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then fully admitted, and receives the clothes of the house. Much benefit is derived from this time of seini-seclusion, as the candidate is daily visited by the Lady Superintendent, and by the Ladies of the Committee; and great moral influence is thus obtained before any free intercourse takes place with the other inmates.
The employment of the inmates consist of all sorts of household work ; washing, cooking, baking, needle-work, knitting stockings and socks; boys' caps are also made. A few hours are daily devoted to religious instruction, reading, and writing ; the first elements of arithmetic and geography are also taught, and singing of psalms and hymns is daily practised.
Since our last Report family washing has been taken in at the Asylum, and proves to be a healthy and remunerative work ; the net produce,after deducting payments for ironers, messengers, &c., having been in less than six months £19:6:7.
Seventy-three pairs of stockings and thirty-eight pairs of socks have been knitted in the house during the year, being principally an order received from the Visiting Justices at the Bridewell, for which we return our best thanks. The profit of the knitting has been £6:12, of other work above £11, during the year
The anniversary sermon in commemoration of the opening of the Asylum was preached in the chapel on February 1st, by the incun. bent of the parish, the Rev. W. Knight.
The Rev. Walter Marriott has continued his valuable services as chaplain, officiating in the chapel on Sunday and Wednesday evenings,
The Rev. H. Montagu has also continued his visits to the Asylum in the absence or indisposition of the Chaplain, and has often very kindly conducted divine service twice on the Sunday.
With much satisfaction we may mention to our friends that on the day the anniversary sermon was preached at the Asylum a £5 note, folded up very small, was picked up by our youngest inmate, and immediately handed over to the Lady Superintendent, by wbom it was restored to the owner on her calling to enquire for it a few hours afterwards.
Also a small gold brooch having been drooped by a lady, while visiting the Asylum, unknown to her, it was found by one of the inmates while cleaning the room, and given to the Lady Superintendent, who after many enquiries at last discovered the owner. These two incidents will, we trust, speak favourably of young women who may through want of education or other causes, have deviated from the paths of honesty, but who with care, kind advice, and persevering good instruction, do not prove irreclaimable. Ten young women have had respectable situations provided for them this year, and in two instances a second has been sent to the same place, at the special desire of the mistress. Of these ten not one has been accused of dishonesty, or again brought before a court of justice.
Since the opening of the Asylum forty young women have been sheltered; in this year twelve new cases have been admitted.
Seven from Bristol Gaol,
One from Shepton Mallet Gaol,
At the suggestion of the Rev. W. C. Osborn, Chaplain of the Bath Gaol, an offer has been made by our Committee to leave two or four dormitories at his disposal, if sufficient subscriptions could be secured in Bath. The proposal was taken into consideration, and Mr. Osborn attended a meeting of our Committee, and expressed his hope and that of tho Magistrates of Bath, that it might be so arranged, as no such institution as ours exist in Bath.
At the General Meeting of the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Committees, held on the 20th of January last, presided over by W. Miles, Esq. it was agreed to purchase a piece of ground offered for sale, at the back of the Asylum and to raise the requisite sum by donations. If a sufficient amount could not at once be obtained, it was resolved to accept a loan offered by a friend, at 4 per cent. interest, redeemable
a whenever funds should permit. The cost of the ground was nearly £600; donations then promised, and a few afterwards obtained, amounted to £248: 14; a loan of £340 was therefore required to effect the purchase, and has been obtained. An old house stood on the acquired premises ; this after much careful thought and deliberation it was resolved to pull down, and sell the materials, thus avoid. ing all expenses, whether for repairs or taxes, which the low rent obtainable might not always cover ; and the still more grave objection which letting might involve, namely, intrusion upon the privacy of the Asylumn ; the principal motive for the purchase having been to secure a large garden adjoining the Institution, for cultivation and for exercise.
Accordingly the sale was advertised in the newspapers by private tender, the Committee excluding the pumps, cisterns, outside boundary wall, and other matters which it was thought desirable to retain.
Considering the bad effect of the ensuing winter upon so old an house, as well as the danger of the lead being stolen, which had happened to some neighbouring houses, it was resolved that no time should be lost.
Mr. Tucker's offer of £60 was considered the most desirable, and we are glad to record that all the conditions named to himn have been faithfully carried out; so that we have now our premises clear, surrounded by a boundary wall, and including the large addition to our garden ground, so much desired.
From the foundation of the Calder Farm Reformatory, we have placed its history and progress before our friends, and from its Second Report, that for 1857, we extract the follow. ing useful and interesting passages :
From the last year's Report, it appears that up to 31st December, 1856, 26 boys had been received under detention ; 24 more have been received up to Decr. 31st, 1857 ;—50 received al er ;besides 9 not under detention, as mentioned in the last Report,
As regards Instruction, the state of the 50 was, on admission, as follows:
15 could neither read nor write ; 9 could read imperfectly, but not write; 12 could read and write imperfectly; 8 could read well, and write imperfectly; 3 could write well, and read imperfectly; 3 could read and write well.
As to social condition, 19 had lost one parent ; 4 both ; 27 neither. 16 were more or less without parental control; 21 had drunken or otherwise disreputable parents. As to age, 21 were under,-29 above-14 years.
Of the 50 received, I absconded immediately after admission. Since the last Report it has been ascertained that this boy was re-convicted at Liverpool, and sentenced to penal servi. tude. 7 were removed to other Schools, by order of the Secretary of State, viz. :-2 to Market Weighton ; 1 to Carlisle ; 4 to the Reformatory Ship, Akbar, Liverpool. 42 belong to the School 31st December, 1857, making with l not under detention, 43--the present number.
Of moral results, it is yet premature to say much. The earliest admission of a boy under detention, dates from March 19th, 1856. The periods of detention vary from 2 to 5 years, the average being above 4. Hence, no boy under detention has yet been placed out. The Managers believe that the improvement apparent in many of the boys, will justify an application to the Secretary of State for their discharge before their full period of detention shall have es. pired. But they feel it incumbent on them to exercise the utmost caution in thus seeking to shorten the time during which boys are committed to their care. In all attempts to infuse good moral and religious principles, time is requisite that they be thoroughly wrought into the character, so as to be acted upon babitually, and withstand temptation. Time is needed, even when the seed is sown in soil under favourable conditions, to bring it to maturity; much more is it needed when, as in the Reformatory School, the fallow ground has to be broken up, and weeds resulting from long neglect, bad counsel, or worse example, have to be eradicated.
On the other hand, as soon as there reasonable ground to hope that a boy's good impressions are confirmed, and be shews himself trustworthy, handy, and likely to be useful to an employer, it is desirable that he should be placed out, both to make room for others, and that he may get into the way of earning his livelihood more in: dependently; and also on higher moral grounds,-to test and strengthen his good principles by engaging in the actual conflict of life.
The object sought in the School is to prepare him for this conflict, not by cutting off all access of temptation, but by letting the trial coine upon him by degrees, as he seems able to bear it. Kept at first under strict surveillance, he is gradually, as he shews himself worthy of confidence, trusted out of sight, sent on errands to less or greater distances, entrusted with money, &c. In no instance of the last kind, and very rarely in any other, has the confidence this reposed been abused. One boy thus employed, having found half-a
, ssovereign which had been accidentally dropped, immediately brought it, though his office as messenger gave him peculiar facilities for otherwise disposing of it, and though he was a boy of whom his master before he came, said, that he could not trust him with anything.
In order more fully to carry out the principle of gradual readmission to the temptations and responsibilities of common life, a very useful discretionary power has been vested in the Managers of Reformatory Schools, by the Act of last Session (20 and 21 Vict. c. 55). By § 13 of this Act, they are empowered, when a boy shall bave been half his term in the School, to place him with an employer for a month on triul, before applying for bis absolute discharge ; retaining, during that period, the same power over him, in case of misconduct, as if he were in the School; and the power to recall him in case he should prove unfit for the situation, or it for him.
There are several boys to whom, during the ensuing year, this course would be applicable ; and a most valuable service would be rendered by any one who would kindly look out for suitable situa. tions for them,-particularly as farm servants,—and would communicate thereupon with the Head Master.
The chief employment in the School is farm and garden labour, and the boys are found, with scarcely an exception, to take to it, with a cheerfulness and heartiness which, considering the very dit. ferent course of life which most of them had previously led, is surprising and most encouraging. Willingness to work may be said to characterize the School as a whole; and new-coiners, though often lazily inclined, catch, more less quickly, the prevailing habit.
From the first, each boy was allowed to have a small garden of about 2 perches, to be cultivated by him, in his play time, for his own advantage. Several felt the benefit of this so much, that they applied to have more land, paying rent for it. This was allowed on certain conditions, as to good cultivation, &c., and at the rate of 6d. a perch, or £4 an acre. Three-fourths of an aere have been occu. pied in that way since the harvest.
The chief characteristics of the criminal class being indolence and the reckless expending of their unlawful acquisitions on immediate sensual gratification, this small allotment system affords a direct corrective, in that it requires and habituates them to labour and forego present gratification (except that found in work itself when freely undertaken), with a view to a remote future benefit ;-a step, less trifling perhaps than it may seem, towards initiation into that course of discipline which this life is designed to be to them and to all.
The more immediate advantage is considerable. The boys, having a direct personal interest in the bit of ground, and the little agricultural operations thereon, which they feel to be their own, acquire a general interest in such operations, which carries them on when working for the School, and tends to form in them that real liking for work, and that notion of doing something for themselves, which are such valuable characteristics of the honest labourer. The last -the sense of independence—is one which requires the greatest care to foster, as it might otherwise be weakened, in an institution where,
from the nature of the case, much must necessarily be done for the inmates.
The work done by them for the School is as follows :- It is found that, taking the average of the older and younger boys, each one digs over, during the working day of eight hours, of the land in occupation, which is moderately light, from 4 to 7 perches, according to its previous state of cultivation, and the depth required for the intended crop
In the Spring of the present year, 29 acres of land were taken, in addition to that previously occupied by the School, making in all36 A. 2R. 26P.
This has been cropped as follows.-Wheat, 8 acres and 3 rocds; Beans, 1 acre and 1 rood ; Barley, 1 acre and I rood; Oats, 3 acres; Clover, 4 acres and 2 roods ; Potatoes, 3 acres and 2 roods ; Turnips, 2 acres and 2 roods ; Mangold, 2 acres and 2 roods ; Lucerne, 1 acre: Scotch and other Cabbages, 3 roods ; Carrots and Parsnips, 2 roods ; General Garden Crops- Beans, Peas, Onions, &c., 2 acres ; Boys' Gardens, 26 perches ; Pasture, 3 acres ; Meadow, 2 acres.
On entry to the new land, 44 acres of it were sown with wheat, and 4 acres in clover. During the season, all the rest was sown, and all the crops gathered, by the boys, uoder the charge of an additional Labour Master for the farm, with these exceptions. On taking the additional land, it was thought advisable to keep one horse for carting coals, manure, &c. It seemed also desirable that boys intended chiefly for farm labour, should learn to attend a horse. The season being advanced when the additional land was taken in hand, horse labour was used to some extent in getting in the seed.
The hay and the first crop of clover was also moun by hired men, the boys being employed in making hay for hire on neighbouring farms. The second crop of clover was, however, mown by them, and all the other work of the farm done.
Since harvest, fifteen acres have deen dug over by them, in preparation for the Spring; in addition to 148. IR. 26p. prepared and sown with Winter crops.
The School was visited during the Spring by M. de Metz, who spent a day in examining it with the minute attention to details suggested by his vast experience; and who says of it, in a letter since received -
“ Compliment apart, I declare to you that it seems to me impossible to be placed under conditions more favourable to success, either as regards the choice of your Head Master, or of local position."
To this strong testimony as regards the Head Master, the Managers add their own, founded on another year's experience of bis eticiency; and also express their great satisfaction with the way in which the Schoolmaster, Mr. Crowther, and the two Labour Mas. ters, have performed their duties.