תמונות בעמוד

stores, from whence it has never been restored. I could mention other facts of a similar character. Their own chaplains and other clergy are under such restraints, as tend to nullify or obstruct their labors to convert the natives.

“ The Spanish and Portuguese colonial governments in India have avowedly opposed us from the beginning, on the ground of our Protestantism.”—Vol. II, pp. 228, 229.

We should be glad to add several other extracts on these topics; but must content ourselves with the following excellent remarks, which strike us as singularly appropriate :

“ That captains or merchants visiting the East often say, 'We read animating missionary accounts in the papers, but see no such things on the spot,' is not surprising. How should they? What means do they take to get information? Have they gone to the native chapels; or accompanied the missionary in his daily rounds; or visited the converts' homes, or the schools; or seen Bibles and tracts given away? Have they so much as visited the missionary himself, except at meal-times, or other intervals of labor? What would a gentleman know of the state of religion in London or New York, who had merely walked about the streets, or conversed with those who make no pretensions to piety; or with such as are hostile ? Without taking pains, even residents at a station may remain almost perfectly ignorant of a missionary's operations.

“Instead of naked assertions, that nothing has been done, we have a right to expect objectors to come forward with the religious statistics, past and present, of specified places. They should fuirly show, that the work said to be done is not done, or, that the effects said to have followed have not followed. If they merely point to things left undone, we concur in lamentation; and only ask larger means, and further time, to show greater results.

“ There is reason to suspect, that those who most loudly assert the failure of missions, are ihose who would have it so. in foreign countries, many who would shelter their vices in the gloom of surrounding paganism, and are impatient of the restraints of missionary influence. And there are many at home, who, being ivimical to Christianity, impugn its benevolent operations, for want of talent or learning, to attack its fundamentals. And there are many, who, without being unfriendly to religion, are glad of a cloak for covetousness, and, in declining to contribute on the score of conscience, can save their money, and at the same time claim superior piety, or keener insight into abuses.

"It is quite certain, that the great body of those who complain, are not persons who have most right to do so. They are not those who bave given their money, their children, or themselves, to the work; and who, if there be fraud or folly, are of all others the most interested to make the discovery. They are not those who have seen most of the field, or who have most diligently read the reports of the societies. They are not those who have had the most extenVOL. IV.—NO. XIII.


There are,

sive and intimate acquaintance with the men who have gone forth, and who might infer what is done from a knowledge of the agents. They are not the men best acquainted with the managers and management of the different boards. All these classes of persons are friendly.

“Such considerations should restrain the uninformed, from impugning our motives, or disparaging this great work. They should hear the voice of reason, addressed to some in a former age, who opposed wbat they did not understand. 'Let these men alone; for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought; but if it be of God, ye cannot overthrow it; lest haply ye be found even to fight against God.””

The next chapter is of still graver interest. As the author remarks,"more than forty years' experience in modern missions ought to furnish data for an intelligent revision of the system.” Yet, until this work, nothing of this kind has been attempted, in any reasonable manner. Writers have, we know, broached new theories, and have advised, like Edward Irving, that all missions should be modelled on their plan. But, to such teaching, no man of practical sense would give a moment's heed. We want now to look at the facts which forty years have brought to light, and from a comparison of these, to deduce principles which may guide our subsequent efforts. The views presented in this chapter, seem to us, the result of much candid, and yet searching observation; guided by a heart fervently attached to the missionary cause. Our author considers, 1. that the proportion of time and money bestowed on schools should be less; 2. that, at some stations, at least, less time might be devoted to translation and tracts. The reason for this latter is, that the missionaries, for a long time, could not translate so as to be understood ; that but a very small portion of the natives can read, and that the success from this labor has been small. The following paragraph shows us, into what whimsical errors an imperfect knowledge of a language may lead a translator :

« The anxiety for an immediate production of books has caused the publication of Scriptures and tracts so imperfect, as to be almost, if not quite useless, and in particular passages quite erroneous. To prove this, and at the same time show the sort of errors to which I allude, I will give a few instances which were mentioned to me, taken from distant and different versions. John 1:1, 'In the beginning was the word, and the word was with the Lord God Boodh,

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and the word was the Lord God Boodh.' Exod. 3: 2, "The Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire in the knot of a tree.' Acts 1: 8, 'Ye shall receive the power of life and death.' Matt. 5: 3, *Blessed are the destitute of life.' 1 Cor. 5: 6, “A little crocodile crocodileth the whole lump!'”_Vol. II, p. 255.

The number of those who can read, so as to understand a passage, is incomparably less than we had supposed. “There are,” according to our author, "probably not five hundred persons, not taught by Europeans, in all India, who could take up a translation in their own character, of any work in philosophy, morals, or religion, and read it extempore, with understanding." If such be the case, and it is fully supported by the smallness of the success which has attended this kind of labor, our author's position is fully established.

Mr. Malcom is of opinion, next, “ that there should be less preaching in English; "that less time should be spent on periodicals;" " that, in reducing languages to writing, the Roman letters only should be used;" that the plan of sending missionary physicians should be but sparingly prosecuted;" " that every unnecessary extreme in living should be avoided :" "that there should be more direct preaching of the word, publicly, and from house to house;" and "that regular churches, with pastors and deacons, should every where be constituted, at the earliest possible period.” All these opinions are sustained by an array of facts, which, to us, seem decisive of every important point. We think that every one will perceive how exactly all this coincides with the directions of our Saviour. He ordained that men should be converted by the preaching of the gospel, that is, by bringing a sanctified Christian mind into contact with a heathen mind. We imagine, that he who knew the end from the beginning, did this advisedly. We would willingly extract many passages from this chapter, but, to do so, would be injustice to our author. No one interested in missions, or desirous of enabling himself to form a correct opinion on missionary operations, should neglect to examine this part of the book with deep attention. It will well repay the most diligent perusal.

We are compelled here to take leave of our author; and we cheerfully commend his instructive pages to the atten

tion of our readers. We hail the work as a valuable addition to our knowledge of the East; and, specially, as throwing much and valuable light upon the missionary field. We trust its success will equal its deserts.



We introduce our remarks on this passage with the following translation:

For I consider that the sufferings of the present time are not worthy of comparison with the glory which is about to be revealed to us. For the longing desire of the creation is awaiting the manifestation of the sons of God (for the creation was subjected to frailty, not of its own will, but on account of him who subjected it), in the hope that the creation itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious freedom of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groan, and are in pangs together, until now. And not only so, but ourselves also, having the first fruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan in ourselves, awaiting our filiation [the sonship], the redemption of our bodies.

It is not our purpose, in this article, to review the various opinions which have been entertained respecting this passage, by different interpreters. It has not only called forth the resources of industry and learning, but given ample scope to the vagaries of fancy. When the right interpretation shall be given, it will probably carry with it its own evidence,-an evidence obviating the necessity of exposing all the absurd theories and whimsical conjectures of all who have shed the darkness of their own false reasonings upon the illuminated pages of inspired truth. Already, we believe, this passage has yielded, in a great measure, if not entirely, to the sober and searching methods of modern investigation,—to that diligent examination of words and phrases, which, however humble an employment it may seem to furnish, is yet our only avenue to a certain and satisfactory knowledge of things,—the portico of the grand temple of religious truth. The biblical student, of comparatively humble acquisitions, can already smile at many of the fanciful conjectures, and fruitless, because ill-directed, efforts of men, with whom, in ability or learning, he would be far from challenging a comparison. With the degree of unanimity which exists, at present, among German critics, in regard to the passage under consideration, we are not acquainted. We believe, however, that, both in this country and in Germany, there is a gradual approximation towards harmony of views. It could not, perhaps, be expected, that a passage like the present, of difficult and long-contested import, should, in all points, be satisfactorily settled by the efforts of any single mind. One will, perhaps, strike out the general idea, -will seize upon the clew, by whose guidance others will thread the labyrinth, until, at last, all its intricacies are unravelled, and its recesses explored. If the present effort shall make its own separate contribution to a full understanding of the passage, our object will not be lost.

* In publishing this article, we would not be understood as expressing an opinion in respect to the meaning of the passage in question. If it involved important doctrines, either in theology or ethics, the case would be different. As an essay towards the elucidation of a confessedly difficult passage, we regard it as highly deserving of publication; and we venture to express the hope, that the gifted writer, who can make such a beginning in biblical criticism, will be induced to turn his attention more directly to sacred literature.-ED.

We do not propose to comment separately upon all the words and phrases of the passage, but to touch lightly upon those on which there is no difference of opinion. We shall aim rather to dwell upon those portions which are essential to a right apprehension of the general scope of the passage. It will be obvious to all, that the keynote of the passage is struck in the verse immediately preceding that with which our translation commences. * And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and jointheirs with Christ; if we suffer with him,* that we may be also glorified with him.”+ Thus bringing the sufferingsf of Christians into immediate contrast with their future glorification, || the mind of the apostle instantly takes fire. In a manner strikingly characteristic, he

* συμπάσχειν.

ή συνδοξασθώμεν.

I παθήματα. | δόξα.

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