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high commissioners in a thousand pounds fine, to be excommunicated, debarred his practice of phy, sick, his books to be burnt, and himself to be im, prisoned till he made a recantation : and this was for maintaining the king's prerogative against papacy, as the doctor pleaded.

« On the other part, one Chowney, a fierce papist, wrote a book in defence of the popish religion and of the church of Rome, averring it to be a true church; and the book was dedicated to and patronised by the archbishop Laud: so far was Chowney from being punished or questioned for that doctrine—that the archbishop maintained his book; and that the Romish church was a true church, and erred not in fundamentals: and some what was noted to pass from him and other bishops, in defaming the holy scriptures.”—Pierce's Vind. p. 191.--Whitelock, p. 21, 22.

“ Whilst these two gentlemen, Prynne and Bastwick, lay in prison, there came forth two books which gave offence to the bishops. There was no name to them, and the bishops not being able to find the author, resolved to make Prynne smart for it. They exhibited an information against him and Bastwick in the star-chamber, Neither of these books was particularly charged upon Prynne in the information, nor any witness produced to prove him the author or disperser of any of them. They were subpenaed, to put in their answer. They had council assigned them, who being severely threatened, dared not subscribe their answer, and then their answer was refused because not signed by a counsellor.” Pierce's Vind. p. 192.-" They left their answers at the office signed with their own hands, praying the court to receive them, but this could not be admitted. They were proceeded against pro confesso. The prisoners at the bar cried aloud for

justice, and that their answers might be read, which they offered to maintain at the peril of their lives ; but it was peremptorily denied, and sentence passed upon them, That each of them be fined five thousand pounds ; that they stand in the pillory of Westminster and have their ears cut off ; and because Prynne had already lost his ears by a former sentence, it was ordered that the remainder of þiş stumps should be cut off, both cheeks stigmatized with the letters S. L.* and to suffer perpetual imprisonment in the remotest prisons of the kingdom. This sentence was executed; the hangman rather sawing the remainder of Prynne's ears than cutting them off: they were afterwards shut up in prisons, one in the isle of Scilly, the other of Jersey, without pen, ink, or paper, or the access of friends.”—Neal, Vol. 11, p. 292.

There was a circumstance attending the sufferings of this learned lawyer, which deserves to be reinembered, as, giving a lively image of the spirit of those times. Being at Coventry, on a Lord's day, in his way to the prison, some of his friends (asking leave of his keepers, who said they had no orders to the contrary) visited himn. For this Archbishop Laud sent a messenger for them; and when he had checked them, and put them to three hundred pounds charge, he dismissed them. His friends at Chester came not so easily off. Mr. C. Brewen, accidentally overtaking him upon the road, rode with him into Chester. He and some acquaintance of Mr. Prynne's, came to see him at his inn: and when he went from that city three or four of his friends conducted him over the Washes which were dangerous (none of his guard knowing the way) brought them on four or five miles, gave

Slanderous Libeller.

his guard some wine and cold meat, and so went back. For this they were put into the high commission at York, and there fined; some 500, some 300, some 250 pounds: they were imprisoned, and forced to enter into bonds of 300 pounds apiece to stand to the further order of the court, and to make such a public acknowledgment of this great crime, both in the cathedral church at Chester before the congregation, and likewise in the town-hall before the mayor, aldermen, and citizens, as the commissioners should prescribe them." --Pierce's Vind. p. 193.

But of the very terrible and unchristian severity of this reign, no livelier image can be drawn than the case of Dr. Leighton, (the fatlier of the much celebrated archbishop of that name) as it was presented to the house of commons; which they could not hear read, without several times interrupting it with their tears. I shall transcribe it from Mr. Chandler's excellent History of Persecution, p. 367.

To the Honourable and High Court of Parlia

ment. The humble Petition of Alexander Leighton, Prisoner in the Fleet.

Humbly Sheweth, How your much and long distressed petitioner, on the 17th of February ten years since, was apprehendeid in Black Friars, coming from sermon, by an high commission warrant (to which no subject's body is liable) and thence with a multitude of states and bills, was dragged along (all the way reproached by the name of jusuit and traitor) tiil they brought him to London-House, where he was shut up, and by a strong guard kept (without food) till seven o'clock, till Dr. Laud, then prelate of London, and Dr. Corbert, then of O.rford, returned from Fulham-house with a troop attending. The gaolor of Newgate was sent for who came with irons, and with a strong power of halberts and staves : they carried your petitioner through a blind, hollow way, without pretence or e.ramination ; and opening up a gate into the street (which some say had not been opened since queen Mary's day's) they thrust him into a loathsome and nauseous dog-hole, full of rais and mice, which had no light but a little grate; and the roof being uncovered, the snow and rain beat in upon him, having no bedding nor place to make a fire, but the ruins of an old smoaky chimney ; where he had neither meat nor drink from the Tuesday at night till the Thursday at noon. In this woful place and doleful plight, they kept him close with two doors shut upon him, for the space of fifteen weeks : suffering none to come at him, till at length his wife only was admitted.

The fourth day after his commitment, the high commission pursevants came (under the conduct of the sheriff's of London) to your petitioner's house, and a mighty multitude with them; giving out that they came to search for jesuit's books. There these violent fellows of prey laid violent hands upon your petitioner's distressed wife, with such barbarous inhumanity as he is ashamed to erpress ; and so rifled every soul in the house ; holding a bent pistol to a child's breast of five years old, threatning to kill him if he would not tell where the books were ; through which the child was so affrighted, that he never cast it. They broke open presses, chests, bores, boards of the house &c. though they were willing to open all. They spoiled, robbed and carried uway all the books and manuscripts they found, household stuff, apparel, arms, and other things, leaving nothing that liked them.

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Your petitioner being denied the copy of his commitment by the gaoler of Newgate, his wife with some friends repaired to the sheriff

, offering him bail, according to the statute in that behalf: which being shewed by an attorney at law, the sheriff replied,—That

he wished the laws of the land and privileges of the subject had never been named in the parliament. Your petitioner (having thus suffered in body, liberty, family, estate and house) at the end of fifteen weeks was served with a subpæna, on an information laid against him by Sir Rob. Heath attorney general ; whose dealing with your petitioner was full of cruelty and deceit. In the mean time it did more than appear, to four physicians ; that poison had been given him in Newgate; for his hair and skin came off in a sickness (deadly to the eye) in the height whereof as he lay, sentence was passed upon him in the star-chamber without hearing (which had not been heard of) notwithstanding a certificate from four physicians, and affidavit made by an attorney, of the desperateness of the disease. But nothing would serve Dr. Laud but the highest censure that ever was passed in that court to be put upon him; to be inflicted with knife, fire, and whip, at and upon the pillory, with TEN THOUSAND pounds fine ; which some of the lords (his judges) conceived should never be inflicted; and was only imposed Cars But the said doctor and his combinants caused the said censure to be erecuted the 26th of November following, with a witness.

For the hangman was armed with strong drink all the night before in prison, and with threatening words, to do it cruelly. Your petitioners hands being tied to a stake (besides all other tor. ments) he received thirty-six stripes, with a tres ble cord; after which he stood almost two hours

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