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faith : but “ he* who doeth them, shall live by them." 13 Christ hath redeemedt us from the curse of the law, having
been made a curset for us: for it is written, “ Cursed is 14 every one that hangeth on a tree :") that the blessing of · Abraham might come on the gentiles through Jesus Christ;
that we might receive the promise of the spirit by faith. 15 Brethren, (I speak according to the manner of men,)
though it be but a man's covenant, yet, if it be confirmed, 16 no man disannulleth it or addeth to it. Now to Abra
ham and to his seed the promises were made. (It is not
said, “And to seeds,” as of many ; but, as of one ; “ And 17 to thy seed," which one person || is Christ.) And this I
say, that the covenant which God confirmed before [concerning Christ,] the law, which was four hundred and
thirty years after, doth not disannul, so as to make the 18 promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the
law, it is no more of promise : but God freely gave it to 19 Abraham by promise. To what purpose then was the law?
It was added because of transgressions i, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made ; and it was
ministered by messengerstt through the hand of a media20 tor. || Now a mediator is not a mediator of one ; but God
* The man, R. T. + " By abolishing the law, and dying to establish a better covenant." Newcome.
* “ That is, as it were accursed: treated by men as if he had committed a criak worthy of death, and of the divine wrath.” Deut. xxi. 23. Newcome.
| which is Christ. N. See Chandler.
tt Angels, N. with the public version. The meaning probably is, that the law was promulgated to, or rather enjoined upon (see Schleusner and Phavorinus apud Schleus) the Israelites by the proper officers, viz. priests and Levites, under the direetion of Moses; who was the medium of divine communication, and who received it immediately from God.
#1 Abp. Newcome, with Michaelis and others, suspects this verse to be a gloss. But it seems necessary to the apostle's argument. Moses was a mediator, not between God and the promised seed, but between God and the Israelites. The covenant then fore which he introduced, could not annul that which had been made before with the pro mised seed. For though God, one of the parties, was present and joined in the Mosaie covenant, the other party, the promised seed, bad no concern in it. See Locke.
21 is one. Is the law then against the promises of God ?
By no means : for if a law had been given, which could
have bestowed life, then truly justification would have 22 been by the law. But the scripture hath included all
together under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus 33 Christ might be given to those who believe. But before
faith came, we were kept under the law, included to
gether to the faith which was afterward to be revealed. 24 So that the law was our conductor* to Christ, that we 25 might be justified by faith. But now faith is come, we 26 are no longer under a conductor*. For ye are all the 27 sons of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of
you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor gentile, there is neither slave
nor free, there is neither male nor female : for ye all are 29 one in Christ Jesus. But if ye be Christ's, then ye are
the seed of Abraham, [and] heirs according to the
promise. CH. Iv. Now I say that the heir, as long as he is a child,
differeth nothing from a servant, though he be master of 2 all; but is under tutors and guardians, until the time ap3 pointed by his father. So we likewise, when we were
children, were in servitude under the elements of the 4 worldt : but when the fulness of the time was come, God
sent forth his song, born of a womanll, born under the 5 law, to redeem those that were under the lawl, that we
might receive the adoption of sons.
* So Wakefield. guide, N.
p"Under an introductory and ritual law, which occupied us about the things of this world." Observe Col. ii. 8, 20; Heb. ix. I. Newcome.
"God sent forth his son,” gave him a divine commission. John i. 6; xvji. 18. "St. Paul then says here, that at his appointed time the Almighty gave a commission to Jesus, the son of Mary, of a Jewish family, subject to the law of Moses.” Lindsey's Second Address, p. 282.
The phrase, “born of a woman,' bears no allusion to the supposed miraculous conseption of Christ. It is a common Jewish phrase to express a proper human being. See Job. xiv. 1; xv. 14; XXV.4. Matt. xi. 11. Luke vii. 28.
To deliver us from the bondage of the Mosaic institute, and to introduce & NOW and more liberal dispensation. See ch. ii, 13, 14.
6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit
of his Son into our hearts", crying outt, “ Abba,” that is, 17 Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a
son ; and if a son, then an heir [of God) through Christ. 8 At that time, however, when ye knew not God, ye were 9 slavest to those who by nature are not gods : but now, · after ye have known God, or rather have been known by
Him, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarlyll ele. 10 ments to which ye desire to be again in servitude ? Yo 11 observe days, and months, and seasons, and years. I fear
concerning you, lest I have bestowed on you labourin vain. 12 Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am ; for I also was 13 as ye are. Ye have not wronged me in any thing : but :ye know that in weakness of the flesh I preached the gos14 pel to you at first : and (my] trial which was in my flesh
ye did not set at nought nor scorn: but ye received me 15 as a messenger** of God, or even as Christ Jesus. What
therefore (were] your congratulations of yourselves? for I bear you witness that, if it had been possible, ye would
have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them 16 to me. Am I therefore become your enemy, when I tell 17 you the truth? Some zealously affect you, but not well :
yea, they desire to exclude youtt, that ye may zealously 18 affect them. But it is good to be always zealously af
fected to a good manft; and not only when I am pre19 sent with you, my children, of whom I travail in birthill 20 again, until Christ be formed in you. But I could wish
to be present with you now, and to change my voice :
for I doubt concerning you. 21. Tell me, ye who desire to be under the law, do ye not 22 hear the law ? For it is written, that Abraham had two
sons; one by a bond-woman, and another by a free-wo23 man. But he that was of the bond-woman, was born
* your hearts, R. T. + Or, which spirit crieth out.
ye served, x. So the public version, and Wakefield. poor, N.
Sam as ye are. X. ** So Wakefield. an angel, Newcome, with the public version. *t to exclude us, R. T.
# in a good thing, N. See Locke. I whom I am bearing again, Wakefield.
according to the flesh; whereas he of the free-woman 34 was by promise. Which things are spoken by me alle
gorically : for these women signify the two covenants* ;
the one from mount Sinai, bearing children to servitude, 25 which is Agar: (for this Agart is mount Sinai in Arabia,
and answereth to the Jerusalem which now is : for she is 26 in servitude with her children :) but the Jerusalem from 27 above is the free-woman, who is our motherf. For it is
written, “ Rejoice, thou barren, who bearest not; break forth and shout, thou who travailest not; for the desolate
hath many more children than she that hath an husband.” 28 Now we, brethren, like|| Isaac, are the children of pro29 mise. But as then he that was born according to the flesh
persecuted him that was born according to the spirit, even 30 so it is now. Nevertheless, what saith the scripture ?
“ Send forth the bond-woman and her son : for the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the
free-woman." 31 So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondCH. woman, but of the free. Stand firmly therefore in the
freedom with which Christ hath made us frees, and be
not again puttt under the yoke of servitude.. 2 Behold, I Paul say unto you that, if ye be circumcised, 3 Christ will profit you nothing. Yea, I testify again to
every man who is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do 4 the whole law. Christ is become of none effect to you, · whosoever of you seek to be justified** by the law ; ye 5 are fallen from the covenant of favour. For we by the 6 spirit look for the hope of justification through faith. For
. So Wakefield. these are the two covenants, N.
Some copies read, “we are not children of the bond-woman but of the free, with which liberty Christ has made us free. Stand fraly, therefore, and be not," etc. See Griesbach.
# Or, encumbered with, N. m.
in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing,
nor uncircumcision ; but faith which worketh by love. 7 Once ye ran well: who hindered you that ye might not 8 obey the truth? This persuasion came not from him who 9 called you. A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. 10 I am persuaded concerning you, through the Lord, that
ye will not think otherwise than I do : but he who trou
bleth you will bear his judgement, whosoever he be. 11 And as to myself, brethren, if I still preach circum
cision, why do I still suffer persecution ? then would the
stumbling-block of the cross be done away. 12 I could wish that they were even cut off* who disturb 13 you. For, brethren, ye have been called to freedom :
only use not freedom for an occasion to the flesh, but by 14 love serve one another. For all the law is fulfilled in
one commandment, even this ; “ Thou shalt love thy 15 neighbour as thyself.” But if ye bite and devour one
another, take heed that ye be not consumed by one
another. 16 Now I say, Walk by the spiritt, and fulfil not the 17 desire of the flesh. For the flesh desireth against the
spirit, and the spirit against the flesh : and these are con
trary the one to the other; so that ye do not the things 18 which ye would. But if ye be led by the spiritf, ye are 19 not under the law. Now the works of the flesh are ma
nifest, which are these ; [Adultery,] fornication, un20 cleanness, lasciviousness, idolatry, sorcery, hatred, con
tentions, rivalries, wrath, disputes, divisions, heresies, 21 envyings, murthers, drunkenness, revellings, and such
like : of which I tell you beforehand, as I have also
told you before, that those who do such things will not 22 inherit the kingdom of God. But the fruit of the spirit
is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness,
• Or, would even cut themselves off from you, N. m.
Or, spiritually led, Wakefield.