 100 yards lower down the united streams fall into the Beeas river, just at that point where the Beeas after running for a long course southward turns abruptly to the west through a narrow gorge, the channel of the three united streams not being so broad as that of any one of them. We were much surprized to find that this remarkable junction of three large streams was not esteemed holy. We rested in a large cave excavated in the variegated marble rock by Munnee Ram, a former Wuzeer of Kooloo; who, we were told used frequently to come to this place for many days together to escape from the cares of state ; but more likely he came to bathe at the junction of the three rivers, for a more sterile and in hospitable place could not be conceived. We then ascended the course of the Beeas river, which widened

after a few miles into a beautiful large valley ; Beeas river.

generally about half a mile across, and wooded down to the water's edge, with a broad winding stream variegated with many islands. We crossed the Gomuttee river, a considerable tributary on the left bank of the Beeas, by a ricketty wooden bridge, and passed over the Beeas itself upon inflated buffalo skins to the fort of Bajowra, where the road from Mundee, by which Moorcroft, Gerard, and Henderson had travelled joins the road from Rampoor. On the evening of the 29th of June we reached Sooltanpoor, the capital of Kooloo, and found lodgings ready for us in the house of the former Wuzeer of Kooloo. On the following day we paid the Rajah a visit of ceremony.

He was the same Ajeet Singh whom Moorcroft bad seen; but when we saw him he was completely at the mercy of the Sikhs, who lorded it over him, even in his own Durbar.

The capital of Kooloo, Sooltanpoor, or as it is sometimes called Rughoo Náthpoor, from the chief temple being dedicated to Rughoonath, could never have been extensive, and it was then daily becoming less. It is situated at the confluence of the Serbullee, a small stream, with the Beeas river. It has but two streets, but they are paved with boulder stones, as are likewise all the lanes. The houses are built of stone and wood, but we saw none of any particular neatness. Goitre was prevalent, diseases of the eye common, and extreme dirtiness universal. The annual revenue was said to be 1,20,000 Rupees, of which the Sikh Government seized 70,000.

We left Sooltanpoor on the 3rd of July; but instead of crossing the river to the left bank, as Moorcroft did, by the two bridges immediately above the town, we proceeded along the right bank. The valley opened as we advanced, and the scenery became bold and beautiful. The islands were numerous and well wooded ; and the banks were alternately gentle slopes covered with grass to the water's edge, and steep alluvial spurs overhanging the river, and covered with apricots, peaches, apples, pears, figs, and grasses all growing wild ; further on, were the pine-clad slopes of the mountains on each bank, the nearest green, the more distant blue ; and beyond all, appeared the lofty snowy peaks at the head of the river.

On the evening of the 4th of July we halted on a low bank, close to a hot well, called Seeta Koond. The well was surrounded by a square enclosure with a few stone figures of deities placed in the corners. The temperature of the water was 104o. of Faht. the spring has probably some connection with the hot wells at Biseshta-moonh, on the opposite

reached the village of Suroua, situated in a lovely little valley, where we saw wheat as fine as any in England. Above the village, the valley is a level meadow about three quarters of a mile long by half a mile in breadth, surrounded on all sides by thick woods of walnut, chesnut, apricot, peach, and cherry, with acacia, mimosa, cypress, cedar, and every variety of pine : amongst which were white and red roses, jessamine, a white flowering thorn like may, and a beautiful large iris, besides wall-flowers, forget-me-not, strawberries and poleantus, with flowers of all shades of red, brown, and yellow. There were three waterfalls at the head of the valley; the lowest and least pouring down in one unbroken stream over the rock, which is naturally hollowed into a deep recess, forming a very pretty, cool, and musical bower.

On the 24th of June we reached the top of the Pass at the head of the Suroan Valley, called Chaol Ghaut, 10,170 feet high, where we halted for the night. Snow was lying in a sheltered ravine on the northern slope of the mountain, which is part of the lofty range forming the shed-water between the Sutluj and Beeas rivers. Several of the peaks in this range are 18,000 feet in height, and are covered with perpetual snow. From this we descended over a clayey soil, made dangerously slippery by incessant rain, to the village of Bédath, at the junction of the two torrents which form the Teerthun river, along whose banks we proceeded for three days to Larjee, where it joins the Syneja river, and where about 100 yards lower down the united streams fall into the Beeas river, just at that point where the Beeas after running for a long course southward turns abruptly to the west through a narrow gorge, the channel of the three united streams not being so broad as that of any one of them. We were much surprized to find that this remarkable junction of three large streams was not esteemed holy. We rested in a large cave excavated in the variegated marble rock by Munnee Ram, a former Wuzeer of Kooloo; who, we were told used frequently to come to this place for many days together to escape from the cares of state ; but more likely he came to bathe at the junction of the three rivers, for a more sterile and inhospitable place could not be conceived. We then ascended the course of the Beeas river, which widened

after a few miles into a beautiful large valley ; Becas river.

generally about half a mile across, and wooded down to the water's edge, with a broad winding stream variegated

with many islands. We crossed the Gomuttee river, a considerable tributary on the left bank of the Beeas, by a ricketty wooden bridge, and passed over the Beeas itself upon inflated buffalo skins to the fort of Bajowra, where the road from Mundee, by which Moorcroft, Gerard, and Henderson had travelled joins the road from Rampoor. On the evening of the 29th of June we reached Sooltanpoor, the capital of Kooloo, and found lodgings ready for us in the house of the former Wuzeer of Kooloo. On the following day we paid the Rajah a visit of ceremony.

He was the same Ajeet Singh whom Moorcroft bad seen; but when we saw him he was completely at the mercy of the Sikhs, who lorded it over him, even in his own Durbar.

The capital of Kooloo, Sooltanpoor, or as it is sometimes called Rughoo Náthpoor, from the chief temple being dedicated to Rughoonath, could never have been extensive, and it was then daily becoming less. It is situated at the confluence of the Serbullee, a small stream, with the Beeas river. It has but two streets, but they are paved with boulder stones, as are likewise all the lanes. The houses are built of stone and wood, but we saw none of any particular neatness. Goitre was prevalent, diseases of the eye common, and extreme dirtiness universal. The annual revenue was said to be 1,20,000 Rupees, of which the Sikh Government seized 70,000.

We left Sooltan poor on the 3rd of July; but instead of crossing the river to the left bank, as Moorcroft did, by the two bridges immediately above the town, we proceeded along the right bank. The valley opened as we advanced, and the scenery became bold and beautiful. The islands were numerous and well wooded ; and the banks were alternately gentle slopes covered with grass to the water's edge, and steep alluvial spurs overhanging the river, and covered with apricots, peaches, apples, pears, figs, and grasses all growing wild ; further on, were the pine-clad slopes of the mountains on each bank, the nearest green, the more distant blue ; and beyond all, appeared the lofty snowy peaks at the head of the river.

On the evening of the 4th of July we halted on a low bank, close to a hot well, called Seeta Koond. The well was surrounded by a square enclosure with a few stone figures of deities placed in the corners. The temperature of the water was 104o. of Faht. the spring has probably some connection with the hot wells at Biseshta-moonh, on the opposite

bank of the river, which were visited by Moorcroft, who however does not mention their temperature. In the morning we continued our journey, and after passing through a forest of noble cedars we reached the village of Booruwa. There the scenery was very picturesque. On the left and to the front were snowy peaks; but to the right there were steep cliffs of gneiss, resembling “castellated parapets," as Moorcroft described them twenty years ago.

At two'miles beyond this we passed Kothee, the last village in the vale of the Beeas river, and proceeded to a very pretty level spot of ground called Ralha, surrounded by high cliffs, and steep green slopes, and where the Beeas was so narrow that one might have jumped across it. In the morning we made a laborious ascent of two miles by an irregular flight of steps, built about 25 or 30 years ago by a Brahmin, who had charge of the custom house opposite the village of Koshee. The road was then tolerably level for about a mile; after which it continued ascending for two miles, crossing all the ravines on hard snow beds, which even then, 7th of July, had not melted, until we reached the head of the Pass, where from beneath an enormous block of mica slate, the infant Becas had its birth at a height of 12,941 feet. On the top of this block we built a pile of stones, and in the midst erected a slab on which we inscribed our initials. The crest of the Rotungjoth, or pass, is a little higher than the mica slate block, or just 13,000 feet, from which it slopes gradually to the north for about a mile over a hard bed of snow. The heat and glare reflected from the snow were intolerable, and our faces were completely blistered. From this the view of the snowy peaks of Tartary, the land of undissolving snow, was extensive and beautiful. Three thousand feet beneath us rolled the Chundra river, which even there was a deep stream, 100 feet wide ; and on all sides was dazzling snow, from the midst of which towered the gigantic mountains,

Whose lofty peaks to distant realms in sight,

Present a Siva's smile, a lotus white. One of the peaks, about twenty miles higher up the river, appeared like a mighty natural obelisk against the cloudless blue sky. It is called Indr-sar-deo-ka-thán, or “the abode of the supreme deity, Indra.”

The descent was steep and rugged for about three miles to the bank of the Chundra river, which we crossed by a suspension bridge made of

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