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pulpit, he sees distinctly that atonement ment. The logical, and, therefore, neconsidered in itself simply, consisted ex- cessary conclusion is, that atonement was clusively in the removal of legal obstacles made for the elect only—that no way of on the part of God to the exercise of salvation has been set open for the nonmercy to sinners; that it intentionally elect, and that they, by necessary inferremoved these obstacles, not in the case ence, could not be saved if they would. of the elect merely, but in the case of all Scarcely is infidelity itself more opposed men,-doing as much, in this point of to the Divine testimony than this sentiview, for the latter, as the former; so that ment. I place it hors de combat, never there remains nothing, except in himself, having shown it any mercy-never into prevent the salvation of every man tending to show it any. who hears the message of mercy through Those among us, who are sometimes the Lamb that was slain. If, indeed, designated moderate, or modern Calvinthere be any who desire not, and, conse- ists, have not, perhaps, brought suffiquently, seek not salvation, theirs alone ciently into view the distinction between is the blame, and theirs will be the pun- the atonement itself and the accompanyishment. There was a plenitude of virtue ing Divine purpose. Some of them, it in the medicine; it was freely offered to may be, have abstained from employing them, rejected by them; and their rejec- the phraseology which would bave done tion--and their rejection alone, deprived this the phraseology which their printhem of its healing influence.

ciples would have naturally led them to It is by thus separating the atonement use, lest, being misunderstood, it should itself from what has been called the pur- be thought to convey more than they pose of God concerning its application, intended to teach. For myself, I conor, more correctly speaking, from the fess I have never ventured to say in the Divine intention to lead the “elect,” the pulpit, “ He died for all men,” or “made "sheep,” the "church,” by the special an atonement for all men. I should influence of the Holy Spirit, to accept have meant by the words simply (and in the mercy freely offered to all men in the this, I think, the essence of atonement congospel—it is by this separation alone that sisted), that he died with the intention, we can reap the full harvest of our princ (and, of course, to the effect,) of so reciples in regard to the nature and extent moving all the legal obstacles (resulting of the atonement. If we identify the from universal apostasy) to the exercise two things,—the atonement itself, and of mercy to the guilty, as to render it the purpose of God in regard to its appli- | possible for the moral Governor to extend cation (as they have been just explained,) mercy, safely and honourably, to one man, -if we in any measure confound the one or to a number of men, or to all men, as with the other—nay, if we are not care- it may seem right in his sight, and in ful to mark their perfect distinctness, the whatever manner he may be pleased to fruit of our principles is necessarily lost. appoint. I feared, however, the hearers

Now, by our ultra-Calvinistic brethren, would, or might, understand me to mean these two things are identified. The that he died with the intention of saving tendency of the sacrifice of Christ, (in all men by the atonement, or of leading which consisted its atoning influence,) to all men, by special influence, to implore render it honourable and safe for the mercy, (without which a moral governor moral governor to exercise mercy to sin- cannot grant it,) in God's appointed way; ners, and the accompanying purpose in and, therefore, I have abstained from the mind of the moral Governor to lead using the phraseology. the “elect,” by spiritual influence, to seek Yet, though circumstances may have mercy, are confounded. The purpose to justified this caution in regard to the save by the atonement enters, as they phraseology which some of us have emthink, into the very essence of the atone- | ployed--caution, let it be remembered not to conceal our sentiments, (for we of God to all men,-in having opened for greaily abhor the thought,) but to pre- them a door of mercy-be not brought venta misconception of them, -and though into prominent view, and a portion if it circumstances may yet, in some cases, be denied, as it is by some,) there is no require continued caution, it appears to display of mercy to touch and melt the me, I acknowledge, that we must resort heart of a man who feels himself to be a to freer and more unrestricted phrase- mere sinner. He must begin to love God ology respecting the nature and extent of -if he love at all—without any manifesta the atonement, before we shall reap the ation of God's love to him ; and such full harvest of our principles. If we fail love, in the case of a consciously conto convince our hearers, not only that the demned sinner, I believe to be impossible. atonement was sufficient for the salvation On the principles of the modern Calof all men, (which it cannot have been on vinists, our blessed Lord made an atoneultra-Calvinistic principles,) but was de- ment (taking that view of the essence of signed to be so-that the blessed God the atonement which is given in this intended by it to remove every obstacle paper) for all men; and the practical which the claims of his character and question for those of us who have been government had presented to the salva- hitherto cautious in our phraseology, is, tion of every member of the human " Whether we are not bound to say so ?” family, we shall fail, to a greater or less There is nothing like reserve and caution degree, in persuading men to rest their in the language of the New Testament. hopes for eternity upon it. The mere God is said to have loved the world—to preaching of the sufficiency of the atone- have reconciled the world to himself. ment-though even this cannot be done, Christ is called the Saviour of the world consistently, on any principles except -to bave given himself a ransom for all those maintained by Dr. Wardlaw-can- -to have tasted death for every man — not prevent the embarrassing and dis- to be not willing that any should perish, tressing inquiry, "Did God design to lay but that all should come to repentance, a basis sufficiently ample and solid for &c., &c. Why should we hesitate to my salvation ?" and, without confidence follow where the Scriptures lead ? It is of this, the awakened sinner may fear to manifest that, if we can truly tell all our place his dependence upon it. Besides, hearers that an atonement has been made he sees no love to himself in the provision for all, that is, that all obstacles to their of the atonement. God's love, in the salvation, (except what are found in gift of his Son, (on the limited view of themselves,) were removed by the death the atonement) was restricted to the of Christ, we remove all ground for the elect. He had no love to the world - distressing inquiries referred to at the did not intend to lay a foundation of hope beginning of this paper. The whole for the world. He has, indeed, laid a world of mankind, in contradistinction to fouvdation which is sufficient, (as the fallen angels, are elect in this respect. limitarians say,) for the salvation of the God, in infinite mercy, has opened a door world; but that was a matter of necessity of salvation for all. He invites, nay, not of intention. He would not serve implores all to enter in by it. If any the elect without providing a sacrifice will not enter, the fault, as we have which was in itself able to save them ; | already said, is theirs. God called, they but there was no regard in the provision refuse; he stretched out his hand, they to their benefit. Now what is there, in do not regard: they set at naught all his this view of the matter, to melt and counsel, and will none of his reproofs ! subdue the heart of a sinner? If the What can they expect but that, hereintent is not sufficiency of the atonement, after, he will laugh at their calamity, and (for which Bishop Davenant argues with mock when their fear cometh. such resistless power,) developing the love

George PAYNE.

290

An Address delivered to many hundreds of Sunday-school Teachers in the

West of London. Tuere is something almost pictorial | to his class what costs him nothing. His in the announcement of the subject to be sabbath toils occupy his thoughts through discussed this evening. It stands thus :- the week. Could you follow him into The Sunday-school teacher acquainted the retirements of home, you would find with his work.” As I first read it, the image him, like the busy bee, gathering honey of a well-qualified teacher rose up before from every opening flower, to enrich the my imagination. I beheld him in his parent hive. Now he reads a comwork,—the eye of intelligence and bene- mentary, to rectify and enlarge his Bible volence beaming on his youthful charge, knowledge. Now he ponders the lesson -and, on their part, the returning glance of the coming sabbath, that he may conof affection and rivetted regard; on the vey it with freedom and ease. Now he one hand an earnest instructor, and on examines the best works on Sundaythe other an intense and listening class. school labours, and makes the thoughts He is no trifler himself, and triflers can- of men wiser than himself his own. Now not take refuge within the circle of his he exercises his own mind, and ponders influence. He has something to impart well the lessons of experience and obwhich he feels to be of infinite moment, servation. And there is a still more and he looks as one who feels the weight profound secret of his devotedness and of his message. Having mind and moral success. He is a man of prayer; he feeling to deal with, his appeals are upi- walks with God; he lives in the Spirit; formly made to the intellect and the con- he walks in the Spirit; he wrestles for science. His love of order is such, that the blessing. He feels his own weaktủic most disorderly yield him homage. ness and insufficiency, and casts himself His rebuke, indeed, is stern, but the law on the power of his Omnipotent Reof kindness is in his heart and on his deemer. And as he comes forth on the lips. He can reason, and inform the sabbath morning to his loved employjudgment; but he can also weep, and ment, his heart glows and his face shines, melt the heart. Urgent must be that as one who has been in converse with call of duty which withdraws him from heaven. This is the grand secret of his his post. He has put his hand to the intensity, his devotion to his work, his plough, and feels that he dare not look zeal and regularity in the performance of back. While others leave their classes it, the stillness and thoughtfulness of his to the chances of an hour, of him it may class, the

progress which marks his be said, as of the faithful shepherd, that career, the blessing which attends his lie is " instant in season, out of season." labours. He is in earnest ; and even the And all this is the result of fixed princi- transient visitor can see that his is the ple,--vanity and self-importance have purpose of an undivided heart, the toil of no place in his rule of action. He has one who labours for God and eternity. calculated the cost and the self-sacrilice Such, dear friends, was the image involved in bis work, and has resolved which rose up before my mind, as I read to place all on the altar of his Saviour. the announcement of the theme upon His heart is full of pity for the children which I am called this evening to address of the neglected and the poor; and he you. I saw before me the Sunday-school longs to conduct some of them to the teacher fully acquainted with his work ; feet of that tender and gracious Shepherd, his whole soul engaged in it; seeking to who “gathers the lambs in his arms, approve himself unto God, and willing and carries them in his bosom.” Nor "to spend and be spent" for Christ, and does he satisfy himself with handing out the souls of yonder youthful group, for whom he expects to render an account | God, for the spiritual care of the class in the day of the Lord.

committed to him. As in God's sight, The image thus realized by me I would he has said, " I will do all in my power now desire to place before you in that to form the minds and characters of these form which may render it most available children, to lay open to them the founfor the benefit of those who have kindly tains of Divine knowledge, to guide them asked me to give them a word of coun- into the way of peace, to introduce them sel and encouragement on the present to the Friend of sinners." To feel aright occasion.

this responsibility to God lies at the There are many elements entering very foundation of the Sunday-school into the character of the Sunday-school teacher's work. Nothing will be done to Teacher acquainted with his work ;" and purpose without it. Every other standard it would be vain for me to attempt to of obligation will be found to be too low, describe them all. But I will endeavour and mean, and powerless in the absence to sketch an outline, which, if filled up of this. Our chief engagement, in this by my valued friends present, may tend work, is with God. We are acting for to fit them for growing usefulness, for him; to him we must look for approval ; larger measures of happiness in their to him we must render our final account. work, and for a joyous meeting with their There is a responsibility, too, conlittle charge at the judgment-seat of tracted by the Sunday-school teacher to Christ.

the charge committed to him. He has Let me have their fervent prayers, that undertaken to be their teacher in sacred the present address may not be fruitless things,—" the things which belong to of benefit to the great cause which lies

their peace." Another cannot do his so near to their hearts and mine. I ob- work; and if he neglects it, or performs serve, then,

it amiss, the consequences to himself and 1. Tuat "THE SUNDAY-SCHOOL TEACHER, to his class may be lamentable beyond ACQUAINTED WITH HIS WORK,”

expression. He must teach nothing but WHO KNOWS ITS RESPONSIBILITY.

truth, Divine truth; and, in order to It is well to be impressed with the this, he must be acquainted with it, and conviction that every one who undertakes carefully discriminate between truth and to teach anything to another, contracts a His engagement is to teach the certain amount of responsibility. If he simple elements of the gospel, and to lose sight of this, he will, in all probabi- make himself thoroughly acquainted lity, fail in accomplishing his object. This with them, that he may be able to fulfil sense of responsibility cannot be sepa- his mission. His duty and his ambition rated from the voluntary exercise of ought to be, to teach Christian truth in Christian benevolence. It presses with the best way; to make it intelligible to its full weight upon the Sunday-school the youthful and untutored mind; to teacher. He has a full right to con- convey it with interest and impression to sider well, in the first instance, whether the heart. Let him reflect continually he is called, in the providence of God, to upon the evil or the good effects which devote himself to this work; but having must spring from the subject and mode made his decision, he is as responsible of his teaching,-an evil or a good which for the obligations involved in it as if will be accruing every time he stands up his choice of occupation had not been at before his class,--and for which, as far the disposal of his own immediate will. as means are concerned, he is absoThe nature of this responsibility should lutely responsible. He has undertaken be well and deeply pondered.

a great and solemn duty, in consenting In a sense never to be lost sight of, to become the teacher of a class of young the Sunday-school teacher has made immortals ; and they will rise up in judghimself responsible, by his own act, to ment against him, if by any fault of his

IS ONE

error.

“ THE

WILL DULY ESTIMATE ITS IMPORTANCE.

they are not conducted into paths of been almost, if not altogether, neglected; peace and holiness.

and reached them by that kind of agency Nor must the Sunday-school teacher which is most likely to affect them for forget the responsibility which he has good. contracted to his fellow-labourers in the But solemn and striking as are these same delightful field. He must be in general views of the benefits accruing communication with them; he must co- from Sunday-schools, and amply as they operate with them; he must be a link of are verified by our national statistics, harmony among them; he must keep up and especially by the records of our crime the respect, the influence, and the autho- and prison discipline,-yet they are not rity of his superintendent. One upstart, the views which most deeply affect the ignorant, ill-tempered teacher, may dis- conscience and the heart of the pious turb the repose, the order, and the effici- Sunday-school teacher, as he endeavours ency of a whole school. Where such to form a proper estimate of the importa teacher creeps in unawares, the sooner ance of bis work. He may be a true he is removed so far the better. If he is patriot in feeling,—for as a philanthroallowed to keep his place, he will corrupt pist he cannot be otherwise ; but his aim, others, and fearfully arrest and hinder at its first bound, is loftier than the the work of God. I observe,

highest perch that the mere secular II. That

SUNDAY - SCHOOL statesman can reach. He is touched with Teacher, ACQUAINTED WITH HIS WORK," sympathy for a being over whom hangs

an immortal destiny, but who is rising In fact, he will mainly gather his into life without any proper estimate of notion of its responsibility from the the boundless prospect which opens before sense he has acquired of its importance. him. He thinks of the most ragged and The collecting together, in our day, of disorderly child that comes into one of hundreds of thousands of young people our Sunday-schools as the possessor of in our Sunday-schools, is, to say the least, an internal and spiritual principle that an imposing spectacle. How different will survive the position of such children, if they

“ The wreck of matter, were left to follow the bent of their own

And the crash of worlds." inclinations, and were suffered to run wild in the streets or the fields ! In a He sees that every child before him is mere national point of view, how great capable of indefinite improvement and must be the effect of Sunday-school ope- happiness. He knows that the evil prinrations upon the moral and social welfare ciples which lurk within its bosom, and of society! Who can accurately esti- which are powerfully developing themmate the benefit which Sunday-schools selves with its advancing years, may be are conferring upon the body politic; counteracted and overcome. He is stirred in preventing crime, dispersing savage and overwhelmed with the thought, that ignorance and brutality, and diffusing this unpromising child is accessible to all order and peace? Those Rulers who, by the blessings of salvation; that, notwithdepressing the voluntary character of standing all its unsightliness and diseducation, would extract more than half order, and incipient depravity, it may its power, but little think what an injury become an "heir of God, and a jointthey would inflict on posterity. I tho- heir with Christ.” He feels, too, that roughly believe that our Sunday-schools, he is in possession of a secret which, if single-handed and alone, have done more communicated, will make it wise and for the amelioration of the masses of happy, and pure-the fit associate, in a society, in our day, than all the grammar- better world, of angels and glorified schools and colleges of the empire. They spirits. have reached a numerous class, who had My dear friends, you can never see the

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