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vas είκοσι τέσσαρας
the Throne were twenty-

seats: and upon the πρεσβυθέρας καθη four thrones, and upon seats I saw four and μένες, περιβεβλη the thrones twenty-four twenty Elders, sitting, μένες εν Ιμαλίοις λει Elders, sitting, clothed clothed in white raiκούς και επί τας in white raiment; and ment; and they had on κεφαλάς αυτών σε


their heads their heads crowns of 5 φάνες χρυσές. Και | 5 crowns of gold. And 5 gold. And out of έκ το θρόνο εκπο out of the Throne


the Throne proceeded ρεύονlαι ατραπαι και ceed lightnings, and lightnings, and thonβρονλαι και φωναί: thunderings, and voices; derings, and voices : και επτά λαμπάδες and seven lamps of fire

And there were seven συρός καιόμεναι έ

burning before

the lamps of fire burning νώπιον το θρόνα, αι Throne, which are the before the Throne, εισι τα επτά πνεύseven Spirits of God.

which are the seven 6 maila ti Ord. Kai 6 And before the 'Throne, 6 Spirits of God. And ενώπιον το θρόνα ως as it were, a Sea, glassy,

before the Throne there θάλασσα υαλίνη, like unto crystal; and was a sea of glass, like ομοία κρυφάλλο και in the midst of the unto crystal: And in εν μέσω το θρό Throne, and around the midst of the Throne, , 18 και κύκλω το θρό the Throne, four living and round about the να τέσσαρα ζώα γέ creatures, full of eyes,


four μονία οφθαλμών έμ before and behind. beasts, full of eyes, be7 προσθεν καλόπισ.

7 And the first living 7 fore and behind. And θεν. Και το ζώον creature like a lion;

the first beast was like το πρώτον όμοιον and the second living

a lion; and the second λέoντι, και το δεύcreature like a steer;

beast like a calf; and τερον ζωον όμοιον and the third living

the third beast had 3 μόσχω, και το τρίτον creature having the

face as a man; and ζώον έχον το πρόσ

the fourth beast was aspect as a maa; and ωπον ως άνθρωπος, the fourth living crea

like a flying eagle. και το τέταρλον ζώον ture like a flying eagle.

8 And the four beasts όμοιον αεί, σελωμέ8 And the four living

had each of them six 8 νω" Και τέσσαρα

creatures, having each wings about him, and ζώα, εν καθ' εν αυof them six wings, are

they were full of eyes των, έχον ανα στέfull of eyes, around

within; and they rest and within ; and they

not day and night, sayκαι έσωθεν γέμισιν

not day and

ing, Holy, holy, holy, οφθαλμών και ανά

Lord God Almighty, night, saying, “ Iloly, παυσιν εκ έχεσιν "holy, holy, the Lord

wliich was, and is, and ημέρας και νικιός, λέ

“ God, the Almighty, 9 is to come. And when γοντες" "Αγιο, α" which was, and which

those beasts give glory.


ρυγας εξ, κυκλόθεν


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yig, TG Kúpros is, and which is to and honour, and thanks ο Θεός ο σαντοκρά

9 “ come !" And when to Him that sat on the Taip, o no, nais

και ο ών, the living creatures Throne, who liveth for και ο ερχόμενΘ. give glory and honour | 10 ever and ever, The 9 Και όταν δώσεσι and thanksgiving to four and twenty Elders

τα ζώα δόξαν και Him who sitteth on the fall down before Him τιμήν και ευχαριςίαν Throne, who liveth for that sat on the Throne, τη καθημένω επί το 10 ever and ever, The and worship Him that θρόνα, τζουλι εις τες

twenty-four elders fall liveth for ever and aläras tão aisrar, down before Him who ever, and cast their 10 Πεσέναι οι είκοσι sitteth on the Throne,

before the τέσσαρες πρεσβύ

and worship Him who 11 Throne, saying, Thou τεροι ενώπιον το κα liveth for ever and art worthy, O Lord, θημένα επί το θρό

ever; and cast their to receive glory, and xai ωροσκυνή

before tlie honour, and power : cert To Lable als u Throne, saying, “Wor

for thou hast created τις αιώνας των αι

“thy art thou, O Lord, all things, and for thy ώων, και βαλίσι "to receive the glory,

pleasurë they are, and τες σεφάνες αυτών " and the honour, and

were created. ενώπιον το θρόνο, ,

“ the power; for thou 11 λέγουλες: "Αξιος εί,

created all Κύριε, λαβείν την

things, and by thy δόξαν, και την τι

“ will they were, and uno, nai rău diva

were created.” μιν" ότι συ έκλισας τα σάλα, και δια το θέλημά σε ήσαν, , mai exlio Onoar.

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16 hast


Ver. .1. After these things.] In the 19th verse of the first chapter, the Prophet is ordered to write both the things which were then present, s elol, and the events which were to happen afterwards, á

μελλει γενεσθαι μετα ταυλα. Into these two parts the whole book of the Apocalypse is divided *. The first, containing See note, ch. i. 19,


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the present state of the seven Churches, as discovered by their all-seeing Lord, is now completed; and we enter upon the second, which contains the disclosure of events which were then to come. Accordingly it is a new vision which is now presented; and the words “ immediately I was in the spirit,” shew it to be such; for they needed not to have been repeated from chap. i. 10, if it had been otherwise.

Ib. In the heaven.] The same kind of opening in the heaven, is described by other Prophets, who were favoured with such visions *. This opening of the heaven was previous to Saint John's ascent thither, and seems to have been seen by him, before he was carried in the Spirit to become a spectator of the sublime scene which he is going to describe.

Ver. 2. I was in the Spirit.] The celerity with which the Apostle, rapt in the Spirit, is presented before the scenery in heaven, is sublime. It is like that alluded to by Saint Paul, who knew not whether he was bodily or only spiritually present t. It is not like the fabled ascent of Mahomet, on the beast Albo

rak 5

Ib. A throne.] This representation has a near resemblance to what it pleased the Holy Spirit to display, at other times, of the majesty of Jehovah Ş. The ineffable

presence of God, as Bishop Lowth remarks), can only be represented by sensible and earthly images. Here is displayed the utmost magnificence of eastern state.

Ib. Upon the throne one sitting.] There is great sublimity in this nameless majesty of God; and ipsum

Ezek. i. 2. x. .
+ 2 Cor. xii. 2. & 3.

Prideaux' Life of Mahomet.
Isaiah vi. Ezek. i. 26, &c. xliii. i.9. # On Isaiah vi.

" the

verbum sedere, the very word, sitting, says Jerome, shews the power and authority of his rule *.

Ver. 3. Jasper-sardine-stone.] The jasper is represented to be a pellucid, watery gem, its colour various t, the sardine also transparent, but of a fiery tinge. So, to express in some measure, by sensible images, the ineffable brightness of Him who sate upon the throne, the clear jasper first presented itself in the Prophet's mind, but a fiery glow was wanting to complete the description ; he therefore adds the sardine. There is a resemblance to this in Exod. xxiv. 10, 17.

Ib. Radiance.] In the vision of Ezekiel I, there is a throne, and one sitting, and around him “ as it were

appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about, as the appearance of the bow that is in the “clouds on the day of rain.” Such was this circular glory; it was not a rainbow, but like it; and of a green hue and lustre, like an emerald.

Ver. 4. Twenty-four thrones-twenty-four elders. ] Comparing this vision, so far as we have proceeded, with those exhibited in the Old Testament to the Prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel, we cannot hesitate to declare, that it represents (to use the words of these Prophets) " the King, the Lord of Hosts, the Glory " of the God of Israel !" But who are these, whom we behold on the twenty-four thrones, seated in state, and dignified with crowns? They are admitted to distinguishing honour in the Divine presence; and yet they are certainly servants, for they officiate as such (v. 10, and ch. xi. 16.) in postures of adoration, as before an eastern monarch, with crowns abased, doing homage to the Supreme King. Yet they are not angels, the

• Hieron. Comm. in Ephes. i. 20. + Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. xxvii.

R 2

1 Ch. i. 27, 28.


usual attendants of the Deity; they have no other attribute or character of those heavenly inhabitants, than that of heavenly ministration. These are not, then, “ the innumerable company of angels,” described by the Apostle to the Hebrews, (ch. xii.) which sacred writer, if Saint Paul, (as is probable,) had been admitted to the heavenly scene*. No; this “ innumerable com

pany of angels” is added to the scenery, in the next chapter †; nor can we with greater probability suppose them to represent that, which immediately follows in the same description, “ the general assembly and “ Church of the first-born which are written in heaven;" because, by comparing this part of the vision with that which follows in ch. xiv. 1, we shall plainly discover, that the twenty-four elders, although they may represent a part of Christ's Church, redeemed from earth, and seated in heaven, do not represent

" the general assembly,or whole body. For, the Lamb, the Redeemer, when he appears on Mount Sion, is attended by an hundred and forty-four thousand; who are expressly said to be " the redeemed from amongst men And these are distinct from the Elders : for they sing "a new song before the throne, and before the living

creatures, and before the Elders.And these are also said to be “a first fruit to God and to the Lamb,” (ver. 4.) and to have “the name of the Lamb and of “his Father written on their foreheads;" (ver. 1.) which description agrees so exactly with that of the general assembly and Church of the FIRST-BORN (apoTolouww) which are written in heaven,” that we must necessarily account them as such, and therefore look for another body, with whose description the twentyfour Elders may agree. Such another body is dis

+ »

* 2 Cor. xii, 1–5.

+ See ver. 11.

Ch. xiv. 4.


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