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creatures, as an ordinary article of commerce, has also existed; and it was in the course, as we have seen, of a predatory expedition of Nial of the Nine Hostages to the coast of Gaul,* that St. Patrick, then a youth, was carried away and sold as a bond slave in Ireland. Besides the slaves imported from England, of which traffic Bristol was the great mart,t the Irish had also a class of bondmen called Villeins, which were regardant, as the law expresses it, to the manor, and esteemed a part of the inheritance or farm.

la referring to the remarkable synodic decree, just cited, an Irish writer of the seventeenth century-one of the many whom, at that time, the persecution of their country's creed at home compelled to carry their talents and industry to other shores,-indulges in a wish as deeply significant, as it is melancholy and hopeless. “If, then, the Irish," he says, “as Giraldus intimates, made themselves accomplices in the guilt of the English by buying their children, when offered willingly by them for sale, it were to be wished that the English nation, which reduced the children of those Irish to slavery, contrary to the will and wish of their parents, would in 80 far imitate the act of the Irish of that period, as to release their posterity, long suffering in servitade, and restore them to their former independence and freedom. For, if the lighter crime drew down on its perpetrators such punishment, how heavy a judgment must fall upon the greater and more lasting wrong !"

CHAPTER XXVIII.

Alarm of Henry at the progress of Strongbow.–His proclamation.—Raymond despatched to

him with a letter.—Death of the King of Leinster.-Attack upon Dublin by Hasculf. His defeat and death.- Patriotic exertions of Archbishop Laurence. - Dublin invested by a large army of the Irish.-Negotiation between Strongbow and Roderic.--Intrepid sally of the English. Retreat of the Irish forces.-Fitz-Stephen besieged at Carrig.–Strongbow marches to relieve him.-Treacherous conduct towards Fitz-Stephen.-Strongbow repairs to England.-Makes his peace with King Henry.-Embarkation of Henry for Ireland.Receives the submission of several of the Irish Princes.-Holds his

court in Dublin.-Synod of Cashel.-Its decrees.-Council held by Henry at Lismore.-Laws enacted by him.Grants of estates and dignities to Hugh de Lacy and others.--Henry removes to Waterford.—His departure for England.

The open defiance by Strongbow of the mandate of his king, together with the independent course of conquest he was now pursuing, would, even in a prince far less tenacious of his kingly authority than Henry II., have awakened resentment and alarm. It was not to be expected, therefore, that he would any longer brook such encroachments; and the earl, in the midst of his flow of success, found himself checked, at once, by the appearance of an edict of the king, forbidding strictly all traffic and intercourse with Ireland, from any part of his dominions; and commanding all his subjects, now in that country, of every order and degree, to return home before the ensuing feast of Easter, on pain of perpetual banishment and the forfeiture of all their estates. The effects of this measure were soon most embarrassingly felt by Strongbow in the total stoppage of his supplies from England, and the desertion of a number of his soldiers and knights ; which state of things being ominous of ruin to his future prospects, he consulted the most judicious of those persons about him, as to the steps advisable for him to take, and the result was his sending off Raymond le Gros to the English king, who was then in Normandy, with a letter expressed in the following terms:

* See chap. vii., p. 88., of this Work.

" Slaves," says Seyer, “were exported from England in such numbers that it seems to have been a fashion among the people of property in Ireland, and other neighbouring countries, to be attended by Eng. Jish slaves." -- History of Bristol. He ought to have added, that it was from his own city, Bristol, these slaves were chiefly, and to so late a period as the reign of king John, exported. William of Malmesbury, who describes the number of young English slaves, of both sexes, who used to be shipped off from Bristol io Ireland, tied together by ropes, attributes to St. Wistan the credit of having suppressed this unchristian traffic.-" Homines enim ex omni Anglia coemptos majoris spe quæstùs in Hiberniam distrahebant; ancil. lasque prius ludibrio lecti habitas jamque prægnantes venum proponebant. Videres et gemeres concatenatos funibus, miserorum ordines et utriusque sexus adolescentes."-De Vit. Wistani.

1 Colgan.-" Sed si Hiberni, ut ipse innuit, fuerint participes delicti Anglorum emendo filios eorum ab ipsis parentibus sponte divenditos, utinam ot Angli postea filios Hibernorum contra parentum vola et volun. tates in servitutem redigentes, sint imitatores Hibernorum in filios eorum servitutis vinculo dir mancipatos in pristinam revocando libertatem, et vereantur ubi delictum levius severe jam punitum est graviori delicto severiorem vindictam aliquando non defecturam,"— Trias Thaumal. Sept. Åppend. ad ann. 1170.

“ My sovereign Jord, I came into this land, and (if I remember aright) with your permission, for the purpose of aiding in the restoration of your liegeman Dermot Mac Morrough; and, whatsoever the favour of fortune has bestowed upon me, whether from his patrimony or from any other source, as to your gracious munificence I owe it all, so shall it all return to you, and be placed at the disposal of your absolute will and pleasure.”

Though this acknowledgment comprised in it all that the king could desire, both pride and policy forbade his yielding too ready a pardon to acts of self-will so dangerous in their example. He did not deign, therefore, even to notice the earl's letter, and Raymond waited some time at his court, expecting an answer, but in vain. In the mean while the assassination of that remarkable man, Thomas à Becket, had drawn down upon Henry, throughout Europe, such a load of suspicion and odium as required all the resources of mind he so eminently possessed, to enable him to confront and overcome; and, accordingly, for a time his views upon Ireland were merged in objects of more deep and pressing interest.

In the state of embarrassment to which the English adventurers were now reduced, they had to suffer another serious blow in the loss of the great projector and patron of their expedition, Dermot himself, who died about the close of this year* at Ferns, of some unknown and frightful malady, which is said to have rendered himn in his last moments, an object of horror and disgust. It is added, too, that so dreadful was the state of impenitence in which he departed, that his death combined, at once, all the worst features of moral depravity with the most loathsome form of physical disease. This evidently exaggerated account must be taken as a record, not so much of the real nature of his death, as of the deep and bitter hatred with which he was regarded by most of his contemporaries; the instances being numerous in history, where the mode of death attributed io personages who had rendered themselves odious during their lives, have been rather such as, according to popular feeling, they deserved, than as they actually did suffer.

On the demise of the King of Leinster, the Earl of Pembroke succeeded, in defiance of the law of the land, to the throne of that province, having been raised most probably to the post of Roydamna, by a forced election, during the life-time of the king. As he had been indebted, however, for much of his following to the personal influence acquired by Dermot over the lower classes, he now, in addition to his other difficulties, found himself deserted by the greater number of those partisans whom only fidelity to the fortunes of his father-in-law had led to range themselves under his banner. With the view of looking after his possessions and adherents in other parts of the country, the earl now left Dublin, and the commanders entrusted with the charge of that city during his absence were soon afforded an opportunity of displaying as well their good fortune as their valour. The late Governor of Dublin, Hasculf, who on its capture, as we have seen, by Strongbow and the King of Leinster, succeeded in escaping to the Orkney Islands, had been able to collect there a large army, as well of Norwegians as of other inhabitants of those isles, with which he now sailed up the Liffey ; his armament, consisting of no less than sixty ships, while the troops armed, as we are told, in the Danish manner, wearing coats of mail and round red coloured shields, were under the special conduct of a chieftain called by his countrymen John the Furious.

* From this last King of Leinster, Dermot Mac-Morrough, descended the family of the O'Cavenaghs, the head of wboni, through each successive generation, continued to style bimselt The Mac-Morrough lill the reign of Henry VIII., when, on the submission of the Irish chiefs to Lord Leonard Grey, Charles O'Cavanach surrendered his title to Henry, and was constituted governor, for the king, of the Castle of Ferns. See, for an account of this circumstance, as well as of the title subsequently conferred upon the family, Hibernia Dominicana, c. 9., where the author thus cites his authority for the facts:-“ lluc porro faciunt sequentia verba quæ nudiustertius vidi in Regesto Feciali Regis Armorum in hac Dubliniensi civitate, nempe : Anti. quissima familia de O'Cavanah originem ducit a Morrough Rege Lagenice," &c.

The explanation of this anomaly given by Mr. Sheffield Grace (in his Account of Tullyroan) is as follows:-"Although, in the eyes of ihe English nation and sovereign, Strongbow was merely regarded as an English noble, holding of their king, yel, in the estimation of the Irish, be was accepted as the King of Leinster, in right of his wife Eva, heiress of that kingdom." But as, by the old Irish law, women themselves were excluded from inheritance, they were also, of course, incapable of communicating a right of inheritance to their husbands.

| Hibern. Expugnat. I. 1. c. 21.-" Viri bellicosi Danico more, undique ferro vestiti, alii loricis longis, alii laminis ferreis arte consulis, clypeis quoque rotundis et rubris.''

Landing with this force, Hasculf attacked the eastern gate of the city, where, being encountered by Milo de Cogan, he was repulsed with the loss of 500 men. But the Anglo-Norman, flushed with this advantage, and leading his knights in pursuit of the fugitives too eargerly, found himself beset at length by superior numbers, some of his best men falling around him, while others were, it is said, seized with sudden panic, on seeing the thigh of a knight, which was cased all over in iron, cut off by a Danish chief with a single blow of his battle-axe.* Thus hardly pressed, Milo endeavoured, with his small band, to regain the gate for the purpose of retiring within the walls; but, the besiegers still crowding upon him, he was on the very point of falling beneath their numbers, when his brother, Richard de Cogan, whether from knowledge of his perilous situation, or more probably in pursuance of a pre-arranged plan, issued forth with a body of horse from the southern gate of the city, and coming unobserved on the rear of the assailants, raised a loud shout, and suddenly charged them.f Dismayed by so unexpected an attack, and imagining it to proceed from some newly arrived re-enforcement, the besiegers fled in such headlong terror and confusion, that, in the efforts of all to save themselves, but a small number escaped.

After a long and fierce struggle with his assailants, John the Furious was at length felled to the ground; and an English knight, named Walter de Riddlesford, with the assistance of some others, slew hiin. Hasculf himself, in flying to his ships, was taken prisoner upon the sands, and brought back alive to be reserved for ransom.

On appearing, however, before the governor and a large assembly in the council house, he haughtily exclaimed, “We came here with only a small force, and this has been but the beginning of our labours. If I live, far other and greater things shall follow.” More angry at the insolence of this speech than touched by the brave, though rash, spirit which dictated it, the governor ordered the unfortunate chieftain to be immediately beheaded.

Notwithstanding this turn of success, as signal and brilliant as it was fortuitous, which had come thus seasonably to relieve the sinking fortunes of the English, it was clear that the relief could be but superficial and temporary; the small amount of force they could command being dispersed through different garrisons, while the defection of the natives had become almost universal, and all means of supply or re-enforcement from England were interdicted. Under such circumstances, it can hardly be doubted that there wanted but a single combined effort on the part of the Irish, to sweep at once this handful of hardy and desperate adventurers from the face of the land. That there should have arisen, at a crisis so momentous, not even one brave and patriotic Irishman to proclaim aloud to his divided countrymen that in their union alone lay strength and safety, would be a fact which, however disgraceful to the whole nation, might have been in so far consolatory, that it would prove all to have been alike worthy of the ignominious fate that befell them.

But the history of that period is not so utterly unredeemed and desolate, for such a patriot did then exist; and in the pious and high-minded St. Laurence O'Toole, Ireland possessed at that time both a counsellor and leader such as, had there been hearts and swords worthy to second him, might have rescued her from the vile bonds into which she was then sinking: Observing the reduced and straitened condition of the enemy, the archbishop saw with delight that the moment was arrived, when by a prompt and general coalition of his countrymen a blow might be struck to the very heart of the yet infant English power,-a blow that would crush at once the swarm of foreign intruders now on their soil, and hold forth a warning of similar vengeance to all who, in future, might dare to follow in their footsteps. To effect this great national purpose a cordial union of the Irish princes was indispensable, and neither labour nor eloquence was spared by St. Laurence in his noble efforts to accomplish so glorious a result.f He went from province to province, to every chieftain of every district, imploring them to forget all trivial animosities at such a crisis, and to rally round their common sovereign for the salvation of their own and their fathers' land. He likewise, in conjunction with Roderic, despatched emissaries to Godfred, King of the Island of Man, as well as to the princes of the neighbouring isles, entreating them, for their own sakes, as having a common interest in the reduction of the English power, to assist with their ships in the general attack which was now meditated upon Dublin. : Informed of these designs, Strongbow threw himself into the city, accompanied by Fitz

* Regan. By this metrical chronicler the feat here described is attributed to John, the Norwegian chief himself, who bore the cognomen, according to Giraldus, of Theewoode, meaning the Mad, or Furious.

| Lambeth MSS. | Laurentio Dubliniensi Antistite, zelo suæ gentis, ut ferebatur, hoc procurante.- Hib. Eipug. I. 1. c. 22. See Ware, Annals, ad ann. 1171,

his supplies from England, and the desertion of a number of his soldiers and knights; which state of things being ominous of ruin to bis future prospects, he consulted the most judicious of those persons about him, as to the steps advisable for him to take, and the result was his sending off Raymond le Gros to the English king, who was then in Normandy, with a letter expressed in the following terms:

“My sovereign lord, I came into this land, and (if I remember aright) with your permission, for the purpose of aiding in the restoration of your liegeman Dermot Mac Morrough; and, whatsoever the favour of fortune has bestowed upon me, whether from his patrimony or from any other source, as to your gracious munificence I owe it all, so shall it all return to you, and be placed ai the disposal of your absolute will and pleasure."

Though this acknowledgment comprised in it all that the king could desire, both pride and policy forbade his yielding too ready a pardon to acts of self-will so dangerous in their example. He did not deign, therefore, even to notice the earl's letter, and Raymond waited some time at his court, expecting an answer, but in vain. In the mean while the assassination of that remarkable man, Thomas à Becket, had drawn down upon Henry, throughout Europe, such a load of suspicion and odium

as required all the resources of mind he so eminently possessed, to enable him to confront and overcome; and, accordingly, for a time his views upon Ireland were merged in objects of more deep and pressing interest.

In the state of embarrassment to which the English adventurers were now reduced, they had to suffer another serious blow in the loss of the great projector and patron of their expedition, Dermot himself, who died about the close of this year* at Ferns, of some unknown and frightful malady, which is said to have rendered himn in his last moments, an object of horror and disgust. It is added, too, that so dreadful was the state of impenitence in which he departed, that his death combined, at once, all the worst features of moral depravity with the most loathsome form of physical disease. This evidently exaggerated account must be taken as a record, not so much of the real nature of his death, as of the deep and bitter hatred with which he was regarded by most of bis contemporaries; the instances being numerous in history, where the mode of death attributed to personages who had rendered themselves odious during their lives, bave been rather such as, according to popular feeling, they deserved, than as they actually did suffer.

On the demise of the King of Leinster, the Earl of Pembroke succeeded, in defiance of the law of the land, to the throne of that province, having been raised most probably to the post of Roydamna, by a forced election, during the life-time of the king. As he had been indebted, however, for much of his following to the personal influence acquired by Dermot over the lower classes, he now, in addition to his other difficulties, found himself deserted by the greater number of those partisans whom only fidelity to the fortunes of his father-in-law had led to range themselves under his banner. With the view of looking after his possessions and adherents in other parts of the country, the earl now left Dublin, and the commanders entrusted with the charge of that city during his absence were soon afforded an opportunity of displaying as well their good fortune as their valour. The late Governor of Dublin, Hasculf, who on its capture, as we have seen, by Strongbow and the King of Leinster, succeeded in escaping to the Orkney Islands, had been able to collect there a large army, as well of Norwegians as of other inhabitants of those isles, with which he now sailed up the Liffey; his armament, consisting of no less than sixty ships, while the troops armed, as we are told, in the Danish manner, wearing coats of mail and round red-coloured shields,f were under the special conduct of a chieftain called by his countrymen John the Furious.

* From this last King of Leinster, Dermot Mac-Morrough, descended the family of the O'Cavenaghs, the head of whom, through each successive generation, continued to style himself 'The Mac-Morrough till the reign of Henry VIII., when, on the submission of the Irish chiefs to Lord Leonard Grey, Charles O'Cavanach surrendered his title to Henry, and was constituted governor, for the king, of the Castle of Ferns. See, for an account of this circumstance, as well as of the lille subsequently conferred upon the family, Hibernia Dominicana, c. 9., where the author thus cites his authority for the facts:-* Huc porro faciunt sequentia verba quæ nudiustertius vidi in Regesto Feciali Regis Armorum in hac Dubliniensi civitale, nempe : Antiquissima familia de O'Cavanah originem ducit a Morrough Rege Lagenix," &c.

| The explanation of this anomaly given by Mr. Sheffield Grace (in' his Account of Tullyroan) is as follows:-"Although, in the eyes of ihe English nation and sovereign, Strongbow was merely regarded as an English noble, holding of their king, yet, in the estimation of the Irish, he was accepted as the King of Leinster, in right of his wife Eva, heiress of that kingdom.” But as, by the old Irish law, women themselves were excluded from inheritance, they were also, of course, incapable of communicating a right of inheritance to their husbands.

1 Hibern. Expugnat. I. 1. c. 21.-" Viri bellicosi Danico more, undiqne ferro vestiti, alii loricis longis, alii Jaminis ferreis arte consulis, clypeis quoque rotundis et rubris."

*Landing with this force, Hasculf attacked the eastern gate of the city, where, being encountered by Milo de Cogan, he was repulsed with the loss of 500 men. But the Anglo-Norman, fushed with this advantage, and leading his knights in pursuit of the fugitives too eargerly, found himself beset at length by superior numbers, some of his best men falling around him, while others were, it is said, seized with sudden panic, on seeing the thigh of a knight, which was cased all over in iron, cut off by a Danish chief with a single blow of his battle-axe.* Thus hardly pressed, Milo endeavoured, with his small band, to regain the gate for the purpose of retiring within the walls; but, the besiegers still crowding upon him, he was on the very point of falling beneath their numbers, when his brother, Richard de Cogan, whether from knowledge of his perilous situation, or more probably in pursuance of a pre-arranged plan, issued forth with a body of horse from the southern gate of the city, and coming unobserved on the rear of the assailants, raised a loud shout, and suddenly charged them.t Dismayed by so unexpected an attack, and imagining it to proceed from some newly arrived re-enforcement, the besiegers filed in such headlong terror and confusion, that, in the efforts of all to save themselves, but a small number escaped.

After a long and fierce struggle with his assailants, John the Furious was at length felled to the ground; and an English knight, named Walter de Riddlesford, with the assistance of some others, slew hiin. Hasculf himself, in flying to his ships, was taken prisoner upon the sands, and brought back alive to be reserved for ransom. On appearing, however, before the governor and a large assembly in the council house, he haughtily exclaimed, “ We came here with only a small force, and this has been but the beginning of our labours. If I live, far other and greater things shall follow.” More angry at the insolence of this speech ihan touched by the brave, though rash, spirit which dictated it, the governor ordered the unfortunate chieftain to be immediately beheaded.

Notwithstanding this turn of success, as signal and brilliant as it was fortuitous, which had come thus seasonably to relieve the sinking fortunes of the English, it was clear that the relief could be but superficial and temporary ; the small amount of force they could command being dispersed through different garrisons, while the defection of the natives had become almost universal, and all means of supply or re-enforcement from England were interdicted. Under such circumstances, it can hardly be doubted that there wanted but a single combined effort on the part of the Irish, to sweep at once this handful of hardy and desperate adventurers from the face of the land. That there should have arisen, at a crisis so momentous, not even one brave and patriotic Irishman to proclaim aloud to his divided countrymen that in their union alone lay strength and safety, would be a fact which, however disgraceful to the whole nation, might have been in so far consolatory, that it would prove all to have been alike worthy of the ignominious fate that befell them.

But the history of that period is not so utterly unredeemed and desolate, for such a patriot did then exist; and in the pious and high-minded St. Laurence O'Toole, Ireland possessed at that time both a counsellor and leader such as, had there been hearts and swords worthy to second him, might have rescued her from the vile bonds into which she was then sinking: Observing the reduced and straitened condition of the enemy, the archbishop saw with delight that the moment was arrived, when by a prompt and general coalition of his countrymen a blow might be struck to the very heart of the yet infant English power,-a blow that would crush at once the swarm of foreign intruders now on their soil, and hold forth a warning of similar vengeance to all who, in future, might dare to follow in their footsteps. To effect this great national purpose a cordial union of the Irish princes was indispensable, and neither labour nor eloquence was spared by St. Laurence in his noble efforts to accomplish so glorious a result. f He went from province to province, to every chieftain of every district, imploring them to forget all trivial ani. mosities at such a crisis, and to rally round their common sovereign for the salvation of their own and their fathers' land. He likewise, in conjunction with Roderic, despatched emissaries to Godfred, King of the Island of Man, as well as to the princes of the neighbouring isles, entreating them, for their own sakes, as having a common interest in the reduction of the English power, to assist with their ships in the general attack which was now meditated upon Dublin. · Informed of these designs, Strongbow threw himself into the city, accompanied by Fitz

Regan. By this metrical chronicler the feat here described is attributed to John, the Norwegian chief himself, who bore the cognomen, according to Giraldus, of Theewoode, meaning the Mad, or Furious.

| Lambeth MSS.

| Laurentio Dubliniensi Antistite, zelo suæ gentis, ut ferebatur, hoc procurante.-Hib. Expug. I. 1. c. 22. Sec Ware, Annals, ad ann. 1171.

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