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Selections from

OBSERVATIONS ON MODERN GARLENING

by

Thomas Whately

London

1801

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INTRODUCTION

I. Gardeninc, in the perfection to which It has been lately brocht in England, is entitled to a place of considerable rank aniont the liberal arts. It is as superior to landskip paintine, as a reality to a representation: it is an exertion of fancy, a subject for taste; and being relaased now from the restraints of recularity, and enlarged beyond the purposes of domestic convenience, the most beautiful, the most simple, the most noble scenes of nature are all within its province: for it is no loncer confined to the sopts from which it borros its name, but reculates also the disposition and en bellishments of a park, a farn, or a riding; and the business of a cardener is to select and to apply whatever is throat, elant or characteristic in any 1 them; to discover and to shew all the advantages of the place upon which he is employed; to supply its defects, to correct its faults, and to improve its boanties. For these operations, the objects of nature are still his only matcrials. His first enquiry, therefore, riust be into the mans by which those effects are attained in nature, which he is to produce; and into those properties in the objects of nature, which should deteraine hili in the choice and ranrement of then.

Nature, always siiiple, eriploys but four materials in the coposition of her scenes, Ground, wood, water, and rocks. The cultivation of nature has introduced a fifth species, the bui17 in 3 requisite for the accomodation of hon. Dach of those apsin adriit of varieties in their fisure, linensions, colour, ani situation. Every landskip is composed of those parts only; evory beanty in a lanilskip depenis on the application of their several varieties

OF GROUND.

II. The shape of fround must be either a convox, a concave, or a plano; in terris less technical called 9 swell, & 10llow, and a level. By combinations of those are formed all the irrecilarities of which ground is capable; and the beauty of it depends on the degrees and the proportions in which they are blended.

Both the convex and the concave are forms in themselves 01 ore variety than a plane: either of them nay therefore be admitted to a greater extent t'ian can be allowed to the ot'er; but lotels are not therefore totally inadiissible. The preference in ustly shown to them in the old cardens, where they prevailed almost in exclusion of every other form, has raised a pre jildice acainst then. It is frequently reckoned an excellenc 1:1

ävele round, that every the least part of it is uneven; but then it wants one of the three great varieties of cround, which may orati os he inter uixed with the other two. gentle concave declivity falls and spreads easily in a ílat; the channels between several svoll3 do "enerate into more cutters, if some

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