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Ch. all his members with all things. And God hath given life

11. to you (who were dead in offences and sins *, in which 2 ye formerly walked according to the course of this

world, according to the powerful ruler of the air t, and

of the spirit which now worketh in the sons of disobe-3 dience: among whom all of us likewise lived formerly,

in the desires of our flesh, fulfilling the will of the flesh, , and of our minds; and were by nature children of 4 angerll, even as others : but God, who is rich in mercy, 5 for his great love with which he loved us, when we were

dead in offences, hath given life, I say, to us also) to6 gether with Christ, (by favour ye are saved,) and hath

raised us up together, and made us sit together in the 7 heavenly places tt, through Christ Jesus : that in the ages

to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his fa

vour , in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus. .8 For by favour are ye saved through faith: and this salva9 tion is not from yourselves : it is the gift of God: not

• Some connect this clause with the preceding verse. 4. d. who filleth all his menbers with all things, even you, who were dead in offences and sins. See Hallet's Obsery. vol. i. p. 49. Chandler in loc. + Manner, Wakefield. The state, or constitution, of the gentile world. Newcome. 10 from works, lest any man should glory *. For we are his

As Jews and Christians residing (figuratively) in heaven, are represented as constituting a polity under the government of angels, principalities, and powers, etc. so the unevangelized world are a polity under the government of a fictitious personage called Satan, the ruler of the air, etc. and his angels. This whole imagery is borrowed from the Oriental philosophy, and is not to be taken in a literal sense. See Mr. Lindsey, ubi supra,

1 * In our original state, before our conversion. Compare Gal. ü. 15. Heirs of the divine displeasure, on account of our actual vices." Newcome. Or, children of anger may signity persons of wrathful dispositions, as sons of disobedience, ver. 2, means the disobą dient. Si e. gratuitous goodness, N. m.

# As ch. i. 20, it is said that God hath seated Christ at his own right hand in heavenly places, so here it is also said, that God hath raised us up, and made us sit together in hearenly places. “Where," says Mr. Lindsey (ibid. p. 469.) " it is observable that there Christians are actually supposed to be in heaven, and this change and exaltation to be effected whilst the apostles were alive. No real elevation therefore is intended, either of Christ, or his apostles, or the first Christians; but it is the dress and clothing which the writer gives to the subject, to raise in his readers the most exalted ideas of the gospel, and of the mighty power of God by which it was propagated."

workmanship, having been created through Christ Jesus to good works, in which God before designed that we

should walk. 11 Wherefore remember that ye, formerly gentiles in the

flesh, (who are called the uncircumcision by that which is 12 called the circumcision in the flesh made by hands ; re

member, I say, that ye then) were without Christ, being aliens from the citizenship of Israel, and strangers to the

covenants of promise, having no hope, and without God 13 in the world. But now through Christ Jesus ye, who

formerly were far off, are brought near by the blood of 14 Christ t. For he is our peace, who hath made both one,

and hath broken down the middle wall of partition be15 tween us ; (having abolished by his flesh the cause of

enmity, even the law of the commandments consisting in

ordinances, to make $ in himself || of the two one new 16 man, thus causing peace; and to reconcile both unto

God in one body by the cross, having destroyed by it 17 their enmity ;) and hath come and proclaimed the glad

tidings of peace to you that were far off, and to those 18 that were near. For through him we both have access

by one spirit to the Father. 19 So then ye are no more strangers and sojourners, but

fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of 20 God; having been built on the foundation of the apostles

and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief cor21 ner-stone ; by which all the building, being fitly framed

together, groweth to an holy temple through the Lord : 22 by which ye also are built together, for an habitation of

God through the spirit.

. Or, so that no man can glory. N. m.

+ Jews and gentiles are harmoniously united in that dispensation, which is ratified by the death of Christ, and by which the burthensome ritual of Moses was superseded, as the apostle asserts more particularly in the following verses. Or, create, N. m.

1 " In his mystical body, the church." Newcome.

CH. Ir. For this cause I Paul, a prisoner on account of Je2 sus Christ for preaching to you gentiles ; (since ye have

heard * the gracious dispensation of God, which is given 3 me toward you ; that by revelation the mystery was made 4 known to me, as I have written before in few words, by

which, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge 5 in the mystery of Christ, which in other generations was

not made known to the sons of men, as it hath now been

revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the spirit; 6 namely, that the gentiles should be joint-heirs, and a

joint body, and joint.partakers of his promise in Christ, 7 by the gospel ; of which I have been made a minister,

according to the gift of that favour of God which hath

been bestowed on me, according to the mighty working 8 of his power : on me, who am less than the least of all the

saints, this favour hath been bestowed, that I should

preach among the gentiles the unsearchable riches of 9 Christ; and should clearly manifest to all what is the

dispensation of the mystery t, which from the beginning

of the world was hidden in God, who hath created all 10 thingsll. To the intent that the manifold wisdom of God

might now be made known, by the church, to the prin11 cipalities and powers in the heavenly places ; according

to the eternal purpose||II which he formed through Christ 12 Jesus our Lord; through whom we have freedom of

• The apostle's expressions here, and in ver. 4, seem to indicate that the Christians to whom this epistle was addressed, were not personally known to him; and therefore favour the supposition that the epistle was sent to the Laodiceans, and not to the Ephesians. + Gr. gift of the grace, N. m.

fellowship of the mystery, R. T. The words " by Jesus Christ" in the received text, and inclosed by the Primate in brackets, are not to be found in the Alexandrian, Vatican, Ephrem, or Clermont manascripts, nor in the Syriac, Coptic, Ethiopic, Italic or Vulgate versions, and are plainly an interpolation, perhaps a marginal gloss introduced into the text. But if they were genuine, archbishop Newcome justly observes that "the sense most suitable to the place is this, Who hath created all things, that is, Jews and gentiles, anew to holiness of life. See ch. ii. 10,15; iv. 24."

f " The angels." See 1 Pet. i. 12. So Abp. Newcome, with the generality of inter preters. But the more probable meaning is, that even the priests and teachers of the Jewish church should see and acknowledge the wisdom of God in the conciliatory spirit of the gospel dispensation. Aets vi. 7. See Eph. 1. 20; ii. 6. and the notes there.

I according to a predisposition of the ages. Wakefield.

speech, and access with confidence by faith in him : 13 wherefore I entreat that ye faint not at my afflictions for 14 you, which are your glory : I say, for this cause I) bow 15 my knees to the Father (of our Lord Jesus Christ,] of

whom the whole family in heaven and upon earth is 16 named*, to grant you, according to his glorious richest,

that ye may be strengthened with might by his spirit in 17 the inner man ; that Christ may dwell in your hearts by

faith ; so that being rooted and grounded in love, ye, 18 and all the saints, may be able to comprehend what is

the breadth, and length, and depth, and height, of this 19 mystery ; and to know the surpassing love of the know

ledge of Christt, so that ye may be filled with all the

fulness of God.ll 20 Now unto him that is able to do exceeding abundant

lyt above all which we ask or think, according to the 21 power which worketh in us, unto him be glory in the

church by Christ Jesus throughout all generations**, for

ever and ever. Amen. Ch. iv. I THEREFORE, a prisoner on account of the Lord,

beseech you, that ye walk in a manner worthy of the call2 ing with which ye have been called; with all humility

of mind and meekness, with long-suffering, bearing with 3 one another in love; earnestly endeavouring to preserve 4 the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace. There is

one body and one spirit, even as ye have been called . 5 unto* one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith,

* heaven and earth, i.e. the body of believers collected from Jews and gentiles. See ch. i. 10, and Mr. Locke's note. + Gr. the riches of his glory, N. m.

That is, the exceeding love of God in bringing us to the knowledge of Christ. Locke. This is the reading of the Alexandrian manuscript. See Griesbach, and Lindo sey's Second Address, p. 236. The Primate's translation is, "the love of Christ which indeed surpasseth knowledge.”

Or, into all the fulness of God, i. e. that ye may be admitted into the Christian church. See Schleusner.

I very abundantly, N. See Wakefild.
** Gr. generations of the age (of ages], N. m:

6 one baptism, one God and Father of all ; who is above 7 all, and through all, and among us allt. But on every

one of us favour hath been bestowed according to the 8 measure of the gift of Christ. Wherefore it is said,

“ When he ascendedt on high, he led a multitude of 9 captives, [and] gave gifts to men :" (now, this expres

sions!, he ascended, what is it but that he (first] descend10 ed also into the lower (parts) of the earth ? he that de

scended is the same that ascended also far above all the 11 heavens, that he might fill all things :) and he gave some

to be apostles ; and some, prophets; and some evange12 lists; and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting

of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifi13 cation of the body of Christ : till we all come to the same

faith in the Son of God, and to the same knowledge of

him, to a perfect man, to the measure of the full stature 14 of Christ : that we may be no more children, tossed like

waves, and carried about by every wind of doctrine,

through the sleight of men, and through their craftiness 15 for the purpose of artful deceit; but embracing** the truth

in love, may grow up in all things to him that is the 16 head, even Christ : from whom the whole body fitly com

pacted and connected by every assisting joint, according to the mighty working in the measure of every limbtt,

maketh its increaseft to the edification of itself in love. 17 This I say therefore, and charge you in the Lord, that

ye no more walk as the [other] gentiles walk, in the 18 vanity of their mind, having the understanding darkened,

being alienated from the life of God, through the igno

# in one hope, N. See Wakefield.
† you all, R. T. See Griesbach in (you) all. N.
Or, when he had ascended.

now that, N. See Chandler. Gr. the stature of the fulness, N. m.

speaking, N. See Chandler and Rosemnaler. H every part, R. T. # Gr. increase of the body, N. m.

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