תמונות בעמוד


" earl of that name, the earl of Manchester, Hol

lis, Sir William Waller, Lewis, and other eminent persons, who were looked

upon as the heads “ and governors of the moderate presbyterian

party-In this conference the king's restoration was proposed in direct terms, as absolutely ne

cessary--the London (presbyterian) ministers “ talked loudly” in the same strain“ without exposing theniselves to the danger of naming the

king; which yet they did not long forbear; every body understood they thought it necessary the people should return to their allegiance.

Monk, says Rapin,t knowing how the pres" byterians stood affected, employed, probably, Clarges his confident, to make a secret agree“ ment with some of their chiefs for the restoring “ of the king, Charles II. by their means.”—Monk comes with his army to London, and having restored the secluded members to their seats in the house, thereby made it probably a presbyterian parliament: “it continued sitting but 25 days: in * which time several steps were made which clear

ly discovered that they were by no means disin“ clined to the king. For 1. They ordered a

general discharge of all the imprisoned friends “ of the king. 2. They repealed the oath for the " abjuration of Charles Stuart, and all the royal “ family. 3. They voted Monk to be general of “the armies of the three nations. 4. They voted “ down the old, and appointed a new council of

slate. 5. They made great changes in the militia; and took away all commissions from the “republicans. 6. They abrogated the oath re"quiring to be faithful to the established govern

* Ibid. vol. vi. p. 733, 734. + Rapin's Flist. Eng. vol. xiii. p. 199, 200.

ment, without a king and house of peers. “ Lastly : They dissolved themselves, issuing out “ writs for a new parliament to meet 25th of • April.-- In this free parliament—the presby" terians, who were much superior, in number, " did not think proper to exclude the royalists, " with whom they were in perfect agreement for “ restoring the king.-This parliament was an assembly, in which

the presbyterians had certainly a superiority of voices; consequently a présbyterian parliament restored the king to the " throne of his ancestors."* Bishop Burnet says,

“these five following persons, all presbyterians, had the chief hand in “the restoration ; Sir Ant. Ashley Cooper, after“wards earl of Shaftesbury, Sir Arthur Annes

ley, afterwards earl of Anglesey; Dencil Hol" lis, created lord Hollis; the earl of Manches

ter, and lord Roberts.”+

“ The presbyterians and the royalists, (says “ Hume) being united, formed the voice of the “ nation; which called for the king's restoration. “ The kingdom was almost entirely in the hands “ of the former party (the presbyterians :) some

zealous leaders amongst them began to renew the “ demand of conditions--but the general opinion " seemed to condemn these jealous capitulations " with their sovereign.-The leaders of the pres

byterians, the earl of Manchester, lord Fair. far, lord Roberts, Hollis, Sir Ant. Ashley

Cooper, Annesley, Lewis, were determined to "atone for past transgressions.” “Again, “ The

king's negligent ingratitude to the unfortunate " Cavaliers, admits of some excuse; as he had “ been restored more by the efforts of his recone

• Rapin's Ilist. of Engl. vol. xiii. p. 227, 241, 242,

I list of his Times, vol. ii. p. 242. marg. note,

“ ciled enemies (the presbyterians) than of his “ ancient friends."*

“ The presbyterians, says another historian, were the sole cause of the restoration. I do not

say helpers towards it, but causers of itand “ that it would not, could not have been brought “ about by any other party. - Through the whole • transaction there was scarce any one agent, who “ was not a presbyterian, above the character of " a letter carrier. General Monk was a presby" terian, or rather an independant; so were his • two chaplains Gamble and Price; so were Sir Ant. Ashley Cooper, Mr. Annesley, Sir William Morrice, lord Fairfax, Hollis, Ingoldsby, Harley, admirals Montagu and Lawson, Gerrard, Lewis, Waller, the earls of Northumberland and Manchester- in a word, the council “ of state, which governed before the king came "in, were all presbyterians : it was impossible “ for men of any other profession to manage such

a matter, without troops, without ships, with" out money, without a town or castle; all which

were in the possession of the council of state, " and their general Monk.”+

THIRDLY: The presbyterians, (whom the king, with too much truth, perhaps, used afterwards to call God's silly people) trusting to his declaration from Breda, solemnly promising liberty to tender consciences ; and that no man should be disquieted for differences of opinion in matters of religion; which did not disturb the peace of the kingdom ; and relying upon the fair speeches and assurances of his friends, and some of them, perhaps, duped by the low cunning of the king; who, a committee of their ministers being sent to him at Breda, ordered them to be in waiting whilst he, good

Hume's Hist, of Gr. Brit. vol. ii. p. 113, 158. + Critic. Hist. of Eogl. vol.ii. p. 307, 308.

prince, was withdrawn to perform his private devotions; in which bis heart was so enlarged, that his voice was distinctly heard by the ministers in the anti-chamber, devoutly" thanking God that "he was a coveNANTED hing” (alluding to the solemn league and covenant, to which he had bound himself by the most sacred of oaths) and " that he hoped that the Lord would give him an humble, meek and forgiving spirit.

" - However it was, either infatuated and deluded by the fair promises of the king, and his treacherous friends; or pressed by the civil discord, and the total disorder into which they apprehended the nation was again running--the presbyterians, trusting to his honour, without any conditions restored the king to the throne--and now behold the gratitude, with which he requites them! For,

FOURTHLY: two years had scarce elapsed, before, by all the artifices of court-management; by the influence and zeal of tyrannical and bigotted prelates; by lying and sham plots, and pretended conspiracies, the act of Uniformity was by a small majority passed into a law : “ by which two thou“ sand of our ministers” (the very men who had so successfully helped forward his restoration)

were cast out of their livings; and exposed, “ with their distressed families to innumerable suf"ferings. To speak any thing derogatory of the “ Common Prayer, was punished, for the first “ offence, with a whole year's imprisoninent, with

out bail or mainprize; and the second offence, “ with imprisonment for life: the meeting for re

ligious worship, in any separate assemblies, was “punishable with severe fines, with imprisonment, " and banishment:" The gaols were soon filled · with the unhappy RESTORERS of this vagabond king : their houses were pillaged; their families reduced to beggary and want. An estimate was

published of near eight thousand protestant dissenters who perished in prison, by their sufferings on a religious account, in the reign of this ungrateful, perfidious prince: and by severe penalties inflicted on them, for no other crime but assembling to worship God, they suffered in their trades and estates in the compass of a few years at least it is said, two millions.*

This was the king who had himself three several times taken the Scots covenant; declared solemnly his detestation of popery and prelacy; vowed never to tolerate them in any part of his dominions; and in the most solemn manner swore by the eternal and Almighty God, who liveth and reigneth for ever, that he would not only enjoin the covenant, but fully establish presbyterian government, and their directory for worship, and observe them in his own practice and family, and never to oppose them, nor endeavour any change.

By the Act of Uniformity, says Mr. Locke on this subject, all the clergy of England are “ obliged to subscribe and declare the Corporation oath, viz. That it is not lawful, upon any pretence whatsoever, to take arms against " the kimg.(A position inost dangerous as well as false; absolutely subversive of our present happy constitution, and which themselves, in the succeeding reign, openly disavowed; and acted in direct opposition to it.) “ This they readily

complied with: for you must know, that sort of

men are taught rather to obey than understand. “And yet, that Bartholomew-day was fatal to our “ church and religion; by throwing out a very

great number of worthy, learned, pious, and or"thodox divines, who could not come up to this

* Critic. Hist. of Engl. p. 411. and Ncals Hist. Purit, vol: iv. p.


« הקודםהמשך »