תמונות בעמוד

ans agas ts were εασμα της μελλόσης έρχεσθαι επί της οικεμένης όλης, , wuşárai Tès xalou

xirlas ini this gns. 11 "Έρχομαι ταχύ

κράτες και έχεις, ένα

μηδεις λάθη τον τε12 φανόν σε. Ο νικών,

σοιήσω αυτον σύλoν εν τω ναώ το Θεό us, nai eu & un ižiaon ito ng rçáψω επ' αυτον όνομα τ8 Θεέ με, και το όνομα της πόλεως το Θεό με, της χαινής Ιερεσαλήμ, η καταβαίνεσα εκ τε έραν από τα Θεέ με, και το όνο

μά με το καινόν. 13'O ixos, á xusá

τω, τι το πνεύμα λέγει ταϊς εκκλησίαις, .

hour of trial, which is

which shall come upon about to come upon

all the world, to try the whole region, to

them that dwell upon try those who dwell 11 the earth. Behold, 11 upon the earth. I am

I come quickly: hold coming soon; hold fast that fast which thou that which thou hast, hast, that no man take

that no one take thy | 12 thy crown. Him that 12 crown. He that over overcometh, will I

cometh, him will I make a pillar in the make a column in the Temple of my God, Temple of my God;

and he shall go no and out of it he shall

more out; and I will more depart; write upon him the and I will write upon name of my God, and him a name of my God, the name of the city of and the name of the my God, which is new city of my God; of Jerusalem, which cothe

new Jerusalem, meth down out of heawhich cometh down

ven from my God: out of heaven from my and I will write upon

God; even my new 13 him my new name. He 13 name. He that hath an that bath an ear, let

ear, let him hear what him bear what the the Spirit saith unto Spirit saith unto the the Churches.




Ver. 7. Philadelphia.] This city, in the times of Strabo, that is, not long before the date of this vision, had been so often shaken by earthquakes, that it was in a great measure deserted by its inhabitants; which in some degree account for the poverty of its Church, as described in this Epistle. And its poverty may

also in some degree account for its virtue, which is so highly commended * Melito, an eminent Bishop of this see, and a Christian apologist in the second cen

Strabo, ii, lib. xii.


tury, appears to have written on the Apocalypse *. That such a man, in such a situation, so near to the time when the Apocalypse was published, should acknowledge it as divine, by commenting upon it, is a strong argument for its authenticity. Unfortunately this work of his is lost.

Philadelphia appears to have resisted the attacks of the Turks in 1912, with more success than the other cities t; but at length it fell under their domination. It still contains (probably as being the last which was subdued) more Christian families than most of the others. Modern travellers represent four Christian Churches standing in this place, and above 200 houses inhabited by Christians.

Ib. He that is holy.] This epithet belongs appropriately to the Deity. He alone is holy $: the Holy One. But, by coinmunication, the same epithet descends to the only begotten Son, who, as such, partaking the nature of the Father, is styled the Holy One ç.

Ib. He that is true.] This epithet, like the preceding, is applicable only to the Father, who is kovos KdyBlvos Oeos, the only true God (John xviii. 3.); but descends also to the Son, “the express image of the

Father," " the Truth and the Life 1." He is the true bread, the true vine, the true light, and is emphatically denominated The True One I.

Ib. Key of David.] See note, ch. i. 18.

Ver. 8. Opened door.] Our Lord has rendered the everlasting glories of his kingdom of easy access to the faithful and repentant: 1st, Because he has made

* Euseb. Hist. Eccl.


+ Gibbon, vi, 314.
| Exod. xxviii. 36. Is. vi. 3.
§ Psalm xvi. 10. Mark i. 24. Luke iv. 34. Acts iii. 14.
ll John xiv. 6.

1 John y. 20.


atonement for those sins which would otherwise preclude their entrance. 2dly, By granting to them spiritual assistance. 3dly, By supplying them with rules and directions, which he has illustrated by his own perfect example. Hence he has called himself the IVay, the Door, no 'one entereth but through him. And against those who faithfully and diligently attempt an entrance through him, the powers of Hell shall not prevail. In Acts xiv. 27, it is called, the door of

faith,and is described as open to the Gentiles, through the mercies of God.

Ver. 9. Jews.] See note, ch. ii. 9. A complete triumph over these pretended saints is promised to this humble Church; and probably it took place in those early times, of which so little history remains. But as this meek and faithful Church is a type and resenblance of the pure Church of Christ; so, to that universal Church, when it shall appear in its purity, after this type, the conversion of the whole body of the Jews seems promised; which has been vainly, though often attempted by violence and persecution.

Ver. 10. I will keep thee from the hour of trial.] This promise, in favour of the Church of Philadelphia, was probably fulfilled in some subsequent persecution, of which we have no special account.

Ver. 11. I am coming soon.] See notes, ch. i, s, iii. 16.

Ib. Crown.] See note, ch. ii. 15.

Ver. 19. Column.] The ancient nations were accustomed to erect columns in honourable memorial of heroes. Such, in idea at least, were the columns of Hercules. Absalom, having no son to keep his name in remembrance,” built a column to be called


by his name*. The Christian conqueror is here promised such an honourable memorial in God's temple, in his everlasting temple in heaven. Agreeably to this figurative language, the Apostles James and Peter are accounted columns of the Church (stuhot, Gal. ii. 9.) And the Alexandrian martyrs of the third century are called otuhi 78 Os8, and also Attalus of Pergamos, in the account of the martyrs at Lyons and Vienne in the second century t.

Ib. New Jerusalem.] The numerous prophecies, foretelling great and everlasting glory to Jerusalem, have not been fulfilled in the literal Jerusalem ; nor can be so fulfilled, without contradicting other

predictions, especially those of our Lord, which have denounced its ruin. They remain therefore to be ful-! filled in a spiritual sense ; in that sense which Saint Paul points out to us, when, in opposition to “ Jeru"salem that now is, and is in bondage with her chil.

dren,” he presents to our view “ Jerusalem which is " above, which is free, which is the mother of us all.” This is the city which “Abraham looked to; a building

not made with hands, whose builder and maker is 4. “God I;" even the heavenly Jerusalem, whose splen- Comuniti dour will be displayed in the concluding chapters of: ; this book.

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2 Sam, xviii, 18. + Euseb, Hist. Eccl. lib. vi. c. 41. & lib. v. 1.

Gal. iv. 24–27. Heb. xi. 10–16. xii. 22–24. xiii. 14.





The Address to the Church in Laodicea.

CHAP. iii. Ver. 14-21,

14 Και το αγέλω 14 And to the Angel of 14 And unto the Angel

της εκκλησίας εν the Church in Laodi of the Church of Λαοδικεία γράψον cea, write: Thus saith the Laodiceans, write, Τάδε λέγει ο 'Αμήν, the Amen, the faith These things saith the o ráplus ó wisis xy ful and true Witness, Amen, the faithful and αληθινός, η αρχή της the Beginning of the true Witness, the Be

κτίσεως τε Θεέ. . 15 Creation of God. I ginning of the Creation 15 084 od tá pa, know thy works, that 15 of God; I know thy

öti tuxgossi, thou art neither cold works, that thou art ότι ζεσός: όφελος nor hot; I would that

neither cold nor hot: tuxeós is, is besos thou wert cold or hot: I would thou wert cold 16"Outws, ēts karo 16 So then, because thou 16 or hot. So then beagos il, xy T o

art lukewarm, and nei cause thou art lukexgós, éte lesòs, ther cold nor hot, I

warm, and neither cold μέλλω σε εμέσαι εκ

am about to nauseate nor hot, I will spue το σόματός μα" thee out of my mouth; thee out of my mouth: 17 "Οτι λέγεις: Οτι 17 Because thou sayest

17 Because thou sayest, πλέσιος είμι, και

that I am rich, and am I am rich, and increasσεπλύτηκα, και έδεgrown wealthy, and

ed with goods, and xos xpelar &xwo έχωκαι have need of nothing,

have need of nothing; έκ οίδας, ότι συ εί

and knowest not that and knowest not that ο ταλαίπωρ®, και

thou art wretched, and thou art wretched, and ο ελεεινός, και τελωmiserable, and poor,

miserable, and poor, χος, και τυφλός, και

and blind, and paked. and blind, and baked. 18 γυμνος: Συμουλεύω

18 I counsel thee to buy 18 I counsel thee to buy σοι, αγοράσαι τσαρ'

of me gold purified of me gold tried in the έμε χρυσίον σεπν

in the fire, that thou fire, that thou mayest Ewuévoy éx iwugos,

may'st be rich; and be rich; and white ένα τελετήσης" και

white raiment, that raiment, that thou μάτια λευκά, ένα

thou may'st be clothed; mayest be clothed, and περιβάλη, και μη

and that the shame of that the shame of thy φανερωθή η αισχύνη

thy nakedness may not nakedness do not ap. της γυμνότητάς σε

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