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lost his Shadow." This has been translated three or four times into English, and into every language in Europe. In 1815 he joined an expedition to the North Pole, which lasted during a good portion of three years, and gave him ample opportunity for developing his talent for poetry, up to that time dormant. On his return he married, and shortly after received an indemnity as an old emigrant from the restored Bourbons, of 100,000 francs. His poems, collected by himself in 1827, caused a considerable sensation in Germany, and earned for him a membership of the Academy of Sciences, at Berlin. Notwithstanding his former emigration he rejoiced in 1830, at the expulsion of the elder Bourbons. Mme. Pontés gives translations from three of his best pieces, “The Three Sisters," “Abdallah," and "The Old Washerwoman," which last was the final effort of poetic fire. Written for the subject of it, the proceeds were sufficient to insure her some comfort in her old age. His style is pure and clear, neither partaking of the romantic fancies of Tieck, or the classicalities of Hoelderlin.

Descriptive poetry in German has been the peculiar province of Matthisson, Salis, and Kosegarten. There is nothing very striking or bold in their works; they consist rather of simple delineations of scenery, natural descriptions, and the soft emotions and feelings which those are calculated to produce.

The martial and patriotic school is represented by Körner and Arndt, whose verses served most.powerfully to rouse the Prussian population to resist France, in the war of freedom. The former was stricken down upon the battle field, and has had a monument erected to his poetic genius and courage by his fellow-countrymen. The greater number of their songs have been translated into English ; the most celebrated, " Lyre and Sword,” “The Prussian Eagle,” and “Where is the German fatherland," are too well known to need reproduction here. Mde. Pontés version of the “ Song of the black Jäger" is so spirited, that it deserves to be put before our readers.

And every drop of blood ! oh! sell it dearly, On to the field! spirits of vengeance move us,

On Germans bold and free !
On to the field-our standard waves above us,

Still do we wear the funeral garb of sorrow,

For our departed fame,
And do ye ask what means the huewe borrow

Vengeance, that is its name.
Small is our band; but strong is our reliance
Upon a righteous Lord.

God to our side-our righteous cause
To every art of Hell we bid defiance ;
He is our shield and sword.

The star of peace shall shine,

And we will plant the standard proud sad No quarter, friends! High wield your glorious weapons ! cheerly!

Beside our own free Rhine ! Death be the invader's doom,

SONG OF THE BLACK JAGER.

There's freedom in the tomb.

On-death or victory!

victorious,

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The list of Poets and Poetry given here, is by no means complete, especially among the modern and contemporary, whom we do not at present inean to criticize further than this, that idealism, mysticism, and the extreme of the romantic, is their prevailing characteristio. Many of their names are well known, and famous ; those of Uhland, Freiligrath, Rückart, Kerner, Geibel, &c., are very popular in the Fatherland. It is very strange, that from the days of the nun roswitha, before recorded, until the present time, there has been no striking instance of a female German writer of verses. Many have distinguished themselves in the province of prose fiction, but scarcely any attempted to invoke the muse.

The prevailing feature of German poetry in all ages, has been the romantic. In fact this specics of composition, as opposed to the classical, may be said to have originated, like the Gothic architecture, among the Teutonic races, and from them propagated to the rest of Europe. After the Edda, the ballad epics of the Nibelungen, Gudrune, Walter of Aquitaine, &c., directed the taste of the middle ages, towards tales of chivalry, and heroes ancient and modern. Then came the minne-singers, whose lyrics tended towards the same end. The meister-sänger only fill up a hiatus, after wbich the influence of the Reformation changed for a time, the public taste of the age. Hymns, serious, patriotic, and martial songs, came into vogue, poetry declined into a transition state, to be revived by Opitz, Bodmer, &c. Several schools with various tendencies, were now originated ; the Silesian, Köingsberg, Nuremburg, and Zurich. Bodmer's admiration for the Paradise Lost," originated the last, and opened the way to a complete regeneration. Here commences the real era of Modern Poetry, which bas been said by Menzel to have gone from the lyric, through the dramatic to the epic. In this, we cannot at all agree ; on the contrary, it commenced with a species of epic by Bodmer, imitations of pieces in other languages, Hymns of Gellert, and Idyls of Gessner ; through the higher epic of Klopstock to the dramas of Lessing, the romances of Wieland, Herder, &c., to the mixture of all tastes, in our own day. After the revival eonsequent on the Reformation, imitations of the French masters were considered the most perfect; this inay be called the period of Gallomania, which extended to the time of Klopstock. He united a certain taste for following English authors and subjects, along with a mixture of classicality; he thought also, that the highest perfection was in

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attiring Christiau or German incidents and manners, with the garb of Greece and Rome. Ramler formed a transition between the love of French models, and the imitation of Grecian classics. He summoned gods and goddesses to his aid in unravelling the intricacies of modern situations. Wieland was overcome by the "plastic beauty” of Grecian forms, the purity of her philosophy, and the graces of Athenian manners. This amiable, refined, and witty nature, allowed itself to be decoyed into a heterogeneous species of romanticism, wherein the epicurean philosophy reigned supreme. Voss had an extravagant idea of the plasticity of the German language ; he imagined that it might be made to follow the Greek, almost syllable for syllable, in metre and verse. This led him into the strangest absurdities of poetry; his translations, though curious specimens of labour, are not intelligible, on account of their involved nature. All those various tastes combined together to form the mixed talent of Goethe and Schiller, who rendered themselves superior to all the other poets of their country, by not confining themselves to any particular form, imitating all, and yet being original in their new Romanticism. The most recent authors have plunged into an abyss of mysticism, and transcendentalism, combining the philosophy of Kant, Bühme, with the extravagance of sentimentalism. Unfortunately, all true simplicity and symmetry, is lost sight of in these wild fancies; nothing but vagueness, unsubstantial forms of visionary beings, reign throughout their airy pages.

We will say a few words about Mine. Pontés' performance. It is a work of considerable merit, and shews a large acquaintance, not only with the numerous authors treated of, but also with the various critical works, which have teemed in Germany for a series of years, on this subject. Many of her translations are well worthy of the originals, reproducing faithfully their fire or pathos. We do not, however, mean to praise her undeservedly, this would be unworthy and suspicious. She is somewhat given to the romantic in ber biographies, the poet's wives are all lovely, angelic beings; she is not sufficiently severe on many of the authors themselves. Her criticisms are not always sufficiently particular, nor are her extracts always long enough to cause the poet's style to be properly understood ; with these slight defects, we think this book which is written with ease and grace, to be very entertaining and instructive.

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Art. IX_THE ADULT AND YOUNG OF THE

POOR-HOUSE.

Irish Waste Land Settlements, versus Emigration and Foreign

Wild Land Settlements. Specially addressed to the Poor
Law Guardians of Ireland. By James Hayes, C.E.

Dublin : W. B. Kelly, 1858. Forty years ago Sir Walter Scott wrote—“ The time will come when the whole land will be hypothecated to the poor, and by the strangest and most unexpected of revolutions, the labourers in the country will be substantially in possession of the whole rental of that soil in which participation is now refused them.”- And now, after this lapse of time, we find that in this instance, as in many others, Sir Walter was truly “ The Wizard of the North.” The whole land is “hypothecated to the poor;" the whole social state of Ireland is altered, and through the results of the famine, and under the cruel confiscations of the Incumbered Estates' Court, this generation has witnessed the strangest and most unexpected of revolutions," and it sees the labourers and paupers of the country" in possession of the whole rental of that soil in which participation was refused them.” In the old days of potatoes and pigs, thie pig was "the gintleman that paid the rint;" things are now changed; the rate-payer is the pig, who not alone pays the rent of the poor-house, but supplies board and clothing into the bargain.

That the poor of a country have the first claim upon its resources, none will deny ; but unfortunately, in Ireland, it is considered a matter about which there can be no question or dispute, that because a man or a woman is a pauper, he or she has a consequent right to rot out life in idleness, in sloth, and, too often, in vice. One rarely bears the term Workhouse, in Ireland ; in ordinary conversation the Union Mansion is invariably called the Poor-house, and with great propriety; it is certainly a house for the poor, a house at which boards meet and squabble, occasionally job, and sometimes “cook the elective franchise :” but it is not a house in which steady, useful, and continuous work is made a portion of the every-day duty of the lives of all able-bodied, or healthy inmates; it is not a house in which self-dependence and self-respect are shown to spring from honest labor.

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Whence this awful state of facts arises, is one of those ques. tions about wbich men cannot agree. Some attribute it to the red tape of the Poor Law Commissioners' office; others will have it that all the evils spring from the grasping avarice of the ex-officio guardians ; others proclaim that no matter whence the mischiefs have their origin, all are perpetuated and increased, through the stupidity, stolidity and pennywise schemes of the elected guardians. That all those who may be considered accountable for the evils of our Poor Law system should be somewhat unwilling to accept the responsibility of being the authors of these abuses, is not to be wondered at. Who would acknowledge hiinself the supporter of a system which results in crowding our streets with prostitutes, the lock wards of our hospitals with patients, our police offices with rogues, our Convict gaols with prisoners, our colonies with worthless, because idle, and ignorant, and unskilled labour ; a system which trains the poor. liouse-reared child to consider that house as his home, because it destroys energy and self-reliance, by a permitted idleness, producing in time, a torpor of every worthy faculty of mind and body.

But, it is often asked, what can we do with them? To this our answer always is, do not teach them that emigration is the object of life; do not let them fancy that all the people of Ireland, not guardians or poorhouse officials, are born for the sole purpose of going to America—teach them that we must all labor, wherever we may be in a word, keep them at home and work them.

Mr. Hayes, whose valuable pamphlet we have placed at the head of this paper, is a man evidently able to observe and reason for himself. He is, beyond all doubt, a genuine and thorough Irishman, and being neither a bucolic ex-officio, nor a shipping agent, he has been able to convince himself that emigration is not so good a thing for our labouring population as useful employment at home here in Ireland; and in proving this somewhat unfashionable doctrine he gives to the nationalist and to the capitalist one of the most useful and instructive essays it has been our good fortune to read for many a day.

Mr. Hayes addresses bis pamphlet to the Poor Law Guardians of Ireland, and we shall here endeavour to condense his arguments. He laments the decline of the sinall farm system which once prevailed in this country, and he writes :

Nothing, as I apprehend, can be more unreasonable or more

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