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XII. In these instances, the ground is the principal consideration: but previous to any enquiry into the greater effects of wood when it is itself an object, an examination of the characteristic differences of trees and shrubs is neces ary. I do not noan botanical distinctions; I mean apparent, not essential varieties; and those must be obviovu and considerable, to merit regard in the disposition of the objects they distinguish.
Trees and shrubs are of different shapes, creons, and (rwoths.
The varieties in their shapes may be reduced to the followinc heads.
Some thick with branches and foliace have allost an appearance of solidity, as the beech and the elm, the lilac and serinca. Others thin of boughs and of leaves soeul light and airy, as the ash and the arbele, the common arbor vitae, and the tamarisk.
There is a mean betwixt the two extrees, very distinguishable from both, as in the bladder-nut, and the ashen-leaved maple.
They may again be divided into those whose branches becin from the Eround, and those which shoot up in a ster before their branches begin. * Trees which have some, not much clear sterit, as several of the firs, belong to the former class; but a very short ster will rank a shrub, such as the althaea, in the latter.
Uf those whose branches begin from the ground, some rise in a conical figure, as the larch, the cedar of Lebanon, and the holly. Some Sewll out in the middle of their crowth, and dininish at both ends, as the veysouth pine, the mountain ash, and the lilac: and some are irrecular and bushy from the top to the botton, as the evercreen oak, the Virginian cedar, and Guelder rose.
There is a creat difference between one whose base is very larce, an anotier whose base is very small, in proportion to its heicht: the cedar of Lebanon, and the cypress, are instanc:s or such a difference; yet in both the branches becin from the ground.
The heais of those which shoot up into a sten berortheir branches buein, sometimes are slender cones, as of many firs: soneties are broad cones, as of the horse-chestnut; sometimes they are round, as or the stone pine, and most sorts of smit trees; und son lives irregular, as of the elm. of this last kind there are many considerable varieties.
The granches of sore crow horizontally, as of the oak. In oters they tend upwards, as in the la.ond, and in several sorts of broom, and of willows. In others they fall, as in the line, and the acacia; and in some of these last they incline obliquely, as in many of the firs; in sozle they hang directly down, as in the weeping willow.
These are the moslobvious creat distinctions in the shapes of trees and shrubs. The differences betwen shades of green cannot be so considerable; but these also will be found well deserving of attention. "Perhaps their are few, if any, which do not put forth branches from the
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rom various circuristances