« הקודםהמשך »
Shandy M'Guire, the Spae Wife, by Rev. Mr. Boyce ; Ellen Middleton, Grantley Manor, Lady Bird, the Countess of Bonneval, by Lady G. Fullarton; the Mussulman, by Dr. R. R. Madden; John Bull and the Papists, by Edgar ; the Tudor Sisters, Kate Devereux, Florence the Aspirant, Hidden Links, by authors whose names are as yet unknown to us ; Mount St. Laurence, the Witch of Melton Hill, Margaret Danvers, Mary Star of the Sea, by Mrs. Thompson; Palmario, and Tales of an Arctic Voyager, by R. P. Gillies, whom we suppose to be a Catholic ; Lizzie Maitland, edited by Dr. Brownson ; Pauline Seward, by Dr. J. D. Bryant ; all the novels by Miss Kavanagh, Hendrik Conscience, Banim, Griffin, and Carleton, the Nowlans, the Station, Tales of Ireland, and the Lough Derg Pilgrim excepted ; generally, all the works published by Burns and Lambert, Duffy, Dolman, and Richardson, at the head of which stand Fabiola, Callista, Antoine de Bonneval, and Alice Sherwin. From the Italian we have Marco Visconti, by Tomaso Grosi ; the Betrothed Lovers, by Manzoni ; the Nun of Monza, and the Convent and Harem, by Rossini ; this last translated by Mme. Pisani (Mrs, Col. Gardiner), herself the authoress of the Banker Lord, and Vandeleur.
• The Citizen of Prague' from the German is an excellent story of the days of Maria Theresa.
The following works, mostly of an excellent character in their way, are from the pens of writers of high Anglican principles.
The Heir of Redcliffe, Heart's Ease, Daisy Chain, Little Duke, Lances of Linwood, Henrietta's Wish, Dynevor Terrace, by Miss Yonge ; Ivors, Margaret Percival, the Earl's Daughter, Amy Herbert, Katharine Ashton, Cleve Hall, Experience of Life, Ursula, by Miss Sewell ; the Fortunes of the Falconars, Sir Gervase Grey, King's Connel, Musgrave, by Mrs. Gordon ; the Story of a Family, the Maiden Aunt, the Use of Sunshine, and Nina, by Mrs. Smedley; Eastbury, by Miss Drury; Dorothy, Still Waters, Uncle Ralph, by Miss Colville ; Anschar, by Mr. King ; Everley, the Owlet of Owlstone Edge, the Curate of Holy Cross, Mignonette, Lady Una and her_Queendom, these last by anonymous writers. We have heard · Emily Howard,' by Mrs. Dunlop, a story of Portugal, very well spoken of. Mrs. Gore, Mrs. Grey, Mrs. Burbury, and our countless Galaxy of novel writers, will excuse our apparent neglect of them. A writer in Blackwood or some other periodical, once gave minute instructions as to the dressing of a cucumber : the process was intricate and long, but the final direction was to raise the window and throw out the delicacy untasted. We will not be so cruel to ou rarticle of cookery, merely requesting our friends, in the words of the Saint quoted above, to eat seldom and in small quantity.'
• A list of our chief female novelists will be found in the paper on Delphine Gay, in our Number for last October.
QUARTERLY RECORD OF THE PROGRESS OF RE
FORVATORY AND RAGGED SCHOOLS, AND OF THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRISON DISCIPLINE.
In our last Record we referred to the establishment of the Cork Agricultural Reformatory, and in our present Record we are enabled to present to our readers the following most interesting Report of a visit to English and Continental Reformatories, by the President of the Cork Reformatory Committee :
I have thought it desirable to lay before you a report of the visit which I have just paid to several Reformatory institutions in this country,in England and on the Continent,accompanied by Mr. Edmond Paul Townsend, of the Presentation order. I shall not in this, trouble yon with arguments in favor of Reformatories, nor adduce statistics to prove their success. Of the necessity for such institutions I know that you are deeply convinced, and as to their success, it may be sufficient for me to state that in no instance have the conductors of those which I had the pleasure of visiting, ever thought of the possibility of failure. They may have had, and they have had, great difficulties to contend against and many troubles to overcome ; but in patience, firma resolve, entire devotion to their labour, and confidence in God, they have striven on, and conquered. In no one case have they failed; they have all had their difficulties, and all have sormounted them. May we not hope, that with the Divine assistance, a similar sucress awaits our undertaking. We. too, shall have our trials, but we shall overcome them, if we earnestly use those means by which others have triumphed.
I shall then confine myself to a simple narrative of what we have seen, and a statement of any suggestions that may have occurred to Mr. Townsend or myself.
The first institution which we visited was the Feinale Reformatory at Golden Bridge, near Dublin. It is intended for females of all ages, selected from the several Convict Prisons, for whose maintenance 58. per week are paid. It contains 40 inmates, all of whom appear to be under excellent discipline, and to perform their work diligently and cheerfully; their sole employment, at present, except the house duties, is washing for private families in Dublin : at this they are fully occupied-a small sum out of their earnings is laid aside for each woman, to be given to her on her discharge. The establishment is managed by the Sisters of Mercy, and I had the pleasure of conversing for a short time with the Superioress, who appears to be eminently suited for the work she has in hand. Her manner, which is gentle and winning, yet evidences a decisive and energetic will, cannot but exercise a powerful influence on those whom she has to control, which in fact it does, as she told me she never fir.ds much resistance to any thing that she wishes to have done. She shews the inmates in a calm and firm manner, that she is determined it should be done :-she takes great pain to convince them thai what she directs is fur their good, and she has thus gradually obtained so great a mastery
over them, that now, at the meeting which is held every evening for instruction and prayer, the women accuse themselves openly and before all, of any transgressions of the rules of which they may have been guilty during the day. At irst this was difficult, they were apt to bring stories of one another—the result of prison habits. This she was resolved to suppress, and so mentioned the circumstance at idstruction, saying that on the next occasion she would tell the fault, the person guilty of it, and her informant, but recommended, in order to avoid this, that each woman should confess her fault herself. This plan, however, effectually put a stop to tale-bearing, and now the women say to each other, if they notice any fault, “ mind you tell that at instruction." There is now no trouble with them, they observe the rules rigidly, and are anxious to give every proof that they are worthy to be given back to society. In many instances, indeed, it is necessary rather to encourage hope, than to enforce humility, so deeply are they impressed with their faults, and so desirous to retrieve them. The superioress said that she found the most rigid discipline, tempered by kindness, to be necessary. She recommended that new inmates should be brought in gradually, that they may be broken by those long in the Reformatory; for instance, on the day I visited, she was informed that there were ten women to be sent from the prisons ; she requested that they may be sent in groups of five each, with a few week's interval between. The buildings at present occupied are not sufficiently extensive for the number of inmates, nor were they originally intended for their present use, so that the arrangements cannot be said to be perfect. The grounds are unwalled and unguarded, but there is no attempt at escape. Every thing is perfectly orderly and clean, and I have no doubt, that when the suite of build. ings, now in progress, shall have been completed, this institution will, under its excellent management, become a model for all such establish
We next visited Newgate and Mountjoy prisons, as they are both Reformatories, so far as prisons can be. They are conducted upon the separate system, the only plan by which a prisoner may be saved from ihe contamination of vice, although he may not be brought back to virtue. Newgate is an old structure, adapted, as far as it could be, to the cellular plan ; it is occupied by females, and appears to be admirably managed. The Mountjoy Model Prison is a magni. ficent building; it contains 499 separate cells, and is so constructed that the entire prison lies under your eye at a glance. It contained 300 prisoners at the time of my visit, and although the discipline is pecessarily most strict, and is rigorously enforced, there was not a single person confined in the punishment cells, a circumstance most creditable to its management.
This is the first prison to which convicts are sent, that they may be broken to discipline : they may be retained here for nine months, but seldom require to be kept so long. They are drafted from it to the several depots, such as Spike Island. It is impossible to over pra se the admirable arrangements of this prison. Every thing appears to be attended to in the most careful manner, but however worthy of examination in many points, and suggestive of instruction, as it does
not immediately bear upon the subject that we have in view, I need pot enter into further details. In these visits we were accompanied by Dr. Lentaigne, and Mr. J. Murray, and through Mountjoy prison by Mr. Netterville, its able governor, from each of whom we received the greatest kindness and attention.
Our next visit was paid to the Reformatory of Mount St. Bernard, in Leicestershire, within about six or seven miles of Loughboro'; it is by far the largest Reformatory in these countries. It contained at the time of my visit about 300 boys, of ages varying from 5 to 15 years. It has been established nearly four years, and its success is stated to be very satisfactory. The entire establishment is now in a transition state, most of the old building having been pulled down, and new ones in progress, but still quite unfinished; it would be therefore, unjust to form any conclusions from present arrangements, which are only temporary, and such as necessity compelled its managers to adopt; but when the projected plans will have been completed, it will possess all the means and appliances for carrying into effect the most perfect and effective system of training, both educational and indus. trial. A much larger number of boys were sent to the institution than had been at all anticipated, or than there had been time to make preparations for, and this occasioned the superiors the most serious embarrassment; so great, indeed, as to have made them all but des. pair. That is a feeling unknown to religious in the cause of charity. They labored and succeeded, and their success under such difficulties and embarrassments as they have had to encounter, is a lesson and an encouragement to all engaged in similar undertakings. Although the superiors are the Trappist monks whose abbey is about the eighth of a miledistant from the Reformatory,and both the lord Abbot and the Prior constantly visit the colony, its immediate management is confided to eight Brothers of the third order, who are assisted in the industrial education of the boys by several master tradesmen. The former are unpaid and wear the religious habit ; the tradesmen are paid, but only a small sum, as the object is to get men who have a desire to engage themselves in this sort of life, and who do not embrace it for merely pecuniary consideration. The boys address their teachers, as they do one another, by the title of “ brother.” This is one of many expedi. ents used to try and gain their confidence and affections, to which all the efforts of the superiors appear to be directed, and they seem to have succeeded wonderfully, for the boys address them in a frank, kind and fearless manner ; affectionately, but by no means wanting in respect; and go through their work diligently and cheerfully. I was much struck with a young fellow about 14 years of age, who was working in the smith's forge, making a screw, and working as hard and as well at it, as if he were paid largely. I noticed his industry and skill to the brother superior who was with me. “Yes," said he, “he is now one of our very best boys, and promises to he an excellent and intelligent tradesman; his application is unceasing, and his name is inscribed on the Tablet of Honor for his uniform good conduct; yet that boy was at one time the terror of Yorkshire, as a pickpocket and burglar. We had a good deal of trouble with him at first, but he is completely changed, and I should have no hesitation to recommend
him to any one to.morrow. We have not had him three years." Another boy of about the same age he pointed out to me, as the model boy of the whole colony; the first in all that was good; who for two years past had not incurred a reprimand even for a breach of rules, who was looked up to and respected by his fellows, and held the highest position of confidence entrusted to a colonist. Still, that boy had suffered three or four convictions, his father was a robber and a drunkard, a man of the most infamous character; he mentioned his name, which, he said, had a bad notoriety. The poor child had been turned out upon the streets, by his bad father, to beg and steal, when upon his third or fourth committal he was transferred to Mount St. Bernard, and now is what I have described. Cheering facts these!
During work, meals and instruction, and also in the dormitories at night, strict silence is enjoined: but at recreation they are allowed per. feet freedom, and they certainly enjoy it. The Brothers are always with them, by day and night, sharing even in their sports. They are gra. dually introducing military discipline, and have a tolerable band of drums and fifes; they get the boys to march in order and to go through some evolutions, but they evidently do not wish to be too rigid, they must keep the boys in good temper, and manage them by kind. ness. There is a large quantity of land, soune 300 acres, in connection with the colony, and by far the largest number of boys are employed upon it. There are also taught tailoring, shoemaking, tin work, smiths' work, carpentering, clog making, joining, sawing, mason work, brick. laying, stocking weaving and book-binding. All the boys wear clogs, with leather uppers, and their week day dress is a blouse, just the saine as the French peasant or labourer ; they have besides a Sunday dress, which has the honorary distinction, such as Lieutenant, Ser. geant, Corporal, to which they are entitled marked upon it. They bave adopted the division into families, but do not carry it out rery strictly ; the boys sleep in large dormitories, each in a separate bed. and the superior sleeps in the same room with them. The clothes of the boys are taken from them each night, and placed in a press under the superior's bed. This is a precautionary measure, which I hope present circumstances alone render necessary, and which may soon be aiscontinued, for it is not in conformity with that confidence and trust which all their training and education should tend to inspire. A small sum is put aside out of their earnings, and bearing a proportion to their indusiry, not to its profit, which is funded for them until they are leaving the colony, or if they are very well conducted, and that the privilege of corresponding with their relatives or friends is awarded to them by their superiors, they are sometimes accorded to send a little out of their fund to a parent or near relation ; but this is a great favor, and must be earned by distinguished good conduct. On the whole, we were greatly pleased with our visit to the colony of Mount St. Ber. nard, every part of which we examined most minutely, and received the fullest information and kindest attention both from the Father Prior and Brother Superior. I look forward to the time when it will bear comparison, as I am sure it will, with the noblest iustitutions of the Continent.
In order to close my report on the English institutions, I may now